Contents – Microcontrollers: Architecture, Programming, Interfacing and System Design, 2nd Edition

Contents

Preface to the second edition

Preface to the first edition

Chapter 1 Types, Selection and Applications of Microcontrollers

1.1 Microcontrollers

1.1.1 Numbering and Coding Systems

1.1.2 Central Processing Unit (CPU)

1.1.3 Microprocessor

1.1.4 Microcomputer

1.1.5 Computer System

1.1.6 Microcontroller

1.1.7 Embedded Processors

1.2 Types of Microcontrollers

1.2.1 The 8, 16 and 32-Bit Microcontrollers

1.2.2 Embedded and External Memory Microcontrollers

1.2.3 CISC and RISC Architecture Microcontrollers

1.2.4 Harvard and Princeton Memory Architecture Microcontrollers

1.3 Examples of the Popular Microcontrollers

1.3.1 8051, Extended 8051XA and 8051MXFamilies

1.3.2 MC68HC11/68HC12 Families

1.3.3 8051 Based MCU of Atmel C51 Family

1.3.4 Turbo μPSD

1.3.5 High-density Flash 8051 Based Turbo fiPSD 3300 Family

1.3.6 PIC

1.3.7 ARM

1.4 Selection of a Microcontroller

1.4.1 Checklist of the Needed Features and Factors Taken into Consideration

1.4.2 Selection of Processor and Processor Family

1.4.3 Selection of On-Chip Resources-Base

1.4.4 Selection of Software Building Blocks

1.4.5 Selection of Development Tool-Base

1.5 Applications (Examples)

1.5.1 Automatic Process Control

1.5.2 Instrumentation Applications

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Practice Exercises

Multiple Choice Questions

Chapter 2 Overview of Architecture and Microcontroller Resources

2.1 Architecture of a Microcontroller

2.1.1 Functional Overview of8048 and 8049 Microcontroller Architecture

2.1.2 Basic Processing Unit in the 8048 Microcomputer

2.2 Family Members of 8051 and 68HC11/12 Families

2.3 Microcontroller On-Chip Resources

2.3.1 Basic Processing Unit, Internal Buses and Interrupt Handling

2.3.2 Program and Data Memory

2.3.3 Parallel Ports

2.3.4 On-chip Registers

2.3.5 Special Function Registers

2.3.6 UART

2.3.7 Synchronous Serial Communication

2.3.8 Timers/Counters

2.3.9 PWM

2.3.10 On-chip A/D Converters (ADC)

2.3.11 Watchdog Timer (WDT)

2.3.12 Bit-wise Manipulation Capability

2.3.13 Power-Down Mode

2.3.14 Real-Time Clock

2.3.15 Reset Circuit

2.3.16 Oscillator Circuit

2.4 Resources in Advanced and Next-Generation Microcontrollers

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Practice Exercises

Multiple Choice Questions

Chapter 3 Intel 8051/8031 Family Architecture

3.1 8051 Microcontroller Architecture

3.1.1 Architecture

3.1.2 Special Function Registers

3.1.3 PSW Register Bits And Flags

3.1.4 The 8052/8032 Family

3.1.5 ATMEL 89C51

3.2 Microcontroller 8051 Pins

3.3 8051 PORTS

3.4 Internal and External Memory

3.5 Counters and Timers

3.5.1 Programmable Timers in the Intel 8051 Family

3.5.2 8052 Additional Timer T2

3.5.3 Watchdog Timer

3.6 Serial Communication in 8051

3.6.1 Mode 0 in Serial Communication

3.6.2 UART Modes 1,2 and 3 for Serial Asynchronous Communication

3.6.3 Multiprocessor UART Mode Communication

3.6.4 Serial Buffer

3.6.5 Interconnections RS232

3.7 Interrupts

3.8 Interrupts in 8051

3.9 External Interrupts

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Practice Exercises

Multiple Choice Questions

Fill in the Blanks Type Questions

Chapter 4 8051 Family Microcontrollers Instruction Set

4.1 Programming Basics

4.1.1 Machine Codes

4.1.2 Program as a Set of Instructions and Routines

4.2 Introduction to Machine Instrucions and Assembly

4.2.1 Opcode

4.2.2 Operand

4.2.3 Register

4.2.4 Accumulator

4.2.5 Program Counter

4.2.6 Stack Pointer

4.2.7 Program Status Word

