Contents – Essentials of Molecular Biology

Contents

Preface

Acknowledgements

1. Nucleic Acids

Introduction

DNA and RNA as Genetic Materials

Structure of Nucleic Acids

Properties of the DNA

DNA Topology

Types of RNA

Types of DNA

DNA as Vehicle of Inheritance

Summary

Review Questions

References

2. Gene Organization

Introduction

Summary

Review Questions

References

3. DNA Replication

Introduction

Chemistry of DNA Synthesis

Modes of DNA Replication

Semi-conservative Mode of Replication/Meselson and Stahl Experiment

Enzymes of Replication

Models of Replication

Prokaryotic Replication

Eukaryotic Replication

Inhibitors of Replication

Summary

Review Questions

References

4. Transcription

Introduction

Differences Between Replication and Transcription

Chemistry of Transcription

RNA Polymerase of Prokaryotes

The Sigma Subunit

Promoters

Prokaryotic Transcription

Eukaryotic RNA Polymerases

Transcriptional Events of Eukaryotic RNA

Post-transcriptional Modifications

Inhibitors of RNA Metabolism

Reverse Transcription

Summary

Review Questions

References

5. Translation

Introduction

Genetic Code

Deciphering the Genetic Code

Characteristic Features of the Genetic Code

Wobble Hypothesis

Ribosome Structure

Protein Synthesis in Prokaryotes

Protein Synthesis in Eukaryotes

Post-translational Modifications

Summary

Review Questions

References

6. Protein Sorting

Introduction

Signal Sequences

Translocation of Secretory Proteins Across the ER

Protein Modifications in the ER

Protein Targeting to Mitochondria and Chloroplast

Protein Targeting to the Nucleus

Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis and Sorting of Internalized Proteins

Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis

Summary

Review Questions

References

7. Gene Regulation

Introduction

Regulation of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes

Induction and Repression

Types of Operons

Lac Operon

Regulation of Lactose Operon

Catabolite Repression

Positive Regulation of Lac Operon

Tryptophan Operon and Attenuation

Regulation of Eukaryotic Gene Expression

Regulation of the Chromatin Structure

Regulation of Gene Expression at Transcription Level

The DNA-Binding Domains of the Regulatory Proteins Involved in Transcriptional Control

Regulatory Proteins also have Protein–Protein Interaction Domain

Regulation of Gene Expression by Hormone Action

Summary

Review Questions

References

8. Gene Mutation and DNA Repair

Introduction

Types of DNA Damages

Mutations and Types

Physical and Chemical Mutagens

Chromosomal Aberrations

Repair of DNA

Oncogenes

Summary

Review Questions

References

9. Recombinant DNA Technology

Introduction

DNA Isolation and Sequencing

Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology

Restriction Endonucleases

Producing rDNA By Sticky-End Ligation

Producing rDNA By Blunt-End Ligation

Other Enzymes Used in rDNA Technology

Cloning Vectors

Nucleic Acid Hybridization and Probes

In Situ Hybridization

Molecular Cloning

Construction of C-DNA and Genomic Libraries

Applications of Recombinant DNA Technology

Summary

Review Questions

References

10. Epigenetics

Introduction

Heterochromatin and Histone Interactions

Polycomb and Trithorax

CpG Islands

Genomic Imprinting

Epigenetic Effects and Inheritance

Prions

Summary

Review Questions

References

11. Genomics and Proteomics

Introduction

Genomics

Structural Genomics

Functional Genomics

Microarray or Gene Chip

Proteomics

Classification of Proteomics

Proteomics Tools

Proteomics and Drug Discovery

Summary

Review Questions

References

12. Techniques in Molecular Biology

Introduction

Gel Electrophoresis

Blotting Techniques

Restriction Digestion and Ligation

Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA

Polymerase Chain Reaction

Summary

Review Questions

References

Colour Illustrations