Contents – Business Communication, 2nd Edition

Contents

Preface

About the Authors

 

Part I Theory of Business Communication

Case Study : The Profile of an Effective Communicator

1. The Nature and Process of Communication

The Role of Communication

An Instance of Unclear Communication

Defining Communication

Classification of Communication

The Purpose of Communication

Communication to Inform

Communication to Persuade

The Process of Communication

The Linear Concept of Communication

The Shannon–Weaver Model

The Two-way Communication Process

The Elements of Communication

The Major Difficulties in Communication

Barriers to Communcation

Incorrect Assumptions

Psychosocial Barriers

Conditions for Successful Communication

The Seven C’s of Communication

Universal Elements in Communication

How Sentence Structure Affects Meaning

Communication and Electronic Media

Communication and Social Media

Summary

Case: Communication Failure

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Endnotes

2. Organizational Communication

The Importance of Communication in Management

Some Important Functions of Management

How Communication Is Used by Managers

Communication Concerns of the Manager

Human Needs

Theory X and Theory Y

Communication Training for Managers

Communication Structures in Organizations

Vertical Communication

Horizontal Communication

Line and Staff Management

Formal Communication

Informal Communication

Information to be Communicated at the Workplace

Summary

Case: Communication Breakdown at City Hospital

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Endnotes

3. Intercultural Communication Skills

Globalization and Intercultural Communication

The New Global Mantra: Go Local

Cultural Sensitivity

Meetings and Social Visits

Group Behaviour

Paying a Visit

Addressing Others

Developing Cultural Intelligence

High-context Cultures

Low-context Cultures

Time As a Cultural Factor

Space As a Cultural Factor

Some Examples of Cultural Diversity

Japan

France

Germany

Brazil

Guidelines for Intercultural Communication

E-Mail and Intercultural Communication

Language

Culture

Sample E-Mails

Summary

Case: Intercultural Lessons from Crash

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Endnotes

 

Part II Forms of Business Communication

4. Oral Communication

What Is Oral Communication?

Importance of Oral Communication Skills

Choosing the Form of Communication

Principles of Successful Oral Communication

Guidelines for Effective Oral Communication

Barriers to Effective Oral Communication

Three Aspects of Oral Communication—Conversing, Listening, and Body Language

Intercultural Oral Communication

Intercultural Communication

Oral Communication and Electronic Media

Phones

Voice Mail

Conference Calls

Cell Phones

Video Conferencing

Summary

Case: Dealing with Outsourcing Backlash

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Endnotes

5. Conversation Skills

What Is Conversation?

Social Conversation

Effective Conversation

Effective Conversation: An Example

Conversation Control

Controlling the Direction of Conversation

Managing Negative Responses

Noticing and Recognizing Cues and Clues

Interpreting Signs and Signals

Avoiding Parallel Conversation

Practising Sequential Conversation

Using Reflection and Empathy

Cultivating a Sense of Timing

Summarizing

Applications of Conversation Control

Meetings

Being Assertive Without Being Aggressive

Controlled Response to Conversational Attacks

Negotiating Through Conversation Control

Summary

Case: Discussing Vandalism

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Endnotes

6. Listening

What Is Listening?

How Do We Listen?

Listening As a Management Tool

The Process of Listening

Factors that Adversely Affect Listening

Lack of Concentration

Unequal Statuses

The Halo Effect

Complexes

A Closed Mind

Poor Retention

Premature Evaluation and Hurried Conclusions

Abstracting

Slant

Cognitive Dissonance

Language Barrier

Characteristics of Effective and Ineffective Listeners

Guidelines for Improving Listening Skills

Responsive Listening

Basic Reflective Response

Basic Clarification Response

Summary

Case: Too Busy To Listen?

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Endnotes

7. Non-verbal Communication

What Is Non-verbal Communication?

Meta-communication

Kinesic Communication

Characteristics of Non-verbal Communication

Classification of Non-verbal Communication

Ekman’s Classification of Communicative Movements

Face Facts

Positive Gestures

Negative Gestures

Lateral Gestures

Responding to Power Posturing

Guidelines for Developing Non-verbal Communication Skills

Communication Breakdown

Summary

Case: Everest Textile Mills

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Endnotes

8. Written Business Communication

The Art of Writing

The Skills Required in Written Communication

Informatory Writing

The Purpose of Writing

Writing to Inform

Writing to Persuade

Persuasive Writing

Clarity in Writing

Examples of Clear and Unclear Writing

Principles of Effective Writing

Accuracy

Brevity

Language, Tone, and Level of Formality

Rewriting A Letter

Summary

Case: On Writing Well

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Endnotes

 

Part III Types of Written Business Communication

9. Business Letters, Memos, and E-mails

Introduction

Writing Routine and Good-News Letters

Routine Claim Letters and “Yes” Replies

Routine Request Letters and “Yes” Replies

Routine Orders and Their “Yes” Replies

Guidelines for a “Yes” Reply

Guidelines for a “No” Reply

Writing Persuasive Letters

Writing A Persuasive Letter

Writing Memos

How to Write a Memo

Uses of a Memo

Essentials of Good Business Letters and Memos

Simplicity

Clarity

Conciseness

Standard and Neutral Language

You-Attitude

Sincerity and Tone

Emphasis

Planning, Writing, and Revising: The Three Steps of Successful Writing

Redrafting A Memo

Form and Layout of Business Letters

Business-letter Styles

Layout and Formatting Guidelines

Writing E-mails

Receiver’s E-mail Account

Subject Line

Sending Copies

A Series of e-mails

Summary

Case: A Reply Sent to an Erring Customer

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Endnotes

10. Report Writing

What Is a Report?

