PLANNING OF BUILDINGS
One of the primary needs of human beings is shelter (i.e., to live in a comfortable place called house). A building constructed using natural or man-made material forms the house. There are different national level organizations which deal with housing.
Apart from just living, buildings are needed for different purposes. Accordingly the components are different. For a residential building, there are a set of components that are to be judiciously positioned to attain the maximum benefit.
Of these things, orientation of a building also plays a major role as every building is exposed to natural elements such as wind, sun, rain, etc. Hence, depending on the geographical location, the buildings have to be so positioned to attain the maximum comfort throughout the year.
Building regulations and specifications are to be taken into account while planning a building to satisfy the requirements.
14.2 IMPORTANCE OF HOUSING
Housing is an important indicator of the level of country’s social progress. Among the basic requirements for mankind to live, shelter takes the place next to food and clothing. Shelter is needed to protect oneself from natural calamities, wild, animals and from fellow beings. As a matter of fact, human beings started from caves and now live today in sophisticated air-conditioned houses.
14.2.1 Housing Programme
United Nations has recommended certain norms to improve the quality of life of human beings. The norms stipulated are: (i) settlement policies and strategies, (ii) settlement planning, (iii) institutions and management, (iv) infrastructure and services, (v) land and (vi) public participation.
Based on the above norms, housing programmes have to take the following steps:
- Policy framework has to be formulated emphasizing human settlements with employment opportunities and economical growth.
- Keeping community participation as a basic principal, development of human settlement should be approached.
- On the national frame work, development of human resources should be attempted.
- Financial resources have to be generated by mobilizing domestic household savings.
- Provide shelter and infrastructure by developing new partnership.
- Construction sector has to be promoted preferably utilizing the locally available materials.
14.2.2 Priorities in Housing
Major priority areas for housing and construction are briefed below:
- Policy planning including programmes and projection of housing methodology with proper standards.
- Development of land and infrastructure with related economies.
- Development towards use of indigenous building materials and available equipment.
- Labour organization and connected infrastructure for education and training.
- Management of housing finance.
- Necessary documentation, designation and application.
14.2.3 National Level Housing Organizations
There are different levels of housing organizations which involve in policy planning, stipulating standards, research on housing and building, etc.
1. National Building Organization (NBO)
National Building Organization established in 1954, works in close collaboration with the Planning Commission, Research Laboratories, Construction Departments, Housing Boards, etc. It is engaged in coordination and promotion of housing in practice.
2. Central Building Research Institute (CBRI)
The Central Building Research Institute (CBRI) is essentially a research body set up by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, established in 1951. The institute involved research in seven research divisions, viz., building materials, soil engineering, efficiency of buildings, building process, plant and productivity, architecture and physical planning, fire research, and rural building. The results of research are used in practice.
3. National Buildings Construction Corporation (NBCC)
National Building Construction Corporation (NBCC) is a Government of India enterprise. The mission of the company is to be an organization in construction engineering and consultancy services. It provides efficient and quality execution of projects, extends services conforming to international standards, and development of human resources. NBCC now occupies its rightful place as a pioneering construction organization in the country.
Housing and Urban Development Corporation Ltd., (HUDCO) was established in 1970. It is developed as a specialized organization which collects and disseminates information and ideas on improved designs, construction techniques, etc. It purely works with research organizations of national repute.
5. Hindustan Housing Factory
Hindustan Housing Factory is a Government of India organization involved in manufacture of pre-cast components. Because of cost and need for speedy construction, pre-fabrication techniques have developed. The factory has made remarkable progress in the construction of industrial structures by using pre-cast and pre-stressed concrete components. It works on partially pre-fabricated system and fully pre-fabricated system.
14.3 CLASSIFICATION OF BUILDINGS
According to National Building Code, buildings are classified based on occupancy and type of construction.
14.3.1 Occupancy Classification
Under occupancy classification, buildings are grouped under the categories mentioned below.
1. Residential Buildings
These include any building in which sleeping accommodation is provided for normal residential purposes, with or without cooling or dining or both facilities (e.g., houses, lodges, dormitories, apartment houses (flats), hotels, etc.).
2. Educational Buildings
These include any building used for school, college or day-care purposes involving assembly for instruction, education or recreation.
