2.4.2 Automating the Semiotic Analysis of Film – Video Structure Meaning

36 2. FIVE STORIES TO A MODEL OF VIDEO STRUCTURE
of experimenting, as noted below in our description of computational modeling based on human
expert behavior.
Noise
Noise
Constraints
Communication
Communication
Context Web
Communication
Communication
Context Web
Text
Need
Need
Need
Document
Query
Ontological
Commons
Query
Query
Author
Seeker
Seeker
Seeker
Sender
Receiver
Figure 2.7: Antecedents, behaviors, and consequences—functional ontology model.
2.4.1 LOOKING TO THE PRACTICE OF FILM EDITING
We developed one more model to engage our thinking about Bellour, e Birds, and lmic struc-
ture—an instantiation of traditional lm editor practice. Before video lms were edited by hand
and eye, sometimes with the aid of a magnifying mechanism and motorized movement at “lm
speed.” One common practice was to hang strips of lm on small pins with a bright wall or light
box behind so that the individual frames were visible. e editor would have seen the lm projected
beforehand, so that just a hint of the look was usually sucient for making a selection from the
lm bin.
We took the basic idea of strips of lm and applied it to the more than 12,000 frames of the
sequence of lm we were planning to examine—the Bodega Bay sequence of e Birds that Ray-
mond Bellour had analyzed. We printed all the frames at near actual size onto a single ve-foot by
eight-foot sheet of photographic paper. While the frames were printed in horizontal strips rather
than the vertical orientation of the editor’s lm bin, the result was quite similar. One can already
make out the basics of the structure identied by Bellour (1969) without even knowing either the
lm as a whole or what is shown in each of the individual frames.