Chapter 11: Social media and public speaking: student-produced multimedia informative presentations – The Plugged-In Professor

11

Social media and public speaking: student-produced multimedia informative presentations

Paul E. Mabrey, III and Juhong Liu, “Christie”

Abstract:

This project asks students to create and present a group informative speech and teach other students an important communication concept incorporating multimedia exam questions. Students will work in groups to research, identify, and select their communication concept, create an informative presentation centered on their selected concept, arrange the presentation according to one of the organizational models, create two multimedia exam questions assessing the audience’s understanding of the concept, deliver the informative presentation, and constructively critique and assess the other group’s informative presentations. To create and present the multimedia exam questions, students are asked to use a digital video camera and YouTube as vehicles of media production and delivery. After completing the assignment, students will have demonstrated proficiency in the key skills of informative speaking, digital literacy, and group collaboration.

Key words

Bloom’s Taxonomy

collaborative learning

digital literacy

Flipcamera

Gagné’s instructional events

informative or expository speaking

YouTube

Discipline/Academic areas addressed

Designed for communication studies and general education but applicable to any discipline in which student presentations are important.

Instructional purpose

As members of the information age, students are asked on a regular basis to select, evaluate, arrange, and communicate their understanding of information. The ongoing digital revolution has complicated these informational demands. Not only are students expected to already have the skillset to research, select, organize, and deliver this re-presentation of information publicly and creatively, they are also increasingly being asked to do so in a digital and team environment. For this assignment, students are expected to work together in a group to create one informative presentation and two multimedia exam questions, as well as constructively critique and assess peer presentations. This activity assesses a student’s ability to identify, select, and evaluate digital information through the design and creation of their multimedia informative presentation, production of digital exam questions, and in the peer review process utilizing YouTube and face-to-face interactions.

Student learning outcomes

1. Design an informative speech on a selected course concept, incorporating introductions and conclusions, utilizing transitions and signposts throughout the informative speech.

2. Design and present two multimedia exam questions with correct informative speech presentation among distractors.

3. Produce, present, and critically synthesize multimedia digital information through peer collaboration.

4. Evaluate peer informative presentations using a rubric.

Prerequisite skills and knowledge

 Access to a digital video device, the Internet, and a computer

 Basic Internet and computer skills.

Tutorials and resources are available for individuals who may need to refresh or learn these skills. An extensive list is provided in “Required resources”.

Step-by-step directions

The instructional events for this project are designed based on a combination of the long-established and popularly applied Gagné’s Theory of Instruction (Gagné, 1985) with collaborative learning principles (Bruffee, 1995).

1. Introduction activity, five weeks before the final presentation (SLO 1)

a. The instructor will introduce the activity, define informative speaking, give examples of organizational models, and provide a list of suggested concepts for acceptable informative speech topics. The instructor can help explain the assignment and concepts by sharing recorded examples of informative speeches, multimedia clips and organizational models. All guidelines, rubrics, documents, examples, and other instructional material can be organized, housed, and shared in one place for easy access to the class. For example, one might use a local Learning Management System, blog, or cloud storage space.

b. The instructor should also provide the students with the objectives for completing the project and rubric for assessment of this particular assignment. The Hickerson Oral Communication Behavioral Assessment tool developed by Corey Hickerson at James Madison University will be used as the main assessment tool in this project (see Appendix B). Hickerson’s assessment rubric was adapted from and expanded on in The Competent Speaker Evaluation Form (Morreale et al., 2007) and was also used in a published study to understand oral communication assessment (Joe et al., 2011).

