## Contents

Part A Scientific Method in Management Research

Formal Science and Empirical Science

Alternative Perspectives of Management Research

2 Overview of Research in Management

Scientific Research in Management

Research Problem Identification

Formulation of Research Problems

Selection of the Type of Research

Measurement and Measurement Techniques

Selection of Data Collection Procedures

Selection of Methods of Analysis

Decisional Research with Mathematical Models

Some Philosphic Issues of Management Research

Consultative Approach to Management Research

Creative Problem Solving Process

Group Problem Solving Techniques for Idea Generation

Annexure 3.1—An Illustration of a Case of Application of SSM

4 Formulation of Research Problems

Approaches to Management Research Problem

Management Problem is Posed to the Researcher

Investigation of an Idea by an Experienced Researcher

Initiatiation of a Novice/Student to Research

Exploration for Problem Identification

Errors of Problem Identification in Research

Characteristics of a Good Hypothesis

Process of Hypothesis Generation

Hypothesis Generation Using Qualitative Methods

Decision Maker and His Objectives

Scenarios and Structural Modelling

Interpretive Structural Modelling (ISM)

Formulation of Effectiveness Function

Annexure 4.1—An Example of Taxonomy

Annexure 4.2—An Example for Meta Analysis

Annexure 4.3—An Illustrative Example of Theoretical Framework

Annexure 4.4—Examples of Hypothesis Generation

Annexure 4.5—System Study and Problem Formulation–Allocation of Assembly Manpower (Karthikeyan 1986)

Purpose of a Research Proposal

Formatting the Research Proposal

Contents of the Research Proposal

Requirements of the Sponsoring Agent

Evaluation of Research Proposals

Annexure 5.1—Sample (Real) Research Proposal (Krishnaswamy et al, 1997)

Part C Research Design—Types of Research

Difficulties of Performing Laboratory Experiments

Design of Laboratory Experiments

Execution of Laboratory Experiments

Strength and Weakness of Experiments

A Comparison of The Two Quasi-Experimental Designs

Use of Quasi-Experimental Designs

Comparison of Action Research with Experiments

Scientific Merits of Action Research

Validity and Reliability of Experiments and Quasi-Experiments

Concept of Validity and Reliability

Validity in Experimentation and Quasi-Experimentation

Validity of Quasi-Experimentation

Sources of Invalidity of Experiments and Quasi-experiments

Analysis Procedures Used in Experimental Design

Annexure 6.1—A Laboratory Experiment

Annexure 6.2—A Randomised Two-Group Experiment

Annexure 6.3—Solomon Four-Group Design

Annexure 6.5—Randomised Block Design

Annexure 6.6—An Action Research Case

Ex Post Facto Research by Objective

Ex Post Facto Research by Nature of Study

Repertory Grid Technique (RGT)

Some Additional Qualitative Research Methods

Analysis Procedures for Qualitative Data

Annexure 7.1—An Example of Explorative Research

Annexure 7.2—An Example of Descriptive Research

Annexure 7.3—An Example of Field Research

Annexure 7.4—An Example for Survey Research

Annexure 7.5—An Example for Case Study Research

Annexure 7.6—Example of Cognitive Mapping

8 Modelling Research I—Mathematical Modelling

Data Consideration in Modelling

Models as Heuristic Instruments

Annexure 8.1(a)—Illustration of Modelling A

Annexure 8.1(b)—Illustration of Modelling B

Annexure 8.2(a)—Illustration for Composite Methodology A

Annexure 8.2(b)—Illustration of Composite Methodology B

9 Modelling Research II—Heuristics and Simulation

Heuristics Problem-Solving Approaches

Evaluation of Heuristics in Empirical Analysis

Performance Measures/Measure of Effectiveness

Examples of Heuristic Optimisation

Advantages and Limitations of Heuristic Methods

Classification of Simulation Models

Key Steps in Simulation Experiments

Validation of Simulation Models/Experiments

Annexure 9.1—Demonstration of Constructive Heuristics and SA (Simulated Annealing)

Annexure 9.2—Illustration of Heuristics

Annexure 9.3—Illustration for Empirical Evaluation of Greedy Heuristics

Annexure 9.4—Illustration for Monte Carlo Simulation

Annexure 9.5—Illustration for Simulation from Actual Research

Part D Research Design for Data Acquisition

Primary Types of Measurement Scales

Validity and Reliability in Measurement

Types of Scaling (Scale Classification)

Annexure 10.1—Illustrative Example: Content Validity

Annexure 10.2—Illustrative Example: Concurrent and External Validity

Annexure 10.3—Illustrative Example: Construct Validity

Annexure 10.4—Illustrative Example: Reliability in Measurement

Bayesian Method for Determination of Sample Size

Illustrative Examples of Sample Size Determination

Part E Acquisition and Preparation of Research Data

Computer Search for Secondary Data

Primary Data Collection Methods

Evaluation of Observations as Data Collection Procedures

Validity and Reliability of Data Collection Procedures

Validity and Reliability of Interviews

Validity and Reliability of Observation

Validity and Reliability of Questionnaires

13 Data Preparation and Preliminary Data Analysis

Transcription of Data (Transcribing)

New Variable/Functional Combination/Splitting Form

Part F Data Analysis and Reporting

14 Hypothesis Testing—Univariate Analysis

Identification of an Appropriate Test for Hypothesis Testing

F-Test for Analysis of Variance

Kruskal-Wallis Test (For Ranked Data)

Kendal’s Coefficient of Concordance (W)

15 Bivariate Analysis and Hypothesis Testing

Simple Linear Regression Model

Fitting of a Simple Linear Regression Model

Non-parametric Methods of Association

Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient (r_{s})

16 Analysis of Experimental Data

Analysis of Single Factor Experiments

Single Factor Randomised Blocks Design

Completely Randomised 2 × 2 Factorial Design

17 Multivariate Analysis of Data—Dependence Analysis

Problems Encountered While Using Multiple Regression

Variable Selection and Model Building

An Overview of Multiple Regression Analysis Procedure

Variants of Regression Analysis

Testing Statistical Significance of Discriminant Functions

Canonical Correlation Analysis

Automatic Interaction Detection Analysis

18 Multivariate Analysis of Data II—Interdependence Analysis

Geometric Representation of Factor Analysis

Multidimensional Scaling (MDS)

Factor Analysis versus Multidimensional Scaling

Annexure 18.1—Confirmatory Factor Analysis to Test Research Hypothesis

Style and Composition of the Report

Format of Publication in a Research Journal

Reporting of Qualitative Research

Rules for Typing or Word Processing

*Appendix A2—Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVS)*

*Appendix A3—Some Research Findings on Creativity*

*Appendix A4—Some Further Group Problem-Solving Techniques*

*Appendix B—Sources of Information of Management and Social Sciences*

*Appendix C—Formulae for Hypothesis Testing*