4.2.8 Assembly and Machine, Assembly and C Instruction Formats

4.3 Instruction Cycle

4.4 Execution Time of an Instruction

4.5 Addressing Modes

4.6 Classification of the Instructions at the Instruction Set

4.7 Data Transfer Instructions

4.7.1 MOV Instructions

4.7.2 MOVC-type Instructions

4.7.3 MO VX-type Instructions

4.7.4 PUSH and POP Instructions for Using the Stack Area Employing the SP

4.7.5 XCH-type Instructions

4.8 Data and Bit-Manipulation Instructions

4.8.1 Data Byte Manipulate (Clear, Complement, Rotate and Swap) Instructions

4.8.2 Boolean Variable (Bit) Manipulate and Boolean Processing Instructions

4.9 Arithmetic Instructions

4.10 Instructions for Logical Operations on Bytes at the Registers, Internal RAM and SFRs

4.11 Program-Flow Control Instructions

4.11.1 Delay-cycle (NOP) Instructions

4.11.2 Long, Absolute and Short Jumps

4.11.3 Conditional Short Relative Jumps

4.11.4 Decrement and Conditional Jump on Zero

4.11.5 Jump After Comparison

4.11.6 Call to a Routine and Return from Routine

4.12 Interrupt Control Flow (RETI Instruction)

4.13 ASCII-Related Application Program

4.14 BCD-Related Application Program

4.15 Serial Port-Related Application Programs

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Practice Exercises

Multiple Choice Questions

Fill in the Blanks Type Questions

Chapter 5 Real Time Control: Interrupts

5.1 Interrupt Application Examples

5.2 Routine, Interrupt and Interrupt Service Routine

5.2.1 Call To a Routine

5.3 Interrupt-Handling Structure of an MCU

5.3.1 Identification of an Interrupt Source

5.3.2 Resetting of Interrupt Identification Flags

5.3.3 Address of Interrupt Service Routine

5.4 Interrupt Latency and Interrupt Deadline

5.5 Multiple Sources of the Interrupts

5.6 Hardware Interrupts Related To Internal Devices:

5.7 Enabling (Unmasking) or Disabling of the Sources

5.8 Polling to Determine the Interrupt Sources and Assignment of the Priorities Among Them

5.8.1 Advantage of Finding Pending Higher Priority Interrupt Sources at the End of Each Instruction 205

5.8.2 Advantage of Finding by Interrupt Hardware for Pending Higher Priority Interrupt Sources at the End of an ISR

5.8.3 Default MCU-assigned Priorities

5.8.4 User-assigned Priorities

5.9 Interrupt Structure in Intel 8051

5.9.1 The 8051 Family MCU Sources of Interrupt

5.9.2 The 8051 Family MCU Interrupt Source Groups and Default Priorities for Vectored Priority Interrupts

5.9.3 Unmasking and Masking of an Interrupt Source

5.9.4 Default Priority Assignments for Service

5.9.5 User Priority Assignments for Service

5.9.6 Vector Address for the Interrupt Service Routine

5.9.7 Servicing of Interrupts in 8051

5.10 Programming Approach for Interrupt-Related Programs

5.11 Programming Examples in Assembly and C

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Practice Exercises

Multiple Choice Questions

Fill in the Blanks Type Questions

Chapter 6 Real-Time Control: Timers 2

6.1 Programmable Timers in the MCUs

6.1.1 Programming Features in 8051/8052

6.1.2 Programming for Finding the Time Interval Between Two Events

6.1.3 Timer Overflow in MCUs

6.1.4 Precession Effects in the Timers

6.1.5 Effects on Interrupt Latencies

6.1.6 Timer Features in 68HC11/12 and Other MCUs for Greater Precession in Timings

6.2 Free-Running Counter and Real-Time Control

6.2.1 Overflows of Free-Running Counter

6.2.2 Using an Output-Compare Register Along with a Timer Running as a Free-Running Counter

6.2.3 Using an Input-Capture Register on an External Input Capturing of Counts at a Timer Running as a Free-Running Counter

