Contents – Social Decentering



1Theory of Social Decentering Part 1: Activation, Input, and Analysis

1.1Defining Social Decentering

1.1.1Social Decentering as Multidimensional

1.1.2Social Decentering as Social Cognition

1.1.3Social Decentering as a Taking into Account

1.1.4Social Decentering as a Focus on Dispositions Held by Others

1.1.5Social Decentering as Contextually Bound

1.1.6Accuracy, Depth, and Breadth of Social Decentering

1.2The Theory and Model of Social Decentering


1.2.2Input (Information Sources) Information Information

1.2.3Analysis (Information Processing) of Self of Specific-Other of Generalized-Other of the Three Methods: Self, Specific-Other, Generalized-Other

1.3Social Decentering Theory and Model: Part 1 Summary and Part 2 Preview


2Theory and Measurement of Social Decentering Part 2: Internal Responses, External Responses, the Multi-Dimensional Scale, and Relationship-Specific Social Decentering

2.1Outcomes: Internal Responses

2.1.1Cognitive Response

2.1.2Affective Response

2.2External Responses: Strategies and Actions

2.2.1Factors Limiting External Responses

2.3A Multidimensional Measure of Social Decentering

2.3.1Item Development and Reliability

2.3.2Facet Analysis

2.3.3Convergent Validity: Measures of Similar Phenomenon

2.3.4Construct Validity: Measures of Related Constructs

2.3.5Predictive Validity

2.3.6Discriminant Validity

2.3.7Validity Summary

2.4Relationship-Specific Social Decentering (RSSD)

2.4.1Foundations of RSSD

2.4.2A Theory of RSSD

2.4.3Caveats of RSSD

2.4.4Measurement of RSSD

2.5A Preview of the Impact of Social Decentering on Social Interactions and Interpersonal Relationships


3Social Decentering, Relationship-Specific Social Decentering (RSSD), and Interpersonal Relationships

3.1Social Decentering, RSSD, and Relationship Development

3.2Relationship Escalation

3.2.1Pre-Interaction Awareness Stage

3.2.2Acquaintance Stage: Introductory Phase and Casual Banter Phase

3.2.3Exploration Stage

3.2.4Intensification Stage

3.2.5Intimacy Stage

3.3Relationship De-Escalation

3.3.1Turmoil or Stagnation




3.3.5Post-Interaction Effects


4A Study of Social Decentering, Relationship-Specific