Chapter 4: Using Encoded Archival Description (EAD): With information from Encoded Archival Description Tag Library, Version 2002, by the Society of American Archivists – The Metadata Manual

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Using Encoded Archival Description (EAD)

With information from Encoded Archival Description Tag Library, Version 2002, by the Society of American Archivists

Abstract:

This chapter contains brief information on finding aids and their importance to the cultural heritage community, and describes the history and development of the Encoded Archival Description (EAD) metadata language. The chapter provides information on the structural basis of the EAD scheme, definitions for selected individual elements within the scheme, and guidance in the use of the selected elements for metadata creation. The chapter includes an example of an EAD metadata record, exercises allowing the reader to create EAD metadata, and examples of metadata that could be produced for the exercises.

Key words

Metadata

Encoded Archival Description (EAD)

Society of American Archivists (SAA)

Library of Congress Network Development and MARC Standards Office

Describing Archives: A Content Standard (DACS)

finding aids

archival collections

Introduction

Encoded Archival Description (EAD) is the metadata standard the archives community uses to describe its collections. Archivists collect many different types of materials from individuals, groups, institutions, etc., and keep materials that are acquired from the same place together as a collection. A common type of collection is a collection of personal papers. These papers are separated into file folders, and the folders are placed in boxes. Other types of materials that may be found in archival collections include photographs, maps, scrapbooks, diaries, and newspaper clippings. In order for a user to find materials, these collections must be indexed, and information about the papers in each folder and box must be created. This information is called a finding aid. Finding aids also often include brief biographical or background information about the collection.

Archivists have been creating finding aids for many years. Originally, these finding aids were kept on paper at the archives, and users came in and looked through the finding aid. Each archive had a different way of creating finding aids, and, since there was no way to share them, it didn’t matter if Archive A was following different best practices from Archive B. Early computerized finding aids were simple text files, which were difficult to navigate.

However, with the advent of the computer, internet, and associated methods for encoding and sharing, like XML, the archives community decided that it was time to standardize and share finding aids. As soon as encoding standards became common, archives started forming consortia and sharing their finding aids across a shared catalog. Examples of this type of portal are the Rocky Mountain Online Archive (http://rmoa.unm.edu), TARO (Texas Archival Resources Online) (http://www.lib.utexas.edu/taro/index.html), and OAC (Online Archive of California) (http://www.oac.cdlib.org). Because each archive may only have several hundred collections (as opposed to digital libraries with thousands of items), these shared catalogues help minimize cost and maximize exposure for each record.

EAD supports a multilevel description of each collection. The top level is an overview of the entire collection. Types of materials, provenance and access, biographical sketches, and scope and content notes are included at this level. The second level is groupings of materials within the collection. This can include series or subseries, and this level of description is only necessary with very large or complex collections. At the third level of description, each file or item is described. This includes boxes and folders, and a list of items in each container is included.

EAD is defined by an XML document type definition (DTD). DTDs define the structure of an XML document and list the elements and attributes that can be found in the document. In general, XML schemas have replaced DTDs, and the Society of American Archivists has released an EAD 2002 schema, but the DTD is still more commonly used with EAD documents.

Development

EAD began with a project at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1993. At that time, the project developers wanted to create a flexible encoding standard that could accommodate various descriptive practices in libraries, archives, and museums. They recognized that they needed elements beyond what was provided in MARC. The original requirements for EAD included the following criteria:

 ability to present extensive and interrelated descriptive information found in archival finding aids

 ability to preserve the hierarchical relationships existing between levels of description

 ability to represent descriptive information that is inherited by one hierarchical level from another

 ability to move within a hierarchical information structure

 support for element-specific indexing and retrieval. (Library of Congress, 2006)

SGML was chosen as the markup language for the encoding standard due to its ability to establish relationships among parts of the document, and SGML’s increasing popularity and use. In 1995, the Society of American Archivists formed an EAD Working Group, and this group accepted responsibility for supporting the development of the EAD DTD, tag library, and application guidelines. The Library of Congress Network Development and MARC Standards office became the official maintenance agency for EAD in 1996. In 2002, the standard was revised and updated, and the DTD was updated to be compatible with XML (a subset of SGML).

EAD is a structure standard. Structure standards define the elements to be used, but do not prescribe how the information should be recorded within the element. Content standards are the rules that define how the information is recorded, and the content standard used most often with EAD is DACS. However, DACS is not specific to EAD, and can also be used with MARC, although the most common content standard used with MARC is AACR2.

As of late 2012, revisions to EAD are under development, with a release date of August 2013.

As with all XML metadata schemas, XSLT can be used to turn the record into an HTML display record.

Elements

The EAD tag set has 146 elements. A PDF of the tag library, with definitions of all elements, can be downloaded from the Library of Congress (http://www.loc.gov/ead/tglib/index.html) or the Society of American Archivists (http://www2.archivists.org/sites/all/files/EAD2002TL_5-03-V2.pdf).

Below is a list of some basic elements and their definitions from the EAD Tag Library, along with their placement within the EAD hierarchy. Definitions are taken directly from the Encoded Archival Description Tag Library available at the Society of American Archivists’ website. This is a selected list of EAD elements; not all of the elements are included.