6.2.4 Programming for a Delay Using Out-Compare after an External Input-Capture

6.3 Real-Time Clock Interrupts

6.4 Software Timers

6.5 Interrupt Interval and Density Constraints

6.5.1 Interrupt Service Latency

6.5.2 Examples of Interrupt Service Latency Calculation

6.5.3 Interrupt Service Intervals

6.5.4 Fraction of Time Spent by the CPU in the RTC Interrupt-Service

6.5.5 Interrupt Density

6.5.6 Interrupt Constraints

6.5.7 Advantage of Combined Instructions for Reducing Interrupt Density

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Practice Exercises

Multiple Choice Questions

Fill in the Blanks Type Questions

Chapter 7 System Design: Peripherals and Interfacing

7.1 Serial UART and USART Communication Interfaces

7.1.1 Serial Interface in 8051

7.1.2 Serial UART Chip 8250

7.1.3 Serial USART Chip 8251

7.1.4 Programming 8251

7.1.5 Interfacing to Processor and DCE

7.2 Parallel IO Ports Interface 8255

7.2.1 Programming 8255

7.2.2 Interfacing 8255 to Processor

7.3 DMA Controller 8257

7.3.1 Methods for IO Transactions

7.3.2 Programming 825 7

7.3.3 Interfacing to 8086, 8051, 8096 and 68HC11/12

7.4 Programmable Interrupt Controller 8259

7.4.1 Interfacing 8259 to Processors

7.5 ADC Circuit Interfacing

7.6 DAC Circuit Interfacing

7.7 Inter-Integrated Circuits Interfacing (I2C Bus Standard)

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Practice Exercises

Multiple Choice Questions

Fill in the Blanks Type Questions

Chapter 8 Systems Design: Digital and Analog Interfacing Methods

8.1 Interfacing of the Key (Switch), Keypad and Keyboard

8.1.1 A Single Key (switch) and Its Interface

8.1.2 Bounces in a Key (switch)

8.1.3 Removing Bounce Effects on Input State from Key Using Hardware

8.1.4 Array (Row) of Keys and Its Interface

8.1.5 Keypad (Matrix of Keys) and Its Interfacing

8.1.6 Keyboard and Its Interfacing

8.1.7 Keyboard Controller

8.2 Debouncing Program Examples for Key/Switches

8.3 LED and Array of LEDS

8.3.1 LED

8.3.2 Array of LEDs or Annunciators

8.3.3 Array of LEDs in a 7-Segment Hex-Digit

8.3.4 Four-digit Display

8.4 Alphanumeric Devices—Display Systems and Their Interfaces

8.4.1 Alphanumeric Display by Sixteen-segment Display Systems

8.4.2 Dot-matrix Display Systems for Multilingual, Multi-fonts and Graphic Displays

8.5 LCD and LCD Controller

8.5.1 LCD

8.5.2 LCD Controller Circuit

8.5.3 LCD Controller

8.5.4 Interfacing with LCD Controller

8.5.5 Programming Aspects of Hitachi 44780, Optrex DMC 16xx, DMC 16xxx, DMC 20xxx and DMC 24xxx Series Compatible LCD Controller