The Purpose of a Report

Kinds of Reports

The Terms of Reference

The Objectives of a Report

Planning and Organizing Information

Sequencing Information

Outline As a Structuring Device

Writing Reports

Structure of a Report

Basic and Subsidiary Parts of a Report

Short Management Reports

Memos

Letters

Long Formal Reports

The Title Page

Acknowledgements

Cover Letter

Letter of Transmittal

Table of Contents

Abstract and Executive Summary

Discussion and Analysis of Findings

Glossary

Appendix

Bibliography and References

Index

Using Diagrams and Visual Aids in Reports

Use of Tables

Use of Graphics in Reports

How to Use Figures and Diagrams in Reports

Summary

Case: Survey Report for India Representative Office of HRC Business School, France

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Endnotes

 

Part IV Applications of Business Communication

11. Presentation Skills

Introduction

What Is a Presentation?

Essential Characteristics of a Good Presentation

The Difference Between a Presentation and a Lecture

The Difference Between a Presentation and a Written Report

Preparing a Presentation

Identify the Purpose of the Presentation

Analyse the Audience and Identify Their Needs

Design and Organize the Information

Decide on the Medium of Presentation and Visual Aids

Time the Presentation

Become Familiar with the Location of the Presentation

Delivering the Presentation

Rehearsal

Body Language

Handling Questions and Debate

Tips to Fight Stage Fright

Summary

Case: The Presentation Effect

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Endnotes

12. Negotiation Skills

What Is Negotiation?

The Nature of Negotiation

The Need for Negotiation

Situations Requiring Negotiation

Situations Not Requiring Negotiation

Factors Affecting Negotiation

Location

Timing

Subjective Factors

Persuasive Skills and the Use of You-Attitude

Stages in the Negotiation Process

The Preparation Phase

The Negotiation Phase

The Implementation Phase

Negotiation Strategies

Initial Strategies

During the Discussion

Reaching an Agreement

Summarizing

Deadlocks

Summary

Case: Farsighted Negotiation

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Endnotes

13. Business Etiquette

What Is Business Etiquette?

Introductions

Self-introductions

Introducing Others

Handshakes and Non-verbal Gestures

Telephone/Cell Phone Etiquette

Making a Call

Common Telephone Courtesies

Telephone Etiquette Observed by Administrative Assistants

Telephone Precautions

Business Dining

The Host

The Guest

Table Manners

Interaction with Foreign Visitors

Business Manners in Different Countries

Americans

Europeans

The Japanese

Arabs

Indians

Inter-organizational Etiquette

Summary

Case: Cultural Sensitivity

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Endnotes

14. CVs, Personal Interviews, and Group Discussions

Applying for Jobs

Writing a CV

The Relationship Between a Résumé and an Application Letter

The Résumé of a Recent Graduate

Heading

Objective

Education

Work Experience

Awards and Honours

Activities

References

Summary

Guidelines for Preparing a Good CV

Suitable Organization

Appropriate Length

Drafting an Application Letter

The First Paragraph

The Second Paragraph

The Third Paragraph

General Tips

Interviews

Types of Interviews

What Does a Job Interview Assess?

Focus of Job Interviews

Strategies for Success at Interviews

Answers to Some Common Interview Questions

Participating in a Group Discussion

Leadership

GD Protocol

Discussion Techniques

Listening

Summary

Case: An Employment Interview

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Endnotes

15. Writing a Summer Project Report

Introduction

The Difference Between Summer Project Reports and Business/Technical Reports

General Guidelines for Writing Summer Project Reports

Objective

Selection of a Problem

The Role of Summer Project Mentors

Writing the Project Proposal

Components of the Summer Project Report

Cover and Title Page

Approval of Organization and Faculty Guides

Abstract

Acknowledgements

Table of Contents

List of Tables, Figures, Appendices, and Abbreviations

Chapter I: Introduction

Chapter II: Research Design

Chapter III: Results and Conclusions

Chapter IV: Recommendations

References

Appendices

Project Presentation

Summary

Case: Executive Summary of a Consumer Behaviour Study

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Endnotes

16. Written Analysis of Cases

What Is a Case?

Characterstics of a Case and its Analysis

The Process of Case Analysis

Step 1: Study the Case

Step 2: Identify the Problem

Step 3: Define the Problem

Step 4: Identify the Causes of the Problem

Step 5: Develop Alternative Solutions

Step 6: Evaluate the Alternatives

Step 7: Develop a Plan of Action

Requirements for a Case Analysis

Analysis of Communication Breakdown at City Hospital

The Structure of a Written Case Analysis

Summary

Case: Accepting a Contract

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Appendix 1: Grammar, Usage, and Style

Appendix 2: The Process of Research

Appendix 3: A Sample Report