2. Activity preparation, four weeks prior to the final presentation (all SLOs)

a. The instructor will divide students into groups and outline the expectations for the assignment in detail, including the presentation workshop. We have found that groups of five students have worked well. The instructor will also pair each group in the class with a different group, as they will later work together as peer groups for the presentation workshop. At the presentation workshop, each group will discuss and critique their peer group’s informative speech outline and multimedia exam questions.

b. The presentation expectations are

 a 10-minute informative oral presentation on the group- selected concept

 original research on the concept, including at least one citation from the course text(s) and three qualified sources outside of the assigned classroom text, orally cited in the presentation

 follow basic public-speaking guidelines, for example: a complete introduction, complete conclusion, transitions, and signposts

 follow one of the basic speech organizational models; topical, chronological, spatial, casual, problem solution, problem cause solution, or Monroe’s Motivated Sequence (Rothwell, 2010, pp.366-8)

 each group member speaks for roughly the same amount of time

 two multimedia multiple-choice questions produced by the group must be included in the 10-minute presentation. The exam question format may have a multimedia question and four text answers or a text question and four multimedia answers

 the presentation must utilize PowerPoint and include the two original multimedia exam questions.

c. The presentation workshop expectations are

 a complete oral presentation outline from the group (see the Informative Presentation Outline Guideline created by one of the chapter authors in Appendix A.)

 rough draft of two multimedia multiple-choice exam questions uploaded to YouTube by the group

 two constructive comments (four in total) made and posted by each individual on YouTube responding to each of the other group’s two YouTube multimedia exam questions

 a one-page constructive critique written by each individual responding to the other group’s outline and PowerPoint slides – including one thing the group did well, one area for improvement, one reference to the classroom texts, and one piece of additional outside research related to the other group’s topic.

d. Once the instructor has explained the assignment in detail and has divided the class into groups, presentation topics must be selected and/or assigned. The instructor may assign topics; or students can be actively involved in a ranking list or compete for the opportunity to pick their topic in the order of their choice

e. For the multimedia multiple-choice exam questions, each group should use a digital camera to videotape themselves, creating digital material that they edit to create an exam question. There are two basic formats. First, they may act out a scenario based on their concept about which they then ask a multiple-choice question to assess knowledge of that concept. The edited video is the question a group would show and the answers are traditional text answers. Or, second, the group writes out a question based on their concept and then acts out and records four different scenarios that would serve as multiple-choice answers. Here, the question is a traditional text question and the group would show four different edited clips as potential multiple-choice answers.

    For example, if a group selected the “functions of nonverbal communication” as their concept for the informative presentation; they would create an exam question to assess knowledge regarding the functions of nonverbal communication. They would create a simulated scenario about nonverbal communication and then ask a question based on the video clip. For example, please view the video clip located here,

    http://youtu.be/T3i7AQ8CLkE

    Based on this clip, a group could ask the following question:

    In the following video clip, Paul is relying on which function of nonverbal communication?

Substitution

Contradiction

Regulation

Repetition

f. The video clip, question, and answer would be incorporated into the group’s information presentation as one of the two required multimedia exam questions.

g. The student groups should now begin working on researching, outlining, and creating their oral presentation. Students will also be provided with tutorials and/or resources for generating and sharing digital multimedia presentations. Detailed procedures with associated tutorial resources are provided in “Required resources”.

3. Presentation workshop preparation, two weeks prior to the presentation (SLO 2, 3, and 4)

a. Each group should upload their two multimedia multiple-choice questions to YouTube, and send the other group their informative speech outline, YouTube links, and PowerPoint slides. Each individual group member is responsible for constructively critiquing the YouTube multimedia questions, speech outline, and PowerPoint slides of the other group.

b. Three days prior to the presentation workshop, each individual group member should post their two constructive comments (four in total) on the other group’s multimedia multiple-choice exam questions through YouTube video links and write a one-page constructive critique of the other group’s informative speech outline and PowerPoint slides. Students will bring the one-page critique to the presentation workshop.

4. Presentation workshop, one week prior to the presentation (SLO 4)

a. On the day of the workshop, each group will sit with their assigned peer group. The instructor should remind the students of the purpose of the workshop. The entire workshop is a discussion between groups of their respective presentations. The workshop is designed to talk through the strengths and weaknesses of each part of the presentation. Students should reference their own feedback that they provided on YouTube and their one-page outline critique. Students should ask each other questions about the other group’s presentations and their constructive feedback and vice versa. Groups should utilize feedback to improve their final presentation. The instructor’s role is to circulate among the pairs of groups to facilitate discussion and negotiate any potential conflicts.

