Contents – Biochemistry for Nurses

Contents

Preface

About the Authors

1 Introduction: Composition and Function of Cell

1.1 Introduction to and Importance of Biochemistry

1.2 Structure, Composition and Function of Cell

1.2.1 Cell Wall

1.2.2 Bacterial Cell Wall

1.2.3 The Bacterial Cytoplasmic Membrane

1.2.4 Fimbrae and Pili

1.2.5 Capsules and Slime Layers

1.2.6 Flagellum (Singular)

1.2.7 Cell Membrane

1.2.8 Cytoplasm

1.3 Cell Organelles

1.3.1 Chloroplasts

1.3.2 Vacuole

1.3.3 Cytoskeleton

1.3.4 Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

1.3.5 Golgi Apparatus

1.3.6 Ribosomes

1.3.7 Mitochondrion

1.3.8 Lysosomes

1.3.9 Peroxisome

1.3.10 Centrioles

1.3.11 Nucleus

1.4 Cellular Organization: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell

1.4.1 Prokaryotic Cells

1.4.2 Eukaryotic Cells

1.4.3 Similarities Between Prokaryotic Cell and a Eukaryotic Cell

1.5 Microscopy

1.5.1 Light Microscopy

1.5.2 Bright Field Microscopy

1.5.3 Dark Field Microscopy

1.5.4 Phase Contrast Microscopy

1.5.5 Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy

1.5.6 Fluorescence Microscopy

1.5.7 Electron Microscopy

Exercises

Multiple Choice Questions

2 Structure and Functions of Cell Membrane

2.1 Fluid-Mosaic Model

2.2 Cytoskeleton and Cell-Cell Interaction

2.3 Transport Mechanism Across Plasma Membrane

2.3.1 Diffusion

2.3.2 Osmosis

2.3.3 Facilitated Diffusion

2.3.4 Membrane Channels

2.3.5 Membrane Transporters

2.3.6 Active Transport: Na+-K+ Pump

2.4 Acid-Base Balance: Blood pH, Buffering and Diagnosis

2.4.1 Symptoms and Diagnosis

2.5 Chemistry of Water, pH and Buffers

2.5.1 Buffers

2.5.2 Buffering Action

2.6 Water Electrolyte Balance

Exercises

Multiple Choice Questions

3 Composition and Metabolism of Carbohydrates

3.1 Introduction to Carbohydrates

3.2 Classification of Carbohydrates

3.2.1 Monosaccharides

3.2.2 Disaccharides

3.2.3 Oligosaccharides

3.2.4 Polysaccharides

3.3 Classification of Monosaccharides

3.3.1 Monosaccharides Have Asymmetric Carbon Atom

3.3.2 Enantiomer

3.3.3 D and L Forms

3.3.4 Epimers

3.3.5 Cyclic Structure of Monosaccharide

3.3.6 Pyranose and Furanose Rings

3.3.7 a and b Anomers

3.3.8 Isomerism

3.3.9 Chemical Properties of Monosaccharide

3.4 Disaccharides

3.4.1 Sucrose

3.4.2 Lactose

3.4.3 Maltose

3.5 Polysaccharides

3.5.1 Storage Polysaccharides

3.5.2 Structural Polysaccharides

3.6 Oligosaccharides

3.7 Qualitative Tests for Identification of Carbohydrates

3.7.1 Identifying Reducing Sugars

3.7.2 Benedict's Test

3.7.3 Barfoed's Test

3.7.4 Flowchart for Classifying an Unknown Carbohydrate

3.8 Introduction to Carbohydrate Metabolism

3.9 Glycolysis

3.9.1 Reactions of Glycolysis Pathway

3.9.2 Preparatory Phase of Glycolysis

3.9.3 Fates of Pyruvate After Glycolysis

3.9.4 Overall Process of Glycolysis

3.9.5 Post-glycolytic Processes

3.9.6 Anaerobic Respiration

3.9.7 Aerobic Respiration

3.10 Gluconeogenesis

3.10.1 Pathway of Gluconeogenesis

3.11 Cori Cycle

3.12 Pentose Phosphate Pathway

3.13 Citric Acid Cycle

3.14 Glycogenesis

3.14.1 Steps of Glycogenesis Pathway

3.15 Glycogenolysis

3.15.1 Function

3.15.2 Clinical Significance

3.15.2 Reaction

3.15.4 Regulation

3.16 Regulation of Blood Glucose: Glucose Utilization After a Meal

3.16.1 Insulin

3.16.2 Maintenance of Blood Glucose Between Meals

3.16.3 The Glucagon