Structural Model

<ead> The outermost wrapper element for an information access tool known generically as a finding aid. A finding aid establishes physical and intellectual control over many types of archival materials and helps researchers understand and access the materials being described. The <ead> element defines a particular instance of a document encoded with the EAD DTD. It contains a required <eadheader>, optional <frontmatter>, and a required <archdesc> element, in that order.

<ead> <eadheader> A wrapper element for bibliographic and descriptive information about the finding aid document rather than the archival materials being described. The <eadheader> is modeled on the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) header element to encourage uniformity in the provision of metadata across document types.

<ead> <eadheader> <eadid> A required subelement of <eadheader> that designates a unique code for a particular EAD finding aid document.

<ead> <eadheader> <filedesc> A required subelement of the <eadheader> that bundles much of the bibliographic information about the finding aid, including its author, title, subtitle, and sponsor (all in the <titlestmt>), as well as the edition, publisher, publishing series, and related notes (encoded separately).

<ead> <eadheader> <profiledesc> An optional subelement of the <eadheader> that bundles information about the creation of the encoded version of the finding aid, including the name of the agent, place, and date of encoding. The <profiledesc> element also designates the predominant and minor languages used in the finding aid.

<ead> <eadheader> <revisiondesc> An optional subelement of the <eadheader> for information about changes or alterations that have been made to the encoded finding aid. The revisions may be recorded as part of a <list> or as a series of <change> elements. Like much of the <eadheader>, the <revisiondesc> element is modeled on an element found in the TEI DTD. The TEI recommends that revisions be numbered and appear in reverse chronological order, with the most recent <change> first.

<ead> <frontmatter> A wrapper element that bundles prefatory text found before the start of the Archival Description <archdesc>. It focuses on the creation, publication, or use of the finding aid rather than information about the materials being described. Examples include a title page, preface, dedication, and instructions for using a finding aid. The optional <titlepage> element within <frontmatter> can be used to repeat selected information from the <eadheader> to generate a title page that follows local preferences for sequencing information. The other <frontmatter> structures, such as a dedication, are encoded as Text Divisions <div>s, with a <head> element containing word(s) that identify the nature of the text.

<ead> <archdesc> A wrapper element for the bulk of an EAD document instance, which describes the content, context, and extent of a body of archival materials, including administrative and supplemental information that facilitates use of the materials. Information is organized in unfolding, hierarchical levels that allow a descriptive overview of the whole to be followed by more detailed views of the parts, designated by the element Description of Subordinate Components <dsc>. Data elements available at the <archdesc> level are repeated at the various component levels within <dsc>, and information is inherited from one hierarchical level to the next.

<ead> <archdesc> <did> A required wrapper element that bundles other elements identifying core information about the described materials in either Archival Description <archdesc> or a Component <c>. The various <did> subelements are intended for brief, clearly designated statements of information and, except for <note>, do not require Paragraphs <p> to enter text.

The <did> groups elements that constitute a good basic description of an archival unit. This grouping ensures that the same data elements and structure are available at every level of description within the EAD hierarchy. It facilitates the retrieval or other output of a cohesive body of elements for resource discovery and recognition.

<ead> <archdesc> <did> <repository> The institution or agency responsible for providing intellectual access to the materials being described. The <corpname> element may be used within <repository> to encode the institution’s proper name.

<ead> <archdesc> <did> <origination>Information about the individual or organization responsible for the creation, accumulation, or assembly of the described materials before their incorporation into an archival repository. The <origination> element may be used to indicate such agents as correspondents, records creators, collectors, and dealers. Using the LABEL attribute may help identify for a finding aid reader the role of the originator, e.g., “creator,” “collector,” or “photographer.” It is also possible to set the ROLE attribute on the name elements that are available within <origination>, i.e. <corpname>, <famname>, <name>, and <persname>.

<ead> <archdesc> <did> <unittitle> The name, either formal or supplied, of the described materials. May consist of a word, phrase, character, or group of characters. As an important subelement of the Descriptive Identification <did>, the <unittitle> encodes the name of the described materials at both the highest unit or <archdesc> level (e.g. collection, record group, or fonds) and at all the subordinate Component <c> levels (e.g. subseries, files, items, or other intervening stages within a hierarchical description).

<ead> <archdesc> <did> <unitdate> The creation year, month, or day of the described materials. The <unitdate> may be in the form of text or numbers, and may consist of a single date or range of dates. As an important subelement of the Descriptive Identification <did>, the <unitdate> is used to tag only the creation and other relevant dates of the materials described in the encoded finding aid. Do not confuse it with the <date> element, which is used to tag all other dates.

<ead> <archdesc> <did> <physdesc> A wrapper element for bundling information about the appearance or construction of the described materials, such as their dimensions, a count of their quantity or statement about the space they occupy, and terms describing their genre, form, or function, as well as any other aspects of their appearance, such as color, substance, style, and technique or method of creation. The information may be presented as plain text, or it may be divided into the <dimension>, <extent>, <genreform>, and <physfacet> subelements.

<ead> <archdesc> <did> <unitid> Any alpha-numeric text string that serves as a unique reference point or control number for the described material, such as a lot number, an accession number, a classification number, or an entry number in a bibliography or catalog. An important subelement of the Descriptive Identification <did>, the <unitid> is primarily a logical designation, which sometimes secondarily provides location information, as in the case of a classification number. Use other <did> subelements, such as <physloc> and <container>, to designate specifically the physical location of the described materials.