5. Presentation, day of presentation

a. Finally, on the day of presentations, each group presents their 10-minute presentation on the concept.

Approximate time required

Between 5–10 minutes to understand the instructions on the assignment, 4–5 weeks to complete the assignment depending on time allocated in class and other related homework students are already assigned, 1 hour for group draft/outline to prepare for the presentation critique workshop, 1 hour for the critique workshop, 1 hour for final presentations. The activity could be adapted for shorter and longer time frames.

Required resources

No readings, except for the text(s) that students have been reading over the course of the entire semester, are required for this project.

The instructor will provide the following suggested tutorials and resources to students for different components of the assignment:

Procedures and associated tutorial resources of publishing a video presentation on YouTube (related to SLOs 1, 2, and 3)

1. Practice complete introductions and conclusions, utilizing transitions and signposts throughout your informative speech with short video recordings captured with a Flipcamera or Web cam.

 Edit the video clips with whatever video-editing software or apps are available.

 Make use of free video editing software and tutorials such as YouTube Video Editor (free when a YouTube account is set up). For YouTube account setup, refer to the URL below

    http://www.youtube.com/create_detail/YouTubeVideoEditor

2. Create a group YouTube account, for instance, GCOM231-group1 via a group member’s email address (by default, it’ll be a gmail account associated with your YouTube account.

 YouTube help about creating a new YouTube account

    http://support.google.com/YouTube/bin/static.py?hl=en&page=guide.cs&guide=1646810

 VideoPad Video Editor (for Windows PC)

    http://www.nch.com.au/components/vpsetup.exe

    http://www.nchsoftware.com/videopad/index.html

 VideoPad Tutorials on the NCH Software channel on YouTube.

 About the software

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nmstgNRZ9_0&feature=plcp

 Tutorial Part I

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=−AqYOwJVne0&feature=plcp

 Tutorial Part II

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A-zRkY2spZY&feature=plcp

 Avidemux free for Windows PC and Mac OS X

    http://fixounet.free.fr/avidemux/download.html

    http://avidemux.sourceforge.net/download.html

 iMovie for Mac users (free).

 Free video editing apps on iPhone/iPod/iPad.

 Splice (free)

    http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/splice-video-editor-free/id409838725?mt=8

 Magisto (free)

    http://itunes.apple.com/us/app/magisto-magical-video-editor/id486781045?mt=8

3. Create a group presentation with PowerPoint, including presentation pictures with proper signposts if needed. Tutorials on creating and editing presentations using PowerPoint are available at

    http://oce.microsoft.com/en-us/powerpoint-help/basic-tasks-in-powerpoint-2010-HA101824346.aspx

4. Edit the group presentation with video clips of presentation/exam questions using the free video editors provided above.

5. Save the edited multimedia presentation of the exam questions as a .mov or a .mp4 file.

6. Manage and share video in YouTube.

 Type in YouTube.com in the address bar of your selected Web browser and log in with your newly created group gmail/YouTube account.

 Find “Video Manager” under the group YouTube account which is located in the drop-down menu on the top right-hand corner of the YouTube screen.

 Create a user name and channel for your group (e.g., GCOM231group2).

 Set the “Privacy and Settings” for your group YouTube channel on the next page.

 YouTube Privacy Settings help is avilable at

    http://support.google.com/YouTube/bin/answer.py?hl=en&answer=157177

 Adjust Advanced Settings, but insure that comments are allowed in the Advanced Settings so that the other groups can provide feedback.

 YouTube help about Advanced Settings is avilable at

    http://support.google.com/YouTube/bin/static.py?hl=en&page=guide.cs&guide=2467581&topic=2565764

 Select “Videos” tab under your group channel’s title.

 Upload the saved .mov/.mp4 presentation file.

7. Save changes and share the published presentation of multimedia exam questions by making the YouTube URL available to other groups.