8.6 Touch Screen and Touch -Screen Controller

8.6.1 Touch Screen

8.6.2 Touch-screen Controller

8.6.3 Touch-screen Software Driver

8.6.4 Software Functions Library to Enable Developing of the Applications

8.6.5 Multi-touch and Multi-touch Controller

8.6.6 Virtual Keypad

8.7 Keyboard-Cum-Display Controller (8279)

8.7.1 Keyboard-cum-Display Controller 8279

8.7.2 Interfacing of8279

8.7.3 Programming Aspects of8279

8.8 Interface with Printer

8.8.1 Parallel Centronics Interface — A Printer Interface

8.8.2 Serial RS232C Interface for a Print Controller in a Printer

8.9 Programmable Interface for Instruments using IEEE488 (GPIB) Bus

8.10 Interfacing of 8051 MCU with External Memory

8.11 Interfacing with Flash Memory

8.11.1 Programming the Flash Memory Chip

8.12 Interfacing with MCU IO Port using Optoisolator

8.13 Interfacing with Inductive Circuit

8.14 Interface for a Loudspeaker

8.15 Interfacing the Keypad and Speaker in a Music Playing system

8.16 Interface for Stepper Motor(s) in a Robot or Printer or Industrial Drive

8.17 Analog Inputs Interface with the MCU

8.17.1 Interfacing Thermocouple

8.17.2 Interfacing Load Cell— Electronic Weighing Machine

8.17.3 Interfacing - Precision Weighing Machine

8.18 Analog Output Generating Interface with MCU

8.19 Using PWM for DC Motor Control

8.20 Servomotor Control

8.21 Interfacing to High Power Devices

8.21.1 Interfacing for the Input and Output Modules

8.21.2 Interfacing with AC and DC High Power Motors

8.21.3 Interfacing with the Heater (Furnace)

8.21.4 Interfacings Power Devices Using Advanced Microcontrollers

8.22 Optical Motor Shaft Encoder

8.22.1 Incremental Rotation Encoder

8.22.2 Rotatory Absolute Angle Encoder

8.22.3 MCU-based Scale for Measuring Linear Position

8.23 Industrial Control Interface

8.23.1 Automatic Control Applications

8.24 Industrial Process Control System

8.25 Measurement Applications and Prototype MCU-based Measuring Instruments

8.26 Robotics and Embedded Control

8.27 Digital Signal Processing and Digital Filters

8.27.1 Digital Signal Processing (DSP)

8.27.2 Digital Filters

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Practice Exercises

Multiple Choice Questions

Fill in the Blanks Type Questions

Chapter 9 Programming in Assembly

9.1 Programming Basics for Assembly Language Programming

9.1.1 Benefits of Assembly Language Program (ALP)

9.1.2 Assembler

9.1.3 Types of Assemblers

9.1.4 Using an Assembler

9.1.5 Assembly Language Program

9.1.6 Program Steps for Basic Instructions

9.1.7 Default Settings for the Ports, Timer and Interrupts on Reset in 8051

9.1.8 Programming Approach for the Foreground (Main) Program

9.1.9 Program Approach for Programming ISR Instructions

9.1.10 Default Settings for the A, B, PSW, DPTR and SP on Reset in 8051

9.2 Programming Examples for Ports

9.2.1 Programming All 8-bits of a Port Simultaneously

9.2.2 Programming Individual Port Bits

9.3 Programming Examples for Timers

9.3.1 Programming the Mode 0, 1, 2 and 3 of the Timer

9.3.2 Programming a Delay by Using Loop Instructions

9.4 Program for Blinking of LEDs

9.5 Program for Real-Time Clock Interrupts

9.6 Program for Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Outputs

9.7 Program for LED Brightness Control Using Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) Output

9.8 Program for a DC Motor Speed and Direction Control Using PWM

9.9 Programming Examples for Serial Port

9.9.1 Serial Synchronous (USRT) Communication Mode 0

9.9.2 Serial Asynchronous (UART) Communication Mode 1

9.9.3 Serial Asynchronous (UART) Communication Mode 2

9.9.4 Serial Asynchronous (UART) Communication Mode 3

9.10 Programming Examples for INT0 and INT1 Interrupts

9.11 Programming Examples for Read and Write at External Data Memory

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Practice Exercises

Multiple Choice Questions

Fill in the Blanks Type Questions

Chapter 10 Programming in C