<ead> <archdesc> <did> <abstract> A very brief summary of the materials being described, used primarily to encode bits of biographical or historical information about the creator and abridged statements about the scope, content, arrangement, or other descriptive details about the archival unit or one of its components.

<ead> <archdesc> <did> <langmaterial> A prose statement enumerating the language(s) of the archival materials found in the unit being described.

<ead> <archdesc> <did> <materialspec> Data which are unique to a particular class or form of material and which are not assigned to any other element of description. Examples of material specific details include mathematical data, such as scale for cartographic and architectural records, jurisdictional and denominational data for philatelic records, and physical presentation data for music records.

<ead> <archdesc> <did> <physloc> Information identifying the place where the described materials are stored, such as the name or number of the building, room, stack, shelf, or other tangible area.

<ead> <archdesc> <did> <container> A <did> subelement for information that contributes to locating the described materials by indicating the kinds of devices that hold the materials and identifying any sequential numbers assigned to those devices. The <container> element is used most frequently at the component level, i.e. once a Description of Subordinate Components <dsc> has been opened. This storage information can help researchers understand how extensive the material is, especially in the absence of a specific physical <extent> statement at the component level.

<ead> <archdesc> <did> <note> A generic element that provides a short statement explaining the text, indicating the basis for an assertion, or citing the source of a quotation or other information. Used both for general comments and as an annotation for the text in a finding aid. Not used when more specific content designation elements are appropriate, e.g. <abstract>, <altformavail>, <archref>, or <scopecontent>. Do not confuse with Other Descriptive Data <odd> element, which is used within <archdesc> and <c> to designate information that is more than a short comment in a <note>.

<ead> <archdesc> <did> <dao> A linking element that uses the attributes ENTITYREF or HREF to connect the finding aid information to electronic representations of the described materials. The <dao> and <daogrp> elements allow the content of an archival collection or record group to be incorporated in the finding aid. These digital representations include graphic images, audio or video clips, images of text pages, and electronic transcriptions of text. The objects can be selected examples, or digital surrogates of all the materials in an archival fonds or series. / <daogrp> A wrapper element that contains two or more related Digital Archival Object Locations <daoloc> that should be thought of as a group and may share a single common Digital Archival Object Description <daodesc>. They may also form an extended link group to enable a set of multidirectional links. The <dao>, <daogrp>, and <daoloc> elements allow the content of the described materials to be incorporated in the finding aid.

<ead> <archdesc> <descgrp> An element that can be used to bring together any group of elements that are children of the Archival Description <archdesc> element except for the <did> and <dsc> elements. Description Group might be used, for example, to cluster elements into groups that correspond to the areas specified by the General International Standard Archival Description (ISAD(G)).

<ead> <archdesc> <bioghist> A concise essay or chronology that places the archival materials in context by providing information about their creator(s). Includes significant information about the life of an individual or family, or the administrative history of a corporate body. The <bioghist> may contain just text in a series of Paragraphs <p>, and/or a Chronology List <chronlist> that matches dates and date ranges with associated events. Additional <bioghist> elements may be nested inside one another when a complex body of materials, such as a collection of family papers, is being described, and separately headed sections are desired. The <bioghist> element may also be nested to designate a portion of the essay or chronology that might be extracted as a MARC 545 subfield.

<ead> <archdesc> <scopecontent> A prose statement summarizing the range and topical coverage of the described materials, often mentioning the form and arrangement of the materials and naming significant organizations, individuals, events, places, and subjects represented. The purpose of the <scopecontent> element is to assist readers in evaluating the potential relevance of the materials to their research. It may highlight particular strengths of, or gaps in, the described materials and may summarize in narrative form some of the descriptive information entered in other parts of the finding aid.

<ead> <archdesc> <arrangement> Information on how the described materials have been subdivided into smaller units, e.g. record groups into series, identifying the logical or physical groupings within a hierarchical structure. Can also be used to express the filing sequence of the described materials, such as the principal characteristics of the internal structure, or the physical or logical ordering of materials, including alphabetical, chronological, geographical, office of origin, and other schemes. Identifying logical groupings and the arrangement pattern may enhance retrieval by researchers.

<ead> <archdesc> <accessrestrict> Information about conditions that affect the availability of the materials being described. May indicate the need for an appointment or the nature of restrictions imposed by the donor, legal statute, repository, or other agency. May also indicate the lack of restrictions.

<ead> <archdesc> <userestrict> Information about conditions that affect use of the described materials after access has been granted. May indicate limitations, regulations, or special procedures imposed by a repository, donor, legal statute, or other agency regarding reproduction, publication, or quotation of the described materials. May also indicate the absence of restrictions, such as when copyright or literary rights have been dedicated to the public. Do not confuse with Conditions Governing Access <accessrestrict>, which designates information about conditions affecting the availability of the described materials. Preferred Citation <prefercite> may be used in conjunction with <userestrict> to encode statements specifying how the described materials should be referenced when reproduced, published, or quoted by patrons.

<ead> <archdesc> <custodhist> Information about the chain of ownership of the materials being described, before they reached the immediate source of acquisition. Both physical possession and intellectual ownership can be described, providing details of changes of ownership and/or custody that may be significant in terms of authority, integrity, and interpretation.

