Contents – Applied Physics

Contents

Foreword

Preface

Acknowledgements

Chapter 1 Bonding in Solids

1.1 Different Types of Bonding in Solids

1.2 Cohesive Energy and Estimation of Cohesive Energy of Ionic Solids

1.3 Estimation of Cohesive Energy of NaCl Molecule in a Solid

1.4 Madelung Constant

Formulae

Solved Problems

Multiple Choice Questions

Answers

Review Questions

Chapter 2 Crystal Structures

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Space Lattice (or) Crystal Lattice

2.3 The Basis and Crystal Structure

2.4 Unit Cell and Lattice Parameters

2.5 Crystal Systems and Bravais Lattices

2.6 Structure and Packing Fractions of Simple Cubic [SC] Structure

2.7 Structure and Packing Fractions of Body-Centred Cubic Structure [BCC]

2.8 Structure and Packing Fractions of Face-Centred Cubic [FCC] Structure

2.9 Diamond Cubic Structure

2.10 NaCl Crystal Structure

2.11 Caesium Chloride [CsCl] Structure

2.12 Zinc Sulphide [ZnS] Structure

2.13 Stacking Sequence in Metallic Crystals

2.14 Calculation of Lattice Constant

Solved Problems

Multiple Choice Questions

Answers

Review Questions

Chapter 3 Crystal Planes, X-ray Diffraction and Defects in Solids

3.1 Crystal Planes, Directions and Miller Indices

3.2 Distance of Separation Between Successive hkl Planes

3.3 Imperfections in Crystals

3.4 Energy for the Formation of a Vacancy and Number of Vacancies at Euqilibrium Concentration

3.5 Diffraction of X-rays by Crystal Planes and Bragg's Law

3.6 Powder Method

3.7 Laue Method

Formulae

Solved Problems

Multiple Choice Questions

Answers

Review Questions

Chapter 4 Elements of Statistical Mechanics and Principles of Quantum Mechanics

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Phase Space

4.3 Maxwell–Boltzmann Distribution

4.4 Fermi–Dirac Distribution

4.5 Bose–Einstein Distribution

4.6 Comparison of Maxwell–Boltzmann, Fermi–Dirac and Bose–Einstein Distributions

4.7 Photon Gas

4.8 Concept of Electron Gas and Fermi Energy

4.9 Density of Electron States

4.10 Black Body Radiation

4.11 Waves and Particles—de Broglie Hypothesis—Matter Waves

4.12 Relativistic Correction

4.13 Planck's Quantum Theory of Black Body Radiation

4.14 Experimental Study of Matter Waves

4.14 Schrödinger's Time-Independent Wave Equation

4.15 Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

4.16 Physical Significance of the Wave Function

4.17 Particle in a Potential Box

Formulae

Solved Problems

Multiple Choice Questions

Answers

Review Questions

Chapter 5 Electron Theory of Metals

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Classical Free Electron Theory of Metals

5.3 Relaxation Time, Mean Free Path, Mean Collision Time and Drift Velocity

5.4 Fermi-Dirac Distribution

5.5 Quantum Free Electron Theory of Electrical Conduction

5.6 Sources of Electrical Resistance

5.7 Band Theory of Solids

5.8 Bloch theorem

5.9 Origin of Energy Bands Formation in Solids

5.10 Velocity and Effective Mass of an Electron

5.11 Distinction Between Metals, Semiconductors and Insulators

Formulae

Solved Problems

Multiple Choice Questions

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Review Questions

Chapter 6 Dielectric Properties

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Dielectric Constant

6.3 Internal or Local Field

6.4 Clausius–Mosotti Relation

6.5 Orientational, Ionic and Electronic Polarizations

6.6 Frequency Dependence of Polarizability: [Dielectrics in Alternating Fields]

6.7 Piezoelectricity

6.8 Ferroelectricity

6.9 Frequency Dependence of Dielectric Constant

6.10 Important Requirements of Insulators

Formulae

Solved Problems

Multiple Choice Questions

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Review Questions

Chapter 7 Magnetic Properties

7.1 Magnetic Permeability

7.2 Magnetization (M)

7.3 Origin of Magnetic Moment – Bohr Magneton – Electron Spin

7.4 Classification of Magnetic Materials

7.5 Classical Theory of Diamagnetism (Langevin Theory)

7.6 Theory of Paramagnetism

7.7 Domain Theory of Ferromagnetism

7.8 Hysteresis Curve

7.9 Anti-Ferromagnetic Substances

7.10 Ferrimagnetic Substances [Ferrites]

7.11 Soft and Hard Magnetic Materials

7.12 Applications of Ferrites

Formulae

Solved Problems

Multiple Choice Questions

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Review Questions

Chapter 8 Semiconductors and Physics of Semiconductor Devices

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Intrinsic Semiconductors – Carrier Concentration