 Set the Privacy Setting as Private and enter the gmail accounts of your classmates and instructor. You can locate the Privacy Settings in Video Manager, under the Basic Info tab, to the right of the movie Title and Description.

 You Tube Help about sharing your video

    http://support.google.com/YouTube/bin/static.pyfhl=en&topic=2565766&guide=2467581&page=guide.cs

 YouTube Complete Help about uploading and publishing your video

    http://support.google.com/YouTube/bin/static.py?hl=en&guide=2467581&page=guide.cs

Variations on the basic theme

This assignment to teach informative speaking and digital literacy can be customized in many disciplinary areas. Informative speaking skills, digital literacy, collaborative/cooperative learning and constructive criticism can be incorporated into any discipline by drawing on the theories, concepts, and approaches unique to that discipline. The meaningful characteristics of YouTube and a digital video camera with basic digital video editing software is that they are user-friendly devices. With the tools and understanding of fundamental subject content, students can create and edit original digital content and re-present that content in a public forum. One may substitute any of a number of video sharing sites, such as Vimeo. One could also use Facebook, Twitter or Google + to share the video in and outside of class.

Any digital video camera would work, including those in smartphones and tablets. Multimedia exam questions can be substituted by digital stories or assignments created by students. The key to effective learning is configuring assignments in alignment with the objectives of the class and eliciting student performance with the focus on deep thinking of the content rather than on the presentation format(s).

Observations and advice

Students have really enjoyed this assignment. They are typically ambivalent about teaching each other communication concepts but love the freedom and creativity in producing the multimedia questions.

The most significant piece of advice we would offer is that an instructor provides incentives to encourage or require students to go beyond mere definitional questions. Introduce them, if unfamiliar, to different elements of Bloom’s Taxonomy and explain how they could create questions that require the exam taker to analyze, evaluate, or synthesize information to provide the best answer, using examples from students in classes of previous semesters when it is possible.

The final piece of advice is to remind students about privacy in a networked environment, respect to copyright when citing sources, and any possible Institutional Review Board implications for involving human subjects in a classroom presentation project.

Recommended reading

Bain, K. What the Best College Teachers Do. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 2004.

Baird, J.E., Jr. The effects of speech summaries upon audience comprehension of expository speeches of varying quality and complexity. Central States Speech Journal. 1974; 25(2):119–127.

Bruffee, K.A. Sharing our toys: Cooperative learning versus collaborative learning. Change. 1995; 27(1):12–18.

Dumova, T. Using digital video assignments as a tool for active learning. The International Journal of Learning. 2008; 14(12):63–71.

Gagné, R.M. The Conditions of Learning, Fourth Edition. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston; 1985.

George-Palilonis, J., Filak, V. Blended learning in the visual communications classroom: Student reflections on a multimedia course. Electronic Journal of e-Learning. 2009; 7(3):247–256.

Hall, K.M., Markham, J.C., Culatta, B. The development of the Early Expository Comprehension Assessment (EECA): A look at reliability. Communication Disorders Quarterly. 2005; 26(4):195–206.

Hobbs, R. Digital and Media Literacy: Connecting Culture and Classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press; 2011.

Hobbs, R. A review of school-based initiatives in media literacy education. American Behavioral Scientist. 2004; 48(1):42–59.

Joe, J.N., Harmes, J.C., Hickerson, C.A. Using verbal reports to explore rater perceptual processes in scoring: A mixed methods application to oral communication assessment. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice. 2011; 18(3):239–258.

Mayer, R.E. Applying the science of learning: Evidence-based principles for the design of multimedia instruction. American Psychologist. 2008; 760–769. [Nov].

Morreale, S., Moore, M., Surges-Tatum, D., Webster, L. The Competent Speaker Speech Evaluation Form, Second Edition. Washington, D.C.: National Communication Association; 2007.

Rothwell, J.D. In the Company of Others: An Introduction to Communication, Third Edition. New York: Oxford University Press; 2010.