<ead> <archdesc> <altformavail> Information about copies of the materials being described, including the type of alternative form, significant control numbers, location, and source for ordering if applicable. The additional formats are typically microforms, photocopies, or digital reproductions.

<ead> <archdesc> <originalsloc> Information about the existence, location, availability, and/or the destruction of originals where the unit described consists of copies.

<ead> <archdesc> <phystech> A description of important physical conditions or characteristics that affect the storage, preservation, or use of the materials described. This includes details of their physical composition or the need for particular hardware or software to preserve or access the materials.

<ead> <archdesc> <prefercite> Information about how users should identify the described materials when referring to them in published credits. Generally the repository or agent responsible for providing intellectual access to the materials will supply users with a recommended wording or prescribed format for structuring references to the described materials in bibliographies, footnotes, screen credits, etc.

<ead> <archdesc> <acqinfo> The immediate source of the materials being described and the circumstances under which they were received. Includes donations, transfers, purchases, and deposits.

<ead> <archdesc> <accruals> Information about anticipated additions to the materials being described. Can indicate quantity and frequency. Can also be used to indicate that no additions are expected.

<ead> <archdesc> <appraisal> Information about the process of determining the archival value and thus the disposition of records based upon their current administrative, legal, and fiscal use; their evidential, intrinsic, and informational value; their arrangement and condition; and their relationship to other records.

<ead> <archdesc> <processinfo> Information about accessioning, arranging, describing, preserving, storing, or otherwise preparing the described materials for research use. Specific aspects of each of these activities may be encoded separately within other elements, such as <acqinfo>, <arrangement>, <physloc>, etc.

<ead> <archdesc> <controlaccess> A wrapper element that designates key access points for the described materials and enables authority-controlled searching across finding aids on a computer network. Hundreds of names and subjects can appear in a finding aid. Prominence can be given to the major ones by bundling them together in a single place within the <archdesc> or within a large Component <c> and tagging them with <controlaccess>.

<ead> <archdesc> <controlaccess> <corpname> The proper noun name that identifies an organization or group of people that acts as an entity. Examples include names of associations, institutions, business firms, nonprofit enterprises, governments, government agencies, projects, programs, religious bodies, churches, conferences, athletic contests, exhibitions, expeditions, fairs, and ships.

<ead> <archdesc> <controlaccess> <famname> The proper noun designation for a group of persons closely related by blood or persons who form a household. Includes single families and family groups, e.g. Patience Parker Family and Parker Family.

<ead> <archdesc> <controlaccess> <genreform> A term that identifies the types of material being described, by naming the style or technique of their intellectual content (genre); order of information or object function (form); and physical characteristics. Examples include: account books, architectural drawings, portraits, short stories, sound recordings, and videotapes.

<ead> <archdesc> <controlaccess> <geogname> The proper noun designation for a place, natural feature, or political jurisdiction. Examples include: Appalachian Mountains; Baltimore, Md.; Chinatown, San Francisco; and Kew Gardens, England.

<ead> <archdesc> <controlaccess> <occupation> A term identifying a type of work, profession, trade, business, or avocation significantly reflected in the materials being described.

<ead> <archdesc> <controlaccess> <persname> The proper noun designation for an individual, including any or all of that individual’s forenames, surnames, honorific titles, and added names.

<ead> <archdesc> <controlaccess> <subject> A term that identifies a topic associated with or covered by the described materials. Personal, corporate, and geographic names behaving as subjects are tagged as <persname>, <corpname>, and <geogname>, respectively. The ROLE attribute can be set to “subject” when it is necessary to specify the relationship of the name to the materials being described.

<ead> <archdesc> <odd> An element for information about the described materials that is not easily incorporated into one of the other named elements within <archdesc> and <c>. When converting finding aids to an ideal EAD markup, some shifting of text or addition of data may be necessary to conform to the DTD’s sequencing of elements and the consignment of certain elements to specific settings. The <odd> element helps to minimize conversion difficulties by designating, as “other,” information that does not fit easily into one of EAD’s more distinct categories.

<ead> <archdesc> <bibliography> Citations to works that are based on, about, or of special value when using the materials being described, or works in which a citation to or brief description of the materials is available. The works could be books, articles, television programs, unpublished reports, websites, or other forms of information. The <bibliography> may be a simple <list>, a list of both Bibliographic References <bibref> and Archival References <archref>, or a series of Paragraphs <p>.

<ead> <archdesc> <fileplan> Information about any classification scheme used for arranging, storing, and retrieving the described materials by the parties originally responsible for creating or compiling them. A filing plan is usually identified by the type of system used, e.g. alphabetical, numerical, alpha-numerical, decimal, color-coded, etc. It is often hierarchical and may include the filing guidelines of the originating organization. Additional types include a drawing of a room layout or a scientific scheme.

<ead> <archdesc> <index> A list of key terms and reference pointers that have been assembled to enhance access to the materials being described. The <index> can also serve as a helpful alphabetical overview of subjects, correspondents, photographers, or other entities represented in the collection. This back-of-the-volume <index> may provide hypertext links, or it may note the container numbers useful for locating the position in the finding aid where the indexed material appears.

