13.4 Control Stakeholder Engagement – A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide), Fifth Edition

13.4 Control Stakeholder Engagement

Control Stakeholder Engagement is the process of monitoring overall project stakeholder relationships and adjusting strategies and plans for engaging stakeholders. The key benefit of this process is that it will maintain or increase the efficiency and effectiveness of stakeholder engagement activities as the project evolves and its environment changes. The inputs, tools and techniques, and outputs of this process are depicted in Figure 13-10. Figure 13-11 depicts the data flow diagram of the process.

Stakeholder engagement activities are included in the stakeholder management plan and are executed during the life cycle of the project. Stakeholder engagement should be continuously controlled.

13.4.1. Control Stakeholder Engagement: Inputs

13.4.1.1 Project Management Plan

Described in Section 4.2.3.1. The project management plan is used to develop the stakeholder management plan, as described in Section 13.1.3.1. The information used to Control Stakeholder Engagement includes, but is not limited to:

  • The life cycle selected for the project and the processes that will be applied to each phase;
  • How work will be executed to accomplish the project objectives;
  • How human resources requirements will be met, how roles and responsibilities, reporting relationships, and staffing management will be addressed and structured for the project;
  • A change management plan that documents how changes will be monitored and controlled; and
  • Needs and techniques for communication among stakeholders.

13.4.1.2 Issue Log

Described in Section 13.3.3.1. The issue log is updated as new issues are identified and current issues are resolved.

13.4.1.3 Work Performance Data

Described in Section 4.3.3.2. The work performance data are the primary observations and measurements identified during activities being performed to carry out the project work. Various measurements on project activities and deliverables are collected during various controlling processes. Data are often viewed as the lowest level of abstraction from which information is derived by other processes.

Examples of work performance data include reported percentage of work completed, technical performance measures, start and finish dates of schedule activities, number of change requests, number of defects, actual costs, actual durations etc.

13.4.1.4 Project Documents

Multiple project documents originating from initiation, planning, execution, or control processes may be used as supporting inputs for controlling stakeholder engagement. These include, but are not limited to:

  • Project schedule,
  • Stakeholder register,
  • Issue log,
  • Change log, and
  • Project communications.

13.4.2. Control Stakeholder Engagement: Tools and Techniques

13.4.2.1 Information Management Systems

An information management system provides a standard tool for the project manager to capture, store, and distribute information to stakeholders about the project cost, schedule progress, and performance. It also allows the project manager to consolidate reports from several systems and facilitate report distribution to the project stakeholders. Examples of distribution formats may include table reporting, spreadsheet analysis, and presentations. Graphical capabilities can be used to create visual representations of project performance information.

13.4.2.2 Expert Judgment

To ensure comprehensive identification and listing of new stakeholders, reassessment of current stakeholders can be performed. Input should be sought from groups or individuals with specialized training or subject matter expertise, such as:

  • Senior management;
  • Other units or individuals within the organization;
  • Identified key stakeholders;
  • Project managers who have worked on projects in the same area (directly or through lessons learned);
  • Subject matter experts in the business or project area;
  • Industry groups and consultants; and
  • Professional and technical associations, regulatory bodies, and nongovernmental organizations.

Expert judgment can be obtained through individual consultations (such as one-on-one meetings or interviews) or through a panel format (such as focus groups or surveys).

13.4.2.3 Meetings

Status review meetings are used to exchange and analyze information about stakeholder engagement.

13.4.3. Control Stakeholder Engagement: Outputs

13.4.3.1 Work Performance Information

The work performance information is the performance data collected from various controlling processes, analyzed in context, and integrated based on relationships across areas. Thus work performance data have been transformed into work performance information. Data per se are not used in the decision-making process, because the meaning may be misinterpreted. Information, however, is correlated and contextualized and provides a sound foundation for project decisions.

Work performance information is circulated through communication processes. Examples of performance information are status of deliverables, implementation status for change requests, and forecasted estimates to complete.

13.4.3.2 Change Requests

Analysis of project performance and interactions with stakeholders often generates change requests. These change requests are processed through the Perform Integrated Change Control process (Section 4.5) as follows:

  • Recommended corrective actions include changes that bring the expected future performance of the project in line with the project management plan; and
  • Recommended preventive actions can reduce the probability of incurring future negative project performance.

13.4.3.3 Project Management Plan Updates

As stakeholders engage with the project the overall effectiveness of the stakeholder management strategy can be evaluated. As needed changes in approach or strategy are identified, affected sections of the project management plan may need to be updated to reflect these changes. Elements of the project management plan that may be updated include, but are not limited to the:

  • Change management plan,
  • Communications management plan,
  • Cost management plan,
  • Human resource management plan,
  • Procurement management plan,
  • Quality management plan,
  • Requirements management plan,
  • Risk management plan,
  • Schedule management plan,
  • Scope management plan, and
  • Stakeholder management plan.

13.4.3.4 Project Documents Updates

Project documents that may be updated include, but are not limited to:

  • Stakeholder register. This is updated as information on stakeholders change, when new stakeholders are identified, or if registered stakeholders are no longer involved in or impacted by the project, or other updates for specific stakeholders are required.
  • Issue log. This is updated as new issues are identified and current issues are resolved.

13.4.3.5 Organizational Process Assets Updates

The organizational process assets, which may be updated include, but are not limited to:

  • Stakeholder notifications. Information may be provided to stakeholders about resolved issues, approved changes, and general project status.
  • Project reports. Formal and informal project reports describe project status and include lessons learned, issue logs, project closure reports, and outputs from other Knowledge Areas (Sections 4-12).
  • Project presentations. Information formally or informally provided by the project team to any or all project stakeholders.
  • Project records. Project records include correspondence, memos, meeting minutes, and other documents describing the project.
  • Feedback from stakeholders. Information received from stakeholders concerning project operations can be distributed and used to modify or improve future performance of the project.
  • Lessons learned documentation. Documentation includes the root cause analysis of issues faced, reasoning behind the corrective action chosen, and other types of lessons learned about stakeholder management. Lessons learned are documented and distributed so that they become part of the historical database for both the project and the performing organization.