6. Project Time Management – A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide), Fifth Edition



Project Time Management includes the processes required to manage the timely completion of the project.

Figure 6-1 provides an overview of the Project Time Management processes, which are as follows:

6.1 Plan Schedule Management—The process of establishing the policies, procedures, and documentation for planning, developing, managing, executing, and controlling the project schedule.

6.2 Define Activities—The process of identifying and documenting the specific actions to be performed to produce the project deliverables.

6.3 Sequence Activities—The process of identifying and documenting relationships among the project activities.

6.4 Estimate Activity Resources—The process of estimating the type and quantities of material, human resources, equipment, or supplies required to perform each activity.

6.5 Estimate Activity Durations—The process of estimating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with estimated resources.

6.6 Develop Schedule—The process of analyzing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements, and schedule constraints to create the project schedule model.

6.7 Control Schedule—The process of monitoring the status of project activities to update project progress and manage changes to the schedule baseline to achieve the plan.

These processes interact with each other and with processes in other Knowledge Areas as described in detail in Section 3 and Annex A1.

Distinguishing the project schedule presentation (schedule) from the schedule data (Section and calculations that produce the project schedule (Section is practiced by referring to the scheduling tool populated with project data as the schedule model. A schedule model is a representation of the plan for executing the project's activities including durations, dependencies, and other planning information, used to produce project schedules along with other scheduling artifacts. For specific information regarding the schedule model, refer to the Practice Standard for Scheduling. [8]

On some projects, especially those of smaller scope, defining activities, sequencing activities, estimating activity resources, estimating activity durations, and developing the schedule model are so tightly linked that they are viewed as a single process that can be performed by a person over a relatively short period of time. These processes are presented here as distinct elements because the tools and techniques for each process are different.

The Project Time Management processes and their associated tools and techniques are documented in the schedule management plan. The schedule management plan is a subsidiary plan of, and integrated with, the project management plan through the Develop Project Management Plan process (Section 4.2), The schedule management plan identifies a scheduling method and scheduling tool (Figure 6-2), and sets the format and establishes criteria for developing and controlling the project schedule. The selected scheduling method defines the framework and algorithms used in the scheduling tool to create the schedule model. Some of the better known scheduling methods include critical path method (CPM) and critical chain method (CCM).

Project schedule development uses the outputs from the processes to define activities, sequence activities, estimate activity resources, and estimate activity durations in combination with the scheduling tool to produce the schedule model. The finalized and approved schedule is the baseline that will be used in the Control Schedule process (Section 6.7). As the project activities are being performed, the majority of effort in the Project Time Management Knowledge Area will occur in the Control Schedule process to ensure completion of project work in a timely manner. Figure 6-2 provides a scheduling overview that shows how the scheduling method, scheduling tool, and outputs from the Project Time Management processes interact to create a project schedule.