<ead> <archdesc> <otherfindaid> Information about additional or alternative guides to the described material, such as card files, dealers’ inventories, or lists generated by the creator or compiler of the materials. It is used to indicate the existence of additional finding aids; it is not designed to encode the content of those guides.

<ead> <archdesc> <relatedmaterial> Information about materials that are not physically or logically included in the material described in the finding aid but that may be of use to a reader because of an association to the described materials. Materials designated by this element are not related to the described material by provenance, accumulation, or use.

<ead> <archdesc> <separatedmaterial> Information about materials that are associated by provenance to the described materials but that have been physically separated or removed. Items may be separated for various reasons, including the dispersal of special formats to more appropriate custodial units; the outright destruction of duplicate or nonessential material; and the deliberate or unintentional scattering of fonds among different repositories. Do not confuse with <relatedmaterial>, which is used to encode descriptions of or references to materials that are not physically or logically included in the material described in the finding aid but that may be of use to a reader because of an association to the described materials. Items encoded as <relatedmaterial> are not related to the described material by provenance, accumulation, or use.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> (Description of subordinate components) A wrapper element that bundles information about the hierarchical groupings of the materials being described. The subordinate components can be presented in several different forms or levels of descriptive detail, which are identified by the element’s required TYPE attribute. For example, “analyticover” identifies an overview description of series and subseries, which might be followed by a second <dsc> with the TYPE attribute set to “in-depth” that provides a more detailed listing of the content of the materials, including information about the container numbers associated with those materials. The TYPE attribute value “combined” is used when the description of a series is followed immediately by a listing of the contents of that series. The TYPE attribute “othertype” is for models that do not follow any of the above-mentioned formats, in which case the OTHERTYPE attribute can then be used to specify a particular presentation model.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> A wrapper element that designates the top or first-level subordinate part of the materials being described. Components may be either unnumbered <c> or numbered <c01>, <c02>, etc. The numbered components <c01> to <c12> assist a finding aid encoder in nesting up to 12 component levels accurately.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <did> A required wrapper element that bundles other elements identifying core information about the described materials in either Archival Description <archdesc> or a Component <c>. The various <did> subelements are intended for brief, clearly designated statements of information and, except for <note>, do not require Paragraphs <p> to enter text.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <descgrp> An element that can be used to bring together any group of elements that are children of the Archival Description <archdesc> element except for the <did> and <dsc> elements. Description Group might be used, for example, to cluster elements into groups that correspond to the areas specified by the General International Standard Archival Description (ISAD(G)).