3. Institutional Buildings
These include any building which is used for purposes such as medical or other treatment, care of persons suffering from physical or mental illness, etc. (e.g., hospitals and sanitorium, custodial institutions, penal and mental institutions, etc.).
4. Assembly Buildings
These include any building where group of people congregate or gather for amusement, recreation, social, religious, patriotic, civil, travel, etc. (e.g., theatres, motion picture houses, auditoria, museums, etc.).
5. Business Buildings
These include any building which is used for transaction of business (other than mercantile buildings discussed below) for keeping of accounts and records, professional establishments, service facilities, etc. (e.g., town halls, courts, libraries, etc.).
6. Mercantile Buildings
These include any building which is used as shops, stores or market, for display and sale of merchandise (either wholesale or retail). Storage and service facilities incidental to the sale of merchandise and located in the same buildings shall be included under this group.
7. Industrial Buildings
These include any building in which products of materials of all kinds and properties are fabricated, assembled, manufactured or processed. (e.g., assembly plants, power and gas plants, refineries, diaries, sawmills, etc.).
8. Storage Buildings
These include any building used primarily for the storage or sheltering of goods, wares or merchandise, vehicles or animals, etc. (e.g., warehouses, cold storages, garages, hangers, grain elevators, etc.).
9. Hazardous Buildings
These include any building which is used for the storage, handling, manufacturing or processing of highly combustible or explosive materials or products which are liable to burn with extreme rapidity; manufacturing or processing toxic alkalis, acids or chemicals producing flame, irritant or corrosive gases, etc.
14.3.2 Types of Construction Based on Fire-Resistance
Under this classification, buildings are classified into four categories based on the fire resistance offered by a building as Type 1, Type 2, Type 3, and Type 4.
Type 1: That provides 4 hours fire resistance.
Type 2: That provides 3 hours fire resistance.
Type 3: That provides 2 hours fire resistance.
Type 4: That provides 1 hour fire resistance.
14.4 PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING OF BUILDINGS
The basic objective of planning of buildings is to arrange all the units according to their functional requirements. This has to be achieved making best use of the space available. The plan has to be prepared based on the factors such as climatic conditions, location of site, accommodation requirements, surrounding environment, local bylaws, etc.
In general, the principles detailed below are the factors which are to be considered in planning of buildings:
- Furniture requirements
- Practical considerations.
Aspect means location of doors and windows in a building so as to allow the occupants of the building to enjoy the natural gifts such as sunshine, breeze, scenery, etc. The aspect is also important from the hygienic point of view.
Prospect is the impression the building gains by an outside observer. This includes projections wherever needed, disposition of doors and windows, concealment of some parts which may distract the view, etc. Both prospect and aspect concerned with disposition of doors and windows properly. As a matter of fact, for the sake of either seeing or hiding certain views, window sites play a vital role.
Privacy plays a major role in planning of all the buildings and residential buildings in particular. In privacy, two factors have to be considered, viz., (i) privacy of one room from another and (ii) privacy of building from outside.
Privacy of the first factor is taken care of by carefully planning the building with respect to grouping, disposition of doors, provision of corridor or lobby, etc. Temporarily privacy can also be attained by providing screens and curtains.
Privacy from the second factor is easily attained by carefully planning the entrance and steering it with greeneries.
Privacy is particularly needed in bed rooms, bathrooms, kitchen, etc.
Grouping is concerned with the positioning of the rooms keeping in view their functions and connected sequence of operations. For example, in a residential building, dining room must be closer to the kitchen. Similarly, in a hospital building, the administrative department should be centrally located.
Roominess is concerned with the deriving of maximum benefit from the minimum dimensions of a room. It is the economical way of using a space with maximum benefit without any cramping of the place. In general, in a residential building a large storage space is required.
14.4.6 Furniture Requirement
The utilization of a room or a space is solely based on the furniture requirements. This is a crucial factor that has to be considered mainly in non-residential buildings. In residential building also adequate care has to be taken before selecting proper furniture for hall, bed room, etc.
Sanitation comprises of providing ample light, ventilation and facilities for cleaning and sanitary conveniences. Light plays a dual role. Firstly it illuminates and secondly, it is needed for maintaining hygiene. For all buildings, good lighting is necessary. Light is provided through windows and ventilators.