8.3 Electrical Conductivity of a Semiconductor

8.4 Extrinsic Semiconductors

8.5 Carrier Concentration in Extrinsic Semiconductors

8.6 Minority Carrier Life Time

8.7 Drift and Diffusion Currents

8.8 Einstein's Relations

8.9 Continuity Equation

8.10 Hall Effect

8.11 Direct and Indirect Band Gap Semiconductors

8.12 Formation of p-n Junction

8.13 Energy Band Diagram of p-n Diode

8.14 Diode Equation

8.15 p-n Junction Biasing

8.16 V–I Characteristics of p-n Diode

8.17 p-n Diode Rectifier

8.18 Light Emitting Diode [LED]

8.19 Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)

8.20 Photodiodes

Formulae

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Multiple Choice Questions

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Review Questions

Chapter 9 Superconductivity

9.1 Introduction

9.2 General Features of Superconductors

9.3 Type-I and Type-II Superconductors

9.4 Penetration Depth

9.5 Flux Quantization

9.6 Quantum Tunneling

9.7 Josephson's Effect

9.8 BCS Theory

9.9 Applications of Superconductivity

Formulae

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Multiple Choice Questions

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Review Questions

Chapter 10 Lasers

10.1 Introduction

10.2 Characteristics of Laser Radiation

10.3 Spontaneous and Stimulated Emission

10.4 Einstein's Coefficients

10.5 Population Inversion

10.6 Helium–Neon Gas [He–Ne] Laser

10.7 Ruby Laser

10.8 Semiconductor Lasers

10.9 Carbon Dioxide Laser

10.10 Applications of Lasers

Formula

Solved Problems

Multiple Choice Questions

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Review Questions

Chapter 11 Fibre Optics

11.1 Introduction

11.2 Principle of Optical Fibre, Acceptance Angle and Acceptance Cone

11.3 Numerical Aperture (NA)

11.4 Step Index Fibres and Graded Index Fibres–Transmission of Signals in Them

11.5 Difference Between Step Index Fibres and Graded Index Fibres

11.6 Differences Between Single Mode Fibres and Multimode Fibres

11.7 Attenuation in Optical Fibres

11.8 Optical Fibres in Communication

11.9 Advantages of Optical Fibres in Communication

11.10 Fibre Optic Sensing Applications

11.11 Applications of Optical Fibres in Medical Field

Formulae

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Multiple Choice Questions

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Review Questions

Chapter 12 Holography

12.1 Introduction

12.2 Basic Principle of Holography

12.3 Recording of Image on a Holographic Plate

12.4 Reconstruction of Image from a Hologram

12.5 Applications of Holography

Multiple Choice Questions

Answers

Review Questions

Chapter 13 Acoustics of Buildings and Acoustic Quieting

13.1 Introduction to Acoustics of Buildings

13.2 Reverberation and Time of Reverberation

13.3 Sabine's Empirical Formula for Reverberation Time

13.4 Sabine's Reverberation Theory for Reverberation Time

13.5 Absorption Coefficient of Sound and its Measurement

13.6 Basic Requirements of an Acoustically Good Hall

13.7 Factors Affecting Architectural Acoustics and Their Remedies

13.8 Acoustic quieting

13.9 Methods of Quieting

13.10 Quieting for Specific Observers

13.11 Muffler (or Silencer)

13.12 Sound Proofing

Formulae

Solved Problem

Multiple Choice Questions

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Review Questions

Chapter 14 Nanotechnology

14.1 Basic Principle of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

14.2 Physical Properties

14.3 Chemical Properties

14.4 Fabrication

14.5 Production of Nanoparticle

14.6 Carbon Nanotubes

14.7 Application of Nanotechnology

Multiple Choice Questions

Answers

Review Questions

Appendix A Hexagonal Close Pack (HCP) Structure

Appendix B Surface Defects

Dictionary of Selected Terms

Question Papers