3.16.4 Supply of Glucose to Exercising Muscle

3.16.5 Glycogen Metabolism in Liver and Muscle

3.16.6 Role of Glucose 6-phosphatase

3.16.7 Conversion of Excess Glucose to Fat

3.17 Carbohydrate Metabolic Disorder and Diseases, Their Investigations and Interpretation

3.17.1 Diabetes Mellitus

3.17.2 Glycogen Storage Diseases

3.17.3 Galactosemia

3.17.4 Hereditary Fructose Intolerance

3.17.5 Mucopolysaccharidoses

3.17.6 Disorders of Pyruvate Metabolism

3.18 Summary of Carbohydrate Metabolism

Exercises

Multiple Choice Questions

4 Composition and Metabolism of Lipids

4.1 Introduction

4.1.1 Definitions

4.2 Classification of Lipids

4.2.1 Simple Lipids

4.2.2 Compound Lipids

4.2.3 Terpenoids and Steroids

4.2.4 Derived Lipids

4.3 Simple Lipids

4.3.1 Structure of Triacylglycerides

4.3.2 Fats

4.3.3 Waxes

4.4 Compound Lipids

4.4.1 Basic Structure of Phospholipids

4.4.2 Phospholipid Structures

4.4.3 Non-phosphorylated Lipids

4.5 Terpenoids and Steroids

4.5.1 Terpenes

4.5.2 Steroids

4.5.3 Animal Sterols

4.5.4 Bile Acids

4.6 Derived Lipids

4.6.1 Fatty Acids

4.6.2 Eicosanoids

4.7 Qualitative Test of Lipids

4.8 Metabolism of Fatty Acids

4.8.1 Fatty Acids Transport into Mitochondria

4.8.2 Fatty Acids Oxidation

4.8.3 β-Oxidation of Saturated Fatty Acids

4.9 Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids

4.9.1 Difference Between Fatty Acid Synthesis and b-oxidation Pathways

4.9.2 Digestion and Transport of Fatty Acids

4.10 Cholesterol Metabolism

4.10.1 Biosynthesis of Cholesterol

4.10.2 Regulation of Cholesterol Biosynthesis

4.10.3 Transport of Cholesterol

4.10.4 Catabolism of Cholesterol

4.11 Classification of Plasma Lipoproteins and the Systemic Pathway of Lipids

4.12 Biosynthesis of Triacylglycerols

4.12.1 Triacylglycerol Metabolism in the Intestines, Liver and Mammary Glands

4.13 Metabolic Disorder of Lipids

Exercises

Multiple Choice Questions

5 Composition and Metabolism of Amino Acids and Proteins

5.1 Introduction

5.1.1 Essential Amino Acids

5.1.2 Non-essential Amino Acids

5.2 Structure of Amino Acids

5.3 Classification of Amino Acids

5.4 Amino Acid Metabolism

5.5 Biosynthesis of Non-essential Amino Acids

5.5.1 Glutamate and Aspartate

5.5.2 Glucose-Alanine Cycle

5.5.3 Cysteine Biosynthesis

5.5.4 Tyrosine Biosynthesis

5.5.5 Ornithine and Proline Biosynthesis

5.5.6 Serine Biosynthesis

5.5.7 Glycine Biosynthesis

5.6 Amino Acid Catabolism

5.6.1 Glutamine/Glutamate and Asparagine/Aspartate Catabolism

5.6.2 Alanine Catabolism

5.6.3 Arginine, Ornithine and Proline Catabolism

5.6.4 Proline Catabolism is a Reversal of its Synthesis Process

5.6.5 Serine Catabolism

5.6.6 Threonine Catabolism

5.6.7 Glycine Catabolism

5.6.8 Cysteine Catabolism

5.6.9 Methionine Catabolism

5.6.10 Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine Catabolism

5.6.11 Phenylalanine and Tyrosine Catabolism

5.6.12 Lysine Catabolism

5.6.13 Histidine Catabolism

5.6.14 Tryptophan Catabolism

5.7 Proteins

5.7.1 Introduction to Proteins

5.7.2 Importance of Proteins

5.7.3 Structure of Proteins

5.8 Protein Synthesis

5.8.1 Preparing for Protein Synthesis

5.8.2 Amino acid AMP Enzyme Complex + tRNA

5.8.3 Initiation Step

5.8.4 Elongation Step

5.8.5 Termination

5.9 Glycosylation of Proteins

5.10 Protein Targeting

5.11 Sequencing of Proteins

5.11.1 Amino-terminal Sequence Determination