Ventilation is the supply of outside air, either by intention or by infiltration into the building. Good ventilation is a must for a conductive living inside a building. Ventilation may be provided naturally or mechanically. However, poor ventilation should be avoided as it may produce headache, sleepiness, inability to fix attention, etc.
Apart from light and ventilation, general cleaning and upkeep of the building is the responsibility of the occupants. Particularly prevention of dust accumulation is essential. Sanitary conveniences in a building include provision of bathrooms, lavatories, etc., and their cleanliness.
Flexibility means that a planned and designed room or space should be in a position to be used for other purposes at the time of need. This is particularly important for designing the houses for middle class families. For example, a well-planned house within a small space must provide various activities such as a hall, a sit-in, child’s study, etc.
Circulation means easy movement horizontally without ups and downs. However, stairs may be provided for vertical circulation. Passages, Corridors, halls and lobbies serve the purpose of horizontal circulation.
As a general rule, the circulation area should be straight, sufficiently lighted and well ventilated to achieve efficiency, comfort and convenience.
Elegance is the effect produced by the elevation and general layout of the plan. Elevation should be elegant and signify the type of building and the interior facilities which could be expected from the building.
Although economy does not come under the purview of planning, it is evidently a factor to be seriously considered. The economy may restrict the liberties of the owner and may require some alterations and omissions in the original place. However, economy should not have any adverse effect on the utilities and safety of the structure.
14.4.12 Practical Considerations
The factors, which need practical considerations, include strength and stability of structure, simplicity of plan and design, a long life, and provisions for expansion with less cost.
14.5 BASIC REQUIREMENTS OF BUILDING
Classification of buildings as per National Buildings Organization is dealt in Section 14.3. Irrespective of the type of building, some of the terminologies and basic requirements for certain components of building (discussed in the next section) are necessary to know which are discussed below.
14.5.1 Building Line
This is the line corresponding to the plinth (discussed in next section) of a building which adjoins the street or extension of the street. As per the municipal regulations, a minimum distance has to be maintained between the building line and the nearest edge line of the street.
14.5.2 Set Back Line
This is a line usually parallel to the plot boundaries, marked by the municipal regulations beyond which nothing can be constructed.
14.5.3 Covered Area
This is the ground area covered immediately above the plinth level by the building.
14.5.4 Plinth Area
This is the built-up covered area measured at the floor level by taking the external dimensions of the building, excluding the plinth offset.
14.5.5 Floor Area and Floor Area Ratio
It is the plinth area minus the area occupied by wall, door, openings, etc. Floor area ratio (FAR) is also known as floor space index (FSI) which is given as
An FSI of 1.5 is now-a-days allowed for flats in most cities.
14.5.6 Carpet Area
This is the usable area of a building. In a residential building, it will exclude verandah, bathrooms, staircases, etc., and is about 50–65% of the total area.
14.5.7 Building Height
The height of a building is its height above the ground level. For a flat roof construction adjoining a street, the height is defined as the vertical distance from the highest point of the roof of the building to the average level of the centre line of the adjoining street. For a sloped roof without gables the building height is from the point where the external surface of the outer wall intersects the finished surface of the sloping roof (for the gabled roof, the reference point for height on the building is the mid-point between the eves level and the ridge) to the average level of the centre line of adjoining street.
14.5.8 Room Height
It is the clear vertical distance from the finished floor surface to the finished ceiling surface. In case there is no finished ceiling surface, the underside of the joints or beams or tie beams shall determine the upper point of measurement.
14.5.9 Habitable Rooms
Any room which is occupied or designed for occupancy by one person or more persons for the conventional usage is called as habitable room. The minimum height of these rooms should not be less than 2.74 m. Area of habitable room shall not be less than 9.5 m2 with a minimum width of 2.4 m, if there is of only one room. If there are two rooms, one of these shall not be less than 9.5 m2 and the other of 7.5 m2 with a width of 2.4 m.
The size shall not be less than 1.5 m × 1.2 m or 1.8 m2 and height shall not be less than 2.2 m. If it is combined with a water closet, the area shall not be less than 2.8 m2 with a minimum width of 1.2 m.
14.5.11 Water Closet
The minimum floor area shall not be less than 1.1 m2 and height 2.2 m. This does not include a bathroom. Privacy is needed with arrangement for flushing the pan with water.
This is a horizontal projection facing the open area including a handrail or balustrade to serve as passage or sitting out place.