Rowan, K. A new pedagogy for explanatory public speaking: Why arrangement should not substitute for invention. Communication Education. 1995; 44(3):236–250.

Sandars, J., Murray, C. Digital storytelling for reflection in undergraduate medical education: A pilot study. Education for Primary Care. 2009; 20(6):441–444.

Smaldino, S.E., Lowther, D.L., Russell, J.D. Instructional Technology and Media for Learning, Ninth Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education; 2008.

Thompkins, P.K., Samovar, L.A. An experimental study of the effects of credibility on the comprehension of content. Speech Monographs. 1964; 31(2):120–123.

Turner, F.H., Jr. The effects of speech summaries on audience comprehension. Central States Speech Journal. 1970; 21(1):24–29.

Yee, K., Hargis, J. YouTube and video quizzes. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education. 2010; 11(2):9–12.

Supplemental materials

Appendix A Informative Presentation Outline Guideline

Introduction (about 2 minutes)

Use an attention-getting technique to gain the interest of your audience and introduce the topic of your presentation. You might use a story, interactive audience survey, rhetorical question, shocking statistics, or something else to get the attention of your audience.

Establish the significance, relevance, and importance of your presentation topic.

Clearly communicate your purpose statement.

Preview and summarize the main points you will utilize to establish and support your purpose statement.

Then transition from the introduction to the body and your first main point.

Body (about 7 minutes)

Introduce your first main point.

1. A claim to support your first main point.

a. Supporting material to back your claim: evidence, quotes, examples, anecdotes, or narratives are just some of your possibilities.

b. Supporting material to back your claim: evidence, quotes, examples, anecdotes, or narratives are just some of your possibilities.

2. A different claim to support your first main point.

a. Supporting material to back your claim: evidence, quotes, examples, anecdotes, or narratives are just some of your possibilities.

b. Supporting material to back your claim: evidence, quotes, examples, anecdotes, or narratives are just some of your possibilities.

3. A different claim to support your first main point.

a. Supporting material to back your claim: evidence, quotes, examples, anecdotes, or narratives are just some of your possibilities.

b. Supporting material to back your claim: evidence, quotes, examples, anecdotes, or narratives are just some of your possibilities.

Then transition from your first main point to your second main point.

Introduce your second main point.

1. A claim to support your second main point.

a. Supporting material to back your claim: evidence, quotes, examples, anecdotes, or narratives are just some of your possibilities.

b. Supporting material to back your claim: evidence, quotes, examples, anecdotes, or narratives are just some of your possibilities.

2. A different claim to support your second main point.

a. Supporting material to back your claim: evidence, quotes, examples, anecdotes, or narratives are just some of your possibilities.

b. Supporting material to back your claim: evidence, quotes, examples, anecdotes, or narratives are just some of your possibilities.

Then transition from your second main point to your third main point.

Introduce your third and final main point.

1. A claim to support your first main point.

a. Supporting material to back your claim: evidence, quotes, examples, anecdotes, or narratives are just some of your possibilities.

b. Supporting material to back your claim: evidence, quotes, examples, anecdotes, or narratives are just some of your possibilities.

2. A different claim to support your first main point.

a. Supporting material to back your claim: evidence, quotes, examples, anecdotes, or narratives are just some of your possibilities.

b. Supporting material to back your claim: evidence, quotes, examples, anecdotes, or narratives are just some of your possibilities.

3. A different claim to support your first main point.

a. Supporting material to back your claim: evidence, quotes, examples, anecdotes, or narratives are just some of your possibilities.

b. Supporting material to back your claim: evidence, quotes, examples, anecdotes, or narratives are just some of your possibilities.

Then transition from the body of your presentation to your conclusion.

Conclusion (about 1 minute)

Refer back to your introduction and attention-getting technique.

Summarize your main points.

Conclude with a memorable finish.

Appendix B Hickerson Oral Communication Behavioral Assessment

Table 11.1

Hickerson Oral Communication Behavioral Assessment (Part 1)

Table 11.2

Hickerson Oral Communication Behavioral Assessment (Part 2)