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <bioghist> A concise essay or chronology that places the archival materials in context by providing information about their creator(s). Includes significant information about the life of an individual or family, or the administrative history of a corporate body. The <bioghist> may contain just text in a series of Paragraphs <p>, and/or a Chronology List <chronlist> that matches dates and date ranges with associated events. Additional <bioghist> elements may be nested inside one another when a complex body of materials, such as a collection of family papers, is being described, and separately headed sections are desired. The <bioghist> element may also be nested to designate a portion of the essay or chronology that might be extracted as a MARC 545 subfield.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <scopecontent> A prose statement summarizing the range and topical coverage of the described materials, often mentioning the form and arrangement of the materials and naming significant organizations, individuals, events, places, and subjects represented. The purpose of the <scopecontent> element is to assist readers in evaluating the potential relevance of the materials to their research. It may highlight particular strengths of, or gaps in, the described materials and may summarize in narrative form some of the descriptive information entered in other parts of the finding aid.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <arrangement> Information on how the described materials have been subdivided into smaller units, e.g. record groups into series, identifying the logical or physical groupings within a hierarchical structure. Can also be used to express the filing sequence of the described materials, such as the principal characteristics of the internal structure, or the physical or logical ordering of materials, including alphabetical, chronological, geographical, office of origin, and other schemes. Identifying logical groupings and the arrangement pattern may enhance retrieval by researchers.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <accessrestrict> Information about conditions that affect the availability of the materials being described. May indicate the need for an appointment or the nature of restrictions imposed by the donor, legal statute, repository, or other agency. May also indicate the lack of restrictions.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <userestrict> Information about conditions that affect use of the described materials after access has been granted. May indicate limitations, regulations, or special procedures imposed by a repository, donor, legal statute, or other agency regarding reproduction, publication, or quotation of the described materials. May also indicate the absence of restrictions, such as when copyright or literary rights have been dedicated to the public. Do not confuse with Conditions Governing Access <accessrestrict>, which designates information about conditions affecting the availability of the described materials. Preferred Citation <prefercite> may be used in conjunction with <userestrict> to encode statements specifying how the described materials should be referenced when reproduced, published, or quoted by patrons.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <custodhist> Information about the chain of ownership of the materials being described, before they reached the immediate source of acquisition. Both physical possession and intellectual ownership can be described, providing details of changes of ownership and/or custody that may be significant in terms of authority, integrity, and interpretation.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <altformavail> Information about copies of the materials being described, including the type of alternative form, significant control numbers, location, and source for ordering if applicable. The additional formats are typically microforms, photocopies, or digital reproductions.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <originalsloc> Information about the existence, location, availability, and/or the destruction of originals where the unit described consists of copies.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <phystech> A description of important physical conditions or characteristics that affect the storage, preservation, or use of the materials described. This includes details of their physical composition or the need for particular hardware or software to preserve or access the materials.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <prefercite> Information about how users should identify the described materials when referring to them in published credits. Generally the repository or agent responsible for providing intellectual access to the materials will supply users with a recommended wording or prescribed format for structuring references to the described materials in bibliographies, footnotes, screen credits, etc.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <acqinfo> The immediate source of the materials being described and the circumstances under which they were received. Includes donations, transfers, purchases, and deposits.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <accruals> Information about anticipated additions to the materials being described. Can indicate quantity and frequency. Can also be used to indicate that no additions are expected.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <appraisal> Information about the process of determining the archival value and thus the disposition of records based upon their current administrative, legal, and fiscal use; their evidential, intrinsic, and informational value; their arrangement and condition; and their relationship to other records.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <processinfo> Information about accessioning, arranging, describing, preserving, storing, or otherwise preparing the described materials for research use. Specific aspects of each of these activities may be encoded separately within other elements, such as <acqinfo>, <arrangement>, <physloc>, etc.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <controlaccess> A wrapper element that designates key access points for the described materials and enables authority-controlled searching across finding aids on a computer network. Hundreds of names and subjects can appear in a finding aid. Prominence can be given to the major ones by bundling them together in a single place within the <archdesc> or within a large Component <c> and tagging them with <controlaccess>.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <odd> (Other Descriptive Data) An element for information about the described materials that is not easily incorporated into one of the other named elements within <archdesc> and <c>. When converting finding aids to an ideal EAD markup, some shifting of text or addition of data may be necessary to conform to the DTD’s sequencing of elements and the consignment of certain elements to specific settings. The <odd> element helps to minimize conversion difficulties by designating, as “other,” information that does not fit easily into one of EAD’s more distinct categories.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <bibliography> Citations to works that are based on, about, or of special value when using the materials being described, or works in which a citation to or brief description of the materials is available. The works could be books, articles, television programs, unpublished reports, websites, or other forms of information. The <bibliography> may be a simple <list>, a list of both Bibliographic References <bibref> and Archival References <archref>, or a series of Paragraphs <p>.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <fileplan> Information about any classification scheme used for arranging, storing, and retrieving the described materials by the parties originally responsible for creating or compiling them. A filing plan is usually identified by the type of system used, e.g. alphabetical, numerical, alpha-numerical, decimal, color-coded, etc. It is often hierarchical and may include the filing guidelines of the originating organization. Additional types include a drawing of a room layout or a scientific scheme.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <index> A list of key terms and reference pointers that have been assembled to enhance access to the materials being described. The <index> can also serve as a helpful alphabetical overview of subjects, correspondents, photographers, or other entities represented in the collection. This back-of-the-volume <index> may provide hypertext links, or it may note the container numbers useful for locating the position in the finding aid where the indexed material appears.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <otherfindaid> Information about additional or alternative guides to the described material, such as card files, dealers’ inventories, or lists generated by the creator or compiler of the materials. It is used to indicate the existence of additional finding aids; it is not designed to encode the content of those guides.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <relatedmaterial> Information about materials that are not physically or logically included in the material described in the finding aid but that may be of use to a reader because of an association to the described materials. Materials designated by this element are not related to the described material by provenance, accumulation, or use.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <separatedmaterial> Information about materials that are associated by provenance to the described materials but that have been physically separated or removed. Items may be separated for various reasons, including the dispersal of special formats to more appropriate custodial units; the outright destruction of duplicate or nonessential material; and the deliberate or unintentional scattering of fonds among different repositories. Do not confuse with <relatedmaterial>, which is used to encode descriptions of or references to materials that are not physically or logically included in the material described in the finding aid but that may be of use to a reader because of an association to the described materials. Items encoded as <relatedmaterial> are not related to the described material by provenance, accumulation, or use.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <c02> A wrapper element that designates a second-1 evel subordinate part of the materials being described. Components may be either unnumbered <c> or numbered <c01>, <c02>, etc. The numbered components <c01> to <c12> assist a finding aid encoder in nesting up to 12 component levels accurately.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <c02> <did> (Descriptive Identification) A required wrapper element that bundles other elements identifying core information about the described materials in either Archival Description <archdesc> or a Component <c>. The various <did> subelements are intended for brief, clearly designated statements of information and, except for <note>, do not require Paragraphs <p> to enter text.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <c02> <bioghist> (Biography or History) A concise essay or chronology that places the archival materials in context by providing information about their creator(s). Includes significant information about the life of an individual or family, or the administrative history of a corporate body. The <bioghist> may contain just text in a series of Paragraphs <p>, and/or a Chronology List <chronlist> that matches dates and date ranges with associated events. Additional <bioghist> elements may be nested inside one another when a complex body of materials, such as a collection of family papers, is being described, and separately headed sections are desired. The <bioghist> element may also be nested to designate a portion of the essay or chronology that might be extracted as a MARC 545 subfield.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <c02> <scopecontent> A prose statement summarizing the range and topical coverage of the described materials, often mentioning the form and arrangement of the materials and naming significant organizations, individuals, events, places, and subjects represented. The purpose of the <scopecontent> element is to assist readers in evaluating the potential relevance of the materials to their research. It may highlight particular strengths of, or gaps in, the described materials and may summarize in narrative form some of the descriptive information entered in other parts of the finding aid.

<ead> <archdesc> <dsc> <c01> <c02> <c03> etc.