10.1 Programming in C

10.1.1 Use of High-level Language Like ‘C

10.1.2 ANSI C

10.2 Memory Constitution, Constants, Variables and Data Types In 8051

10.2.1 Memory Constitution in 8051

10.2.2 Constant

10.2.3 Variable

10.2.4 Data Types

10.2.5 Static, Extern, Register and Auto Storage Classes

10.2.6 Memory Models in 8051

10.2.7 Stack

10.3 Arrays, Structures and Unions

10.3.1 Arrays

10.3.2 Struct

10.3.3 Union

10.4 Pointers

10.5 Loops and Decisions—Control Structure Constructs

10.5.1 Loops

10.5.2 Decision Blocks

10.6 Functions and Library Functions

10.6.1 Function

10.6.2 Passing the Parameter

10.6.3 Library Functions

10.7 In-line Assembly

10.8 Modules and Programs

10.9 Program Build Process and Development Tools

10.10 C Compilers—GNU, SDCC and Keil

10.10.1 GNU Tools

10.10.2 SDCC Compiler

10.10.3 Keil C Compiler Cx51

10.11 Comments, Signs and Names in C Programs

10.12 Programming Examples for Ports

10.12.1 Using All 8-bits of Port Simultaneously

10.12.2 Using Individuall Port Bit

10.13 Programming Examples for Timers

10.14 Programming Examples for Serial Port

10.15 Programming Examples for Interrupts

10.16 Programming Examples for External Data

10.17 Programming Examples for Real-Time Clock

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Practice Exercises

Multiple Choice Questions

Fill in the Blanks Type Questions

Chapter 11 Real-time Operating System for System Design

11.1 Real-Time Operating System

11.1.1 Multi-tasking System

11.1.2 Tasks in a Multi-tasking System and Real-time Operating System (RTOS)

11.1.3 Inter-Process Communication (Inter-Task Message) Functions

11.1.4 Real-time Operating System

11.1.5 Task Characteristics in a Multi-tasking System

11.1.6 Semaphores and Mailboxes

11.2 RTOS of Keil (RTX51)

11.2.1 RTX51 Functions

11.2.2 Using RTOS Functions for Preemptive Scheduling in RTX51

11.2.3 RTX51 Versions

11.2.4 C Functions in RTX51 Tiny

11.2.5 C Functions in RTX51 Full

11.3 Use of RTOS in System Design

11.3.1 Simple Program Examples for Use of RTX51 in Design

11.3.2 Case Study of Traffic Light and Use of RTOS in Design

11.3.3 RTOS Functions for Design of Baby Weighing Machine

11.3.4 Case Study of Toffee Vending Machine and Use of RTOS in Design

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Practice Exercises

Multiple Choice Questions

Fill in the Blanks Type Questions

Chapter 12 Development Tools for Microcontroller Applications

12.1 Development Phases of a Microcontroller Based System

12.2 Software Development Cycle and Applications

12.3 Software Development Tools

12.3.1 Integrated Development Environment (IDE)

12.3.2 Open Source IDE and Tools

12.3.3 RTOS

12.3.4 Compiler

12.3.5 Macro Assembler and Dissembler

12.3.6 Library and Library Manager

12.3.7 Linker/Locator and Hex File Generation

12.3.8 Debugger

12.3.9 Simulator

12.4 Example of an IDE—μVision and Tools from KEIL

12.4.1 IDE μVision2

12.4.2 C51 Compiler

12.4.3 A51 Assembler

12.4.4 LIB51 Library Manager

12.4.5 BL51 Linker/Locator

12.4.6 OC51 and OH51 Banked Object File Converter and Object to Hex Converter

12.5 Emulator and in-Circuit Emulator (ICE)

12.5.1 In-circuit Emulator (ICE)

12.5.2 Joint Test Action Group (JTAG)

12.5.3 Logic Analyser Circuit

12.6 Target Board

12.7 Device Programmer

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Practice Exercises

Multiple Choice Questions

Fill in the Blanks Type Questions

Chapter 13 PIC Family Microcontrollers

13.1 PIC Family

13.1.1 MCU Families

13.2 Hardware of PIC 16F877

13.2.1 Overview of the Internal Hardware in PIC MCU

13.2.2 Architecture of PIC Microcontroller

13.2.3 Features of the CPU of PIC 16F877

13.3 Memory and Memory Map in Microchip PIC Family MCU System

13.3.1 On-Chip SFRs/GPRs/Internal RAM, Program Memory and Data EEPROM

13.3.2 On-Chip Data Memory RAM

13.3.3 Program Memory Map

13.3.4 SFR Addresses in Data Memory

13.4 IO Ports

13.4.1 Serial Ports— MSSP and USART