14.6 BUILDING COMPONENTS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS
Parts of a building fall under two broad categories, viz., substructure and superstructure and all components of a building fall in any one of these categories.
Substructure is the lowest portion of a building which is usually considered to be located below the ground level. The function of the substructure is to transmit the load of superstructure to the soil. The substructure is nothing but the foundation which is provided to give stability to the building and to distribute the load coming from superstructure (Fig. 14.1). If the sub-soil near the ground surface is weak, the load of superstructure is transferred to deep-strong strata by means of long vertical members of either timber, concrete or steel called piles.
Figure 14.1 Some components of a building
Superstructure is that portion of a building which is constructed above the substructure. It is the major portion of a building which is fully used by human beings. It houses various facilities like number of storeys, floors, roofs, stairs, ventilation, etc. It is the one which provides adequate stability and withstands the adverse weather conditions. Apart from ensuring stability, it adds on to attractive aesthetic appearance. Various components constituting the superstructure are briefly explained below (Fig. 14.1).
Basement or cellar is the lower storage of a building constructed below or partly below the ground surface. It is not used for residential purposes. Basement is used for
- Storage of household or other goods,
- As a strongroom for materials, documents and locker for banks,
- Air-conditioning equipment,
- Machines used for services and utilities of the building, and
- Vehicle parking, etc.
This is the portion of a structure immediately above the ground and between the surface of the floor and the surrounding ground and the road surface so as to provide adequate drainage of the site. The minimum height of the plinth is 45 cm from the surrounding ground level. The top surface of the plinth is the surface over which the ground floor walls are raised and door frames rest.
3. Damp-proof Course
Dampness cause corrosion of materials used in the construction, crumbling and softening of plasters, loosening of floor coverages, blistering of painted surfaces, rotting of wooden parts, etc. Damp-proof materials should be highly impervious.
In order to prevent dampness of wall, a continuous impervious layer is generally provided at the top of plinth level and also in vertical faces of the basement floors.
The materials used for the damp-proof courses are flexible materials like bituminous sheet, plastic sheet, metal sheet, etc.; semi-rigid materials like mastic asphalt; and rigid materials like slates, bricks, stones, dense cement concrete, etc.
It is that part of superstructure which transfers the load of the roof and its self-weight to the foundation through the plinth surface. Materials used for the construction of wall are mud, brick, stone, structural units of clay or concrete. Walls which are responsible to transfer the loads are called load-bearing walls. Partition walls are generally of non-load-bearing and used to partition the space for different purposes. External or outer walls of a building protect the inmates of the building from adverse weathers.
It is a continuous flat portion of a building used as a roof or floor. This is provided to span small opening and distance between beams. It is generally of reinforced cement concrete with reinforcement at the bottom.
It is a horizontal structural member which carries a portion of the wall, floor slab and roof. Beams may be of wood, stone, steel or reinforced cement concrete. Now-a-days reinforced cement concrete beams are used extensively. Reinforced cement concrete beam in its simplest form has a rectangular shape with reinforcement at the bottom and at the top near the supports. In special cases, the beam can be of any shape with reinforcement at the appropriate places.
An arch is a structure comprising of a mechanical arrangement of wedge-shaped blocks. These arches are designed to support the superincumbent load of a wall and provided over doors, windows and passages. The materials used for the construction of arches are bricks, stones and concrete blocks. Steel and reinforced cement concrete are also provided which are built of a single unit and are of rigid type.
It is a beam that supports the masonry over openings of door, window and passage. Lintels may be wood, stone, steel or reinforced cement concrete. Unlike arches, it does not use a strong supporting wall. Reinforced cement concrete lintels have reinforcements as that in a beam. For small openings, a reinforced brick lintel may be enough.
It is a cover to the inside of a building. Its function is to give a protective covering to the building so that rain, snow or wind may not damage the building. It is constructed at the highest part of the building. Roofs are constructed based on the climatic conditions, material used and type of lighting and ventilation needed. Roofs may be sloping, flat or many have special shapes like shell, folded plates or dome.