In addition to the structural elements listed, the <did>−level elements also contain heads and paragraph elements (<head> and <p>) as well as other textual formatting elements.

Example EAD record (abbreviated)

The following record is an abbreviated record from the Rocky Mountain Online Archive. Full item descriptions and subject analysis have been removed from this record. See http://rmoa.unm.edu/docviewer.php?docId=nmupict2000-017.xml for the complete record.

<ead>

 <eadheader findaidstatus="edited-full-draft" langencoding="iso63 9-2b" audience="internal" repositoryencoding="iso15511" countryencoding="iso316 6-1" scriptencoding="iso15924" dateencoding="iso8601" relatedencoding="Dublin Core">

 <eadid publicid="-//University of New Mexico Center for Southwest Research//TEXT(US::NmU::PICT 2000–017)//EN" countrycode="us" mainagencycode="NmU" encodinganalog="Identifier”/>

 <filedesc>

 <titlestmt>

 <titleproper encodinganalog="Title">Inventory of the Lee Marmon Pictorial Collection, <date>1936—2010</date></titleproper>

 </titlestmt>

 <publicationstmt>

 <publisher>University of New Mexico, University Libraries, Center for Southwest Research</publisher>

 <date era="ce" calendar="gregorian" encodinganalog="Date">© 2007</date>

 <p>The University of New Mexico</p>

 </publicationstmt>

 </filedesc>

 <profiledesc>

 <langusage>Finding aid is in <language encodinganalog="Language" langcode="eng">English </language> </langusage>

 </profiledesc>

 </eadheader>

 <archdesc level="collection" relatedencoding="MARC 21">

 <did>

 <head>Collection Summary</head>

 <unittitle encodinganalog="245" label="Title">Lee Marmon Pictorial Collection</unittitle>

 <unitdate type="inclusive" era="ce" calendar="gregorian" normal="1936/2008">1936-2010 </unitdate>

 <unitid countrycode="us" label="Collection Number">PICT 2000-017</unitid>

 <origination label="Creator">

 <persname>Marmon, Lee</persname>

 </origination>

 <physdesc encodinganalog="300" label="Size">

 <extent>36 boxes</extent>

 </physdesc>

 <physloc>B2. Filed by Accession Number.</physloc>

 <repository encodinganalog="852" label="Repository">

 <corpname>University of New Mexico Center for Southwest Research</corpname>

 </repository>

 <abstract>This collection contains photographs taken by Lee Marmon throughout his life. These include images of elders and community members from Laguna and Acoma Pueblos, visual documentation of uranium mines and mills throughout New Mexico, photos of fashion and social life in 19 60s and 19 70s Palm Springs, CA, among other things.</abstract>

 </did>

 <arrangement>

 <head>Arrangement of the Collection:</head>

 <p>The Lee Marmon Pictorial Collection is arranged into series: </p>

 <list type="marked">

 <item>Original Lee Marmon Collection (2000)</item>

 <item> American Indian Colleges </item>

 <item>General Photographs</item>

 <item>Moving Images</item>

 </list>

 </arrangement>

 <dsc type="in-depth">

 <head>Contents List</head>

 <c01 level="series">

 <did>

 <unittitle id="orig">ORIGINAL MARMON COLLECTION (2000)</unittitle>

 <unitdate>194 9‒1999</unitdate>

 </did>

 <c02 level="file">

 <did>

 <container type="box">1</container>e

 <container type="folder">1</container>

 <unittitle>Portraits - Men </unittitle>

 <unitdate>1949-1963</unitdate>

 </did>

<scopecontent><p>0001:Lee Marmon with Station Wagon,1949. 0002: Jeff Sousea “White Man’s Moccasins,”1954. 0003: Gov. James Solomon w/ Lincoln cane, 1958. 0004: Mateos Mexicano, 1962; 0005: Jose Sanshu, 1963; 0006: Jose Teofilo, 1961; 0007: Fernando, 1950; 0008: John Riley, 1949</p></scopecontent>

 </c02>

 <c02 level="file">

 <did>

 <container type="box">2</container>

 <container type="folder">1</container>

 <unittitle>Portraits - Men and Women</unittitle>

 <unitdate>1952-1987</unitdate>

 </did>

<scopecontent><p>0009: Benson, Navajo Sheepherder, 1985; 0010: Bronco Martinez,1984; 0011: Platero, Navajo, 1962; 0012: Bennie, 1984; 0013: Fr. Kenneth, Acoma, 1952; 0014: Esther – Zuni Pueblo, 1975; 0015: Susie Rayos Marmon, 110th birthday, 1987; 0016: Lucy Louis - Acoma, 1960</p></scopecontent>

 </c02>

 </c01>

 </dsc>

 </archdesc>

 </ead>

An EAD portal will use XSLT to transform the above XML record into a human-readable webpage. The designers of the portal will determine important information to be displayed to the users, such as repository information, collection summary, scope and content notes, arrangement notes, access terms, and the list of boxes and folders.

Use of EAD will ensure that archival finding aids created at your institution are interoperable with those created in other institutions. Additionally, many libraries map EAD records to MARC records so that these collections can be found in the library catalog.

Exercise

Create an EAD record for a single collection that contains all photographs from the previous chapter in one folder. The title of the collection is “Photographs from the New Mexico State University Library, MSS 001.” The repository is “New Mexico State University Library.”

Answer key

<ead>

 <eadheader audience="internal" langencoding="iso639-2b"> <eadid countrycode="us">New Mexico State University Library</eadid>

 <filedesc>

 <titlestmt>

 <titleproper>Inventory of Photographs from the New Mexico State University Library</titleproper>

 <author>Processed by A. Jackson, R. Lubas, and I. Schneider</author>

 </titlestmt>

 <publicationstmt>

 <publisher> New Mexico State University Library, Archives and Special Collections </publisher>

 <address><addressline>Archives and Special Collections</addressline><addressline>4th Floor Branson Library</addressline><addressline>New Mexico State University</addressline><addressline>Las Cruces, New Mexico</addressline></address>

 <date>2012 </date>

 </publicationstmt>

 </filedesc>

 <profiledesc>

 <langusage>Finding aid is in <language>English</language></langusage>

 </profiledesc>

 <revisiondesc>

 </revisiondesc>

 </eadheader>

 <frontmatter>

 <titlepage>

 <titleproper>Inventory of Photographs from the New Mexico State University Library</titleproper>

 <num>Collection number: MSS 01</num>

 <publisher>New Mexico State University Library, Archives and Special Collections</publisher>

 <date>Publication date: October 2012</date>

 <list>

 <head>Contact Information</head>

 <item>New Mexico State University Library</item>

 <item>Archives and Special Collections</item>

 <item>New Mexico State University</item>

 <item>Las Cruces, NM</item>

 </list>

 <list>

 <defitem>

 <label>Date processed:</label>

 <item>October 2012</item>

 </defitem>

 </list>

 </titlepage>

 </frontmatter>

 <archdesc level="collection">

 <did>

 <head>Collection Summary</head>

 <unittitle label="Title">Photographs from the New Mexico State University Library, <unitdate type="inclusive">1913-1948</unitdate></unittitle>

 <unitid label="Collection Number">MSS 01</unitid>

 <origination label="Creator">

 <corpname>New Mexico State University Library </corpname>

 </origination>

 <physdesc label="Size">

 <extent>1 folder (3 photographs)</extent>

 </physdesc>

 <repository label="Repos itory">

 <corpname>New Mexico State University. Archives and Special Collections.</corpname>

 </repository>

 <physloc label="Shelf Location">For current information on the location of these materials, please inquire at the access desk.</physloc>

 <langmaterial label="Language">

 <language langcode="eng">English.</language> </langmaterial>

 </did>

 <scopecontent>

 <head>Scope and Content</head>

 <p>These three photographs are dated from 1913–1948, and are included in The Metadata Manual: A Practical Workbook for exercises and examples.</p>

 </scopecontent>

 <bioghist>

 <head>Institutional History</head>

 <p>These photographs, from the New Mexico State University Library, are included in The Metadata Manual: A Practical Workbook for exercise examples.</p>

 </bioghist>

 <descgrp type="admininfo">

 <head>Administrative Information</head>

 <accessrestrict>

 <head>Access Restrictions</head>

 <p>None</p>

 </accessrestrict>

 <userestrict>

 <head>Copy Restrictions</head>

 <p>User responsible for all copyright compliance.</p>

 </userestrict>

 <prefercite>

 <head>Preferred Citation</head>

 <p>New Mexico State University Library, Archives and Special Collections, MSS 01</p>

 </prefercite>

 </descgrp>

 <controlaccess>

 <head>Access Terms</head>

 <subject source="lcsh">Motorcycle Machine Gun Corp </subject>

 <subject source="lcsh"> Machine guns</subject>

 <subject source="lcsh">Motorcycle sidecars</subject>

 <subject source="lcsh"> Hot peppers</subject>

 <subject source="lcsh">Hot pepper industry</subject>

 <geogname>Camel Rock (N.M.)</geogname>

 </controlaccess>

 <dsc type="in-depth">

 <head>Contents List</head>

 <c01 level="item">

 <did>

 <container type="folder">1</container>

 <unittitle>3 photographs from various locations in New Mexico.</unittitle>

 </did>

 </c01>

 </dsc>

 </archdesc>

 </ead>

An EAD portal might display the above XML record as seen below after using XSLT to transform the XML into HTML.

Repository: New Mexico State University Library, Archives and Special Collections, Las Cruces, NM

Collection Summary

Title: Photographs from the New Mexico State University Library Dates: 1913–1948

Creator: Various

Collection Number: Ms 0001

Size: 1 folder (3 photographs)

Repository: New Mexico State University Library

Language: English

Institutional History: These photographs, from the New Mexico State University Library, are included in The Metadata Manual: A Practical Workbook for exercise examples.

Scope and Content: These three photographs are dated from 1913–1948, and are included in The Metadata Manual: A Practical Workbook for exercises and examples.

Restrictions

Access Restrictions: None

Copy Restrictions: User responsible for all copyright compliance

Administrative Information

Preferred Citation: New Mexico State University Library, Archives and Special Collections, Ms 0001

Access Terms: Camel Rock (N.M.); Motorcycle Machine Gun Corp; Machine guns; Motorcycle sidecars; Hot peppers; Hot pepper industry

Contents List

Description: 3 photographs from various locations in New Mexico

Container: Folder 1