13.5 Timers and CCP Devices

13.5.1 Timers 0, 1 and 2

13.5.2 Compare Outputs and Interrupts Using CCP1 and CCP2

13.5.3 Software Timer Interrupts Using CCP1 and CCP2

13.5.4 Input Captures Using CCP1 and CCP2

13.5.5 Pulse Width Modulated Output

13.6 ADC

13.7 Interrupts

13.7.1 Maskable Sources of Interrupts

13.7.2 Servicing of Interrupts

13.8 Instructions and Instruction Set

13.8.1 Instruction Formats

13.8.2 Addressing Modes

13.8.3 PIC 16F877Instruction Set

13.8.4 PIC16F877Instructions

13.9 Development Tools

13.9.1 MPLAB IDE

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Practice Exercises

Multiple Choice Questions

Fill in the Blanks Type Questions

Chapter 14 16-BIT Microcontrollers: 8096/80196 Family

14.1 Hardware

14.1.1 Overview of the 80196 CPU and Internal Address and Data Buses

14.1.2 Architecture of 80196

14.2 Memory Map in Intel 80196 Family MCU System

14.2.1 On-Chip RAM

14.2.2 On-Chip ROM/EPROM

14.2.3 External Program/Data Memory (PROM/RAM) Space

14.3 IO Ports

14.4 Timers

14.5 High-Speed Outputs

14.5.1 HSOs

14.5.2 Software Timers

14.5.3 Start ofADC Using T1 or T2

14.6 High-Speed Inputs and Input Captures

14.7 Pulse Width Modulated Output

14.8 Interrupts

14.8.1 Non-maskable and Maskable Sources of Interrupts

14.8.2 Servicing of Interrupts

14.9 Instructions and Instruction Set

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Practice Exercises

Multiple Choice Questions

Fill in the Blanks Type Questions

Chapter 15 32-Bit ARM7, ARM9 AND ARM MCUs: Architecture, Programming and Development Tools

15.1 Introduction To 16/32 BIT Processors

15.2 ARM Architecture

15.3 ARM7

15.4 ARM9

15.5 ARM-based MCUs

15.6 ARM Cortex-M3

15.7 ARM Instruction Set

15.7.1 32/16-bit ARM Instruction Set

15.7.2 Data Transfer, Bit Clearing and Masking Instructions

15.7.3 Arithmetic Operation Instructions

15.7.4 Logic Operation Instructions

15.7.5 Data and Bit Manipulations During Move, Arithmetic, Data Swap, Branch and Exchange Instructions

15.7.6 Program Flow Control Instructions

15.7.7 SWI Interrupt Control Instruction

15.7.8 Formats of 32-bit Instruction

15.8 Thumb® Instruction-Set Extension

15.8.1 Thumb Instruction Set

15.8.2 Thumb Instruction Format

15.8.3 ARM/Thumb Inter-working

15.8.4 Thumb 2

15.9 Exception Handling in ARM

15.10 Development Tools

15.11 Porting Developed Codes in ARM Based System

15.12 Porting Linux in ARM

15.13 Assembly and C Programming (GNU Tools)

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Practice Exercises

Multiple Choice Questions

Fill in the Blanks Type Questions

Chapter 16 Motorola MC68HC11/12 Family

16.1 Architecture

16.1.1 CPU Registers and Internal Buses

16.1.2 Ports

16.1.3 Internal Devices

16.1.4 Memory Addresses

16.1.5 On-Chip Registers (RAM) at 256-byte Address Space 256 Bytes

16.1.6 On-Chip Program and EEPROM

16.1.7 64 Byte Space for Internal-device Function Registers

16.1.8 Addressable Register Space of 192 B Internal RAM

16.1.9 Internal RAM

16.1.10 Memory Map

16.2 Addressing Modes and Instructions

16.2.1 Addressing Modes in the Instruction Set

16.2.2 Instructions

16.3 Interfacing Methods

16.3.1 General-purpose Parallel Port IO Interface

16.3.2 Memory Interfacing, IO Additional Ports andIO Interfacing

16.3.3 Serial IO Devices

16.3.4 RS232 and RS485

16.4 Interrupts

16.4.1 Non-maskable, Maskable Sources of Interrupts and Reset

16.4.2 Servicing of Interrupts

16.5 Programmable Timer

16.5.1 Timing Signal Generation—TCNT Overflow and Real Time Clock Interrupts

16.5.2 Input Capture

16.5.3 Timing Measurements of External Event

16.5.4 Out Compare

16.5.5 P WM Outputs

16.5.6 Frequency Measurement

16.5.7 Pulse Accumulator Counter

16.6 Applications of Analog Interfacing

Summary

Key Terms

Review Questions

Practice Exercises

Multiple Choice Questions

Fill in the Blanks Type Questions

Appendices

Solutions to Multiple Choice Questions

Solutions to Fill in the blanks Questions

References