5.11.2 Sanger's Reagent

5.11.3 Dansyl Chloride

5.11.4 Edman Degradation

5.12 Denaturation Of Proteins

5.12.1 Heat

5.13 Precipitation of Proteins

5.14 Protease Digestion

5.15 Chemical Digestion of Proteins

5.16 Chromatography

5.16.1 Size Exclusion Chromatography

5.16.2 Ion Exchange Chromatography

5.16.3 Affinity Chromatography

5.16.4 High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)

5.17 Electrophoresis of Proteins

5.18 Nitrogenous Constituent of Urine

5.18.1 Composition of Urine

5.18.2 Urea

5.18.3 Ammonia

5.18.4 Uric Acid and Other Purines

5.18.5 Creatinine and Creatine

5.18.6 Amino Acids

5.18.7 Hippuric Acid

5.18.8 Allantoin

5.18.9 Proteins

5.18.10 Ketone Bodies

5.19 Urea Cycle

5.20 Porphyrins, Hemes, Haemoglobin, Blood and Plasma Proteins, and Chlorophylls

5.20.1 Porphyrins

5.20.2 Haemoglobin

5.20.3 Blood and Plasma Proteins

5.20.4 Chlorophylls

5.21 Enzymes and Co-enzymes

5.21.1 Enzymes and Their Nature

5.21.2 Classification and Nomenclature

5.21.3 Factors Affecting Enzyme Catalysis

5.21.4 The Effects of Enzyme Inhibitors

5.21.5 Theories (Mechanism) of Enzyme Catalysis (Action)

5.21.6 Cofactors and Coenzymes

5.21.7 Isoenzymes

Exercises

Multiple Choice Questions

6 Vitamins

6.1 Introduction to Vitamins

6.1.1 History of Vitamins

6.1.2 Classification of Vitamins

6.1.3 List of Vitamins

6.2 Fat-Soluble Vitamins

6.2.1 Vitamin A

6.2.2 Vitamin D

6.2.3 Vitamin E

6.2.4 Vitamin K

6.3 Water-Soluble Vitamins

6.3.1 Thiamine (Vitamin B1)

6.3.2 Riboflavin (Vitamin B2 or Vitamin G)

6.3.3 Niacin (Vitamin B3 Or Vitamin Pp)

6.3.4 Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5)

6.3.5 Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

6.3.6 Biotin (Vitamin B7 or Vitamin H)

6.3.7 Folic Acid (Vitamin B9 or Vitamin M)

6.3.8 Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

6.3.9 Vitamin C or L-ascorbic Acid

6.4 Minerals

6.4.1 Source and Functions of Macro Minerals

6.4.2 Source and Functions of Micro Minerals

6.4.3 Macro Minerals

6.4.4 Micronutrient or Trace Minerals

Exercises

Multiple Choice Questions

7 Immunochemistry

7.1 Introduction

7.1.1 Types of Immunity

7.2 Production of Antibodies

7.2.1 Immunoglobulin (Ig) or Antibody (Ab)

7.2.2 Structure of Immunoglobulins

7.2.3 Immunoglobulin Fragments: Structure-Function Relationships

7.2.4 Human Immunoglobulin Classes

7.2.5 The Role of Antibodies

7.3 Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)

7.3.1 HLA Typing: Clinical Testing for Tissue Typing and Organ Transplant

7.3.2 Diseases of HLA

7.4 Antioxidants

7.4.1 Oxidative Stress and Cell Damage

7.5 Quantitative Determination of Immunoglobulins

7.5.1 Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

7.6 Myosin Proteins

7.7 Human Eye Lens Structure

Exercises

Multiple Choice Questions

8 Composition and Metabolism of Nucleic Acids

8.1 Introduction of Nucleic Acids

8.2 The Structure of Nucleic Acids

8.2.1 Purines and Pyrimidines

8.2.2 Bases, Nucleosides and Nucleotides

8.3 Structure of DNA

8.4 Structure of RNA

8.5 Types of RNA

8.6 Nucleic Acid Metabolism

8.7 Biosynthesis of Purine Nucleotides

8.8 Biosynthesis of Pyrimidine Nucleotides

8.9 Catabolism of Purine Nucleotides

8.10 Catabolism of Pyrimidine Nucleotides

8.11 Salvage Pathway

8.12 Metabolic Disorder of Nucleic Acids

Exercises

Multiple Choice Questions

Appendix

Glossary