It is a level, firm and smooth surface provided at the plinth level in the ground floor for the comfortable use of the inmates of a building. In multi-storeyed buildings, floors divide the building into different levels one above the other for the purpose of providing accommodation within the restricted space. Top floors should also be level, firm, smooth and should be sufficiently strong so as to withstand the loads which come over the floor. It also forms a base surface to take floor coverings. The materials used for floor may be brick, wood, stone, or plain or reinforced cement concrete.
It is provided in a building to afford a means of communication between floors. These are steps arranged in series and generally placed in the centre or to one side of a building. The stairs should be designed properly so as to provide maximum comfort, ease and safety with adequate ventilation and light. Stairs may be made of timber, brick, stone, mild steel, wrought iron or concrete.
It is an opening provided to the outside of a building and for connecting inside rooms of a building. It also gives security and safety. Location of a door should be made so that there is free movement, adequate usable area, privacy and good ventilation. Movements of the door leafs may be swinging, sliding, rolling, revolving, folding or telescopic. Doors may be of wood, aluminium, steel, glass or any combination.
It is an opening to the outside to provide adequate natural ventilation and light. While locating a window, the following aspects have to be considered:
- Distribution and control of day light.
- Desired vision outside.
- Control of ventilation.
- Pattern of air movement.
Windows may have one or more shutters. Windows may be of wood, aluminium, steel, glass or any combination.
It is provided for ventilation purposes. This can be combined with a door or window frame or provided independently. When provided independently, it is located near the ceiling of the room if the height of the room permits. It may be pivoted or louvered type. Only glass panels or fixed glass louvers are used.
It is a horizontal projection provided outside a building at the top of doors and windows to protect the inside of the building from sunlight and rain.
It is a structural member intended to support compressive stress. This is provided to support beams both inside and outside a building. Columns may be made of timber, steel, stone, brick or concrete. Columns can be of any shape and provided with some decorative finishes at the top and at the bottom of the columns.
17. Weathering Course
It is a continuous layer provided over the flat roof for protecting the roof from wind, sunlight, rain and snow. The layer may be a combination of concrete with one or more layers of the flat tiles. The thickness of weathering course should be less such that the load on the roof is less, but at the same time should be sound enough to withstand the adverse effects of weather.
It is a short wall provided on the top of a flat roof of a building to protect people from slipping from top.
14.7 ORIENTATION OF BUILDING
Orientation of a building refers to the direction of the normal to the long axis. For example, if the length of the building is north-south, its orientation is east-west. The chief purpose of orientation of a building is to derive physically and psychologically comfortable living conditions inside the building. The orientation will provide the maximum benefits from the elements of nature such as sun, wind and rain.
In other words, good orientation means proper organization of plan units of the building in relation to the natural causes like rain, sun, wind, etc. Poor orientation of the buildings results in discomfort conditions inside the building. Although needed comforts can be created by mechanical means, they will lead to extra cost.
14.7.1 Factors Affecting Orientation
Factors which may affect orientation are as follows:
- Solar radiation
- Prevailing winds
- Surrounding site conditions
1. Solar Radiation
Solar radiation is directly related to temperature. From the solar radiation point of view, the orientation should be such that the building as a whole should receive the maximum solar radiation in winter and the minimum in the summer. Hence, it is necessary to know the path of sun’s movement throughout the year and its relative position with respect to the locality.
Clouds reduce the direct radiation from sun. It is thus desirable to take note of the cloudy periods in a year. Sun protection may be provided accordingly.
3. Prevailing Winds
Prevailing winds minimize the adverse effects of high humidity and high temperature. Thus for the purpose of orientation it is necessary to study the velocity and direction of the wind periodically. It is generally accepted that variation up to 30° with respect to the prevalent wind does not materially affect the indoor ventilation inside the building.
The intensity of rainfall and the entire monsoon period should be known so as to decide the orientation of the building and also decide about the structure.
5. Surrounding Site Conditions
Location of the site, either rural, urban or sub-urban, also plays a role in the orientation of a building. Further, the surrounding greeneries or some factories, etc., are to be taken into account while fixing the orientation of the building.
14.7.2 Orientation Criteria under Indian Conditions
Major factors which control orientation of residential building are solar heat and humidity. Climate-wise, Indian climatic conditions may be divided into hot-arid zone and hot-humid zone.
1. Hot-Arid Zones
Such zones are also called as dry arid zones which are found mostly in the interior of the country away from the coast. Hence, to get the comfort, removal of hot air through the roof, doors, windows, etc., are to be thought of by proper orientation. North India and Central India fall under this zone.
2. Hot-Humid Zones
Such zones are also called as wet zones which are found generally along the coastal belts. Here, apart from providing opening for circulation, rain-protection measures also should be considered during orientation. West coast regions, east costs regions and Bengal fall under this zone.
14.8 CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDING
Before starting construction of a residential building, a site has to be owned at a desired place. A plan to be prepared as per the need of the person and necessary approval has to be obtained. The site clearance has to be done and then the actual work has to be started. The sequence of operations is discussed below.
Step 1: Excavation of foundation
Step 2: Base concrete
Step 3: Masonry construction
Step 4: Plinth beam construction
Step 5: Sand filling up to plinth level
Step 6: Preparation of doors and windows
Step 7: Floor concrete
Step 8: Starting of superstructure construction
Step 9: Fixing doors and windows
Step 10: Finishing superstructure upto lintel level
Step 11: Construction of lintels and sunshades
Step 12: Brickwork up to ceiling and roof
Step 13: Electrical pipe and board fixing
Step 14: Roof casting
Step 15: Removal of formwork
Step 16: Finishing all plumbing work
Step 17: Plastering
Step 18: Floor finishing
Step 19: Construction of compound or boundary walls
Step 20: Fixing doors and window shutters
Step 21: Electrical fittings
Step 22: Painting and polishing.
Above discussed sequence of operations is shown in a flow diagram, Fig. 14.2.
Figure 14.2 Construction sequence of residential building
- Housing is an indicator of the level of country’s social progress. Among the basic requirements for mankind to live, shelter takes the place next to food and clothing.
- The norms stipulated by United Nations to improve the quality of life of human beings are: (i) settlement policies and strategies, (ii) settlement planning, (iii) institutions and management, (iv) infrastructure and services, (v) land and (vi) public participation.
- There are different levels of housing organizations which involve in policy planning, stipulating standards, research on housing and buildings, etc. They are National Building Organization (NBO), Central Building Research Institute (CBRI), National Building Construction Corporation (NBCC), Housing and Urban Development Corporation Ltd. (HUDCO) and Hindustan Housing Factory.
- According to National Building Code, buildings are classified based on occupancy and type of construction.
- Under occupancy classification, they are classified as residential buildings, educational buildings, institutional buildings, assembly buildings, business buildings, mercantile buildings, industrial buildings, storage buildings and hazardous buildings.
- Classification based on types of construction keeping fire resistance as the base are as follows:
Type 1: That provides 4 hours fire resistance
Type 2: That provides 3 hours fire resistance
Type 3: That provides 2 hours fire resistance
Type 4: That provides 1 hour fire resistance
- In general, the following principles are to be considered in planning of buildings:
(vi) Furniture requirements
(xii) Practical considerations.
- Substructure is the lowest portion of a building which is usually considered to be located below the ground level.
- Superstructure is that portion of a building which is constructed above the substructure. It is the major portion of a building which is fully used by human beings.
- Superstructure of a building comprises of basement, plinth, damp-proof course, wall, slab, beam, arch, lintel, roof, floor, stairs, doors, windows, ventilators, sunshades, columns, weathering course and parapet.
- Orientation of a building refers to the direction of the normal to the long axis.
- Factors affecting location are: solar radiation, clouds, prevailing, winds, rainfall and surrounding site conditions.
- What is the importance of housing for mankind?
- How buildings are classified as per National Building Code?
- Explain the details of occupancy classification.
- Distinguish between occupancy classification and classification based on types of construction keeping fire-resistance as the norm.
- What do you understand by principles of planning of buildings?
- Explain the significance of aspect and prospect for residential buildings.
- Distinguish between covered area, plinth area, floor area and carpet area.
- What is called a floor area ratio? Mention the floor area ratio stipulated for flats.
- How building height is determined for a pitched roof and a flat roof?
- Discuss the criteria for determining the maximum permissible height of a buildings.
- Distinguish between a substructure and superstructure.
- Draw a neat sketch of a building and show various parts of the building.
- Write short notes on
(v) Weathering course
- What are the three basic zones for the purpose of orientation of buildings? Explain.
- What is orientation of building?
- Discuss the factors affecting the orientation of buildings.
- With a flow diagram explain the construction sequence of a residential building.