Abbreviations – Business Ethics and Corporate Governance


AAIFR Appellate Authority for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction
ADB Asian Development Bank
AFLCI0 American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organisations
AGM Annual General Meeting
AIST Australian Institute of Superannuating Trustees
ALI American Law Institute
AMCs Asset Management Companies
AMFI Association of Mutual Funds of India
AOP Association of Persons
ARF Assets Reconstruction Fund
AS Accounting Standards
ASB Accounting Standards Board
ASC Accounting Standards Committee
ASSOCHAM Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry
BCCI Bank of Credit and Commerce International
BIFR The Board for Industrial and Financial Reconstruction
BIS Bank of International Settlements
BOL Build—Own—Lease
BOOS Build—Own—Operate System
BOOT Build—Own—Operate Transfer
BOP Balance of Payments
BPE Bureau of Public Enterprises
BSE Bombay Stock Exchange
CAC Capital Account Convertibility
CAD Current Account Deficit
CAG Comptroller and Auditor-general
CAGR Compound Average Growth Rate
CAO Chief Accounts Officer
CARE Credit Analysis and Research Ltd.
CBDT Central Board of Direct Taxes
CBEC Central Board of Excise and Customs
CCFI Cabinet Committee on Foreign Investment
CCI Controller of Capital Issues
CDSL Central Depository Security Ltd
CEO Chief Executive Officer
CFE Certified Fraud Examiner
CFO Chief Financial Officer
CFS Consolidated Financial Statement
CG Corporate Governance
CII Confederation of Indian Industry
CIS Commonwealth of Independent States
CISCO The City Group for Small Companies
CLA Central Listing Authority
CLB Company Law Board
CMD Chairman and Managing Director
CMIE Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy
COFEPOSA Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities
COPU Committee on Public Undertakings
COR Capital—output Ratio
COSO Committee of Sponsoring Organisations
CPA Certified Public Accountant
CPA Consumer Protection Act, 1986
CPI Consumer Price Index
CPSC Consumer Product Safety Commission
CRA Credit Rating Agencies
CRF Consumer Redressal Forum
CRISIL The Credit Rating Information Service of India Ltd.
CRR Cash Reserve Ratio
CSO Central Statistical Organisation
CSR Corporate Social Responsibility
CUTS Consumer Unity and Trust Society
D&OLI Policy Directors and Officers Liability Insurance Policy
DCA Department of Company Affairs, Government of India
DCC Depositories and Custodian Cell (of SEBI)
DEA Department of Economic Affairs
DEMAT Dematerialisation
DGCI&S Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics
DICGC Deposit Insurance and Credit Guarantee Corporation
DP Depository Participants
DRI Differential Rate of Interest
DTL Demand and Time Liabilities
EC Executive Chairman
ECB External Commercial Borrowing
ECM European Common Market
ED Executive Director
EDIFAR Electronic Data Filing and Retrieval System (SEBI)
EEC European Economic Community
EEOC Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
EFTA European Free Trade Association
EMR Exclusive Marketing Rights
ESAF Enhanced Structural Adjustment Facility
ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
ESI Employees State Insurance; Environmental Sustainability Index
ESOP Employee Stock Option Plan
ESOS Employee Stock Option Scheme
ESPS Employee Stock Purchase Scheme
EXIM BANK Export and Import Bank
FRB Federal Reserve Board
FAO Food and Agriculture Organisation
FASB The Financial Accounting Standards Board
FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation
FCCBs Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds
FD Fixed Deposits
FDI Foreign Direct Investment
FEMA Foreign Exchange Management Act
FER Foreign Exchange Reserves
FERA Foreign Exchange Regulation Act
FERC Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
FICCI Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry
FIIA Foreign Investment Implementation Authority
FIIs Foreign Institutional Investors
FIPB Foreign Investment Promotion Board
FIPC Foreign Investment Promotion Council
FMCG Fast Moving Consumer Goods
FTC Federal Trade Commission
FTZ Free Trade Zones
GAAP Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
GATT General Agreement on Trade and Tariff
GCA General Currency Area
GCF Gross Capital Formation
GDCF Gross Domestic Capital Formation
GDP Gross Domestic Product
GDRs Global Depository Receipts
GEF Global Environment Fund
GFCF Gross Fixed Capital Formation
GFD Gross Fiscal Deficit
GRT Gross Registered Tonnage
GSTP Global System of Trade Preference
HDI Human Development Index
HPAEs High Performing Asian Economies
IAS International Accounting Standards; Indian Administrative Service
IASB International Accounting Standards Board
IASC International Accounting Standards Committee
IBM International Business Machines
IBPs Inter-bank Participations
IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank)
ICAEW The Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales
ICAI The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India
ICC Interstate Commerce Commission
ICICI Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India
ICL Indian Confederation of Labour
ICRA The Investment Information and Credit Rating Agency
ICRR Independent Cash Reserve Ratio
ICSI The Institute of Company Secretaries of India
ICWAI The Institute of Costs and Works Accountants of India
IDA International Development Association
IDBI Industrial Development Bank of India
IDI Industrial Development Index
IDRA Industrial Development and Regulation Act
IEBR International Extra Budgetary Resources
IEPC Investor Education and Protection Committee
IEPF Investor Education and Protection Fund
IFAC International Federation of Accountants
IFC Indian Fiscal Commission
IFCI Industrial Finance Corporation of India
IIF Institute of International Finance
IFSA Investment and Financial Services Association
IGG Investors Grievances and Guidance Division, SEBI
IIBI Industrial Investment Bank of India
IIDC Integrated Infrastructure Development Centre
IIM Indian Institute of Management
IIP Index of Industrial Production
ILO International Labour Organisation
IMF International Monetary Fund
IPO Initial Public Offer
IPPs Independent Power Producers
IRDA Insurance Regulation and Development Authority
IRS Internal Revenue Service
IUCN International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
LA Listing Agreement
LATAM Latin America
LERM Liberalised Exchange Rate Mechanism
LIBOR London Inter-bank Borrowing Rate
LLP Limited Liability Partnership
LTFP Long-term Fiscal Policy
MAOCARO Manufacturing and Other Companies (Auditors Report) Order
MAPIN Market Participation and Investor Database (SEBI)
MD Managing Director
MF Mutual Funds
MFA Multi-fiber Agreement
MFN Most Favoured Nations
MIC Monopolies Inquiry Commission
MIS Management Information System
MMMFs Money Market Mutual Funds
MODVAT Modified Value Added Tax
MOF Ministry of Finance
MOU Memorandum of Understanding
MRTP Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices
MRTP Act Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act
MRTPC Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Commission
MSBs Market Stabilisation Bonds
MTN Multilateral Trade Negotiations
MTO Multilateral Trade Organisation
NACD National Association of Corporate Directors
NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement
NASSCOM National Association of Software and Services Companies (India)
NAV Net Asset Value
NBFCs Non-banking Finance Companies
NCAER National Council of Applied Economic Research
NCDRC National Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission
NCL National Commission on Labour
NCLT National Company Law Tribunal
NDP Net Domestic Product
NEAT National Exchange Automated Trading System
NEF National Equity Fund
NEP New Economic Policy
NFCG National Foundation for Corporate Governance
NGOs Non-government Organisations
NIEs Newly Industrialised Economies
NLRB National Labour Relations Board
NPAs Non-performing Assets
NRIs Non-resident Indians
NRNR Non-resident Non-repatriable Rupee Account
NSDL National Securities Depository Ltd
NSDP Net State Domestic Product
NSE National Stock Exchange
OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Organisations
OGL Open General License
OPEC Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries
OTCEI Over the Counter Exchange of India
PAC Public Accounts Committee
PBT Profit Before Tax
PCAOB Public Company Accounting Oversight Board
PCDs Partially Convertible Debentures
PCFC Packing in Credit in Foreign Currency
PDS Public Distribution System
PMS Portfolio Management Scheme
POB Public Oversight Board
PPDs Process-cum-product Development Centres
PPPs Purchasing Power Parities
PSEs Public Sector Enterprises
PSU Public Sector Undertakings
QRB Quality Review Board
R&D Research and Development
RBI Reserve Bank of India
RCF Risk Capital Foundation
ROC Registrar of Companies
ROI Return on Investment
SAARC South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
SADF South Asian Development Fund
SAT Securities Appellate Tribunal
SBI State Bank of India
SCDRC State Consumer Disputes Redressal Commission
SCMRD Society for Capital Market Research and Development
SEBI Securities and Exchange Board of India
SEC Securities and Exchange Commission (USA)
SFC State Financial Corporation
SLR Statutory Liquidity Ratio
SNA System of National Accounts
SOX Sarbanes Oxley Act (USA)
SPC Small Private Company
SRI Socially Responsible Investing
SRO Self-regulatory Organisation
STCI Securities Trading Corporation of India Ltd.
STP Straight Through Processing
TCOs Technical Consultancy Organisations
TDC Technology Development Cell
TDICI Technology Development and Information Company of India Ltd.
TNCs Transnational Corporations
TRIMs Trade Related Investment Measures
TRIPs Trade-related Intellectual Property Rights
UNCTAD United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation
UNRID United Nations Research Institute for Development
UPS Usual Principal Status
UR Uruguay Round
UTI Unit Trust of India
VAM Value Added by Manufacture
VAT Value Added Tax
VCF Venture Capital Fund
VOICE Voluntary Organisation in Interest of Consumer Education
WDR World Development Report
WHO World Health Organisation
WPI Wholesale Price Index
WTO World Trade Organisation
XGS Exports of Goods and Services
ZBB Zero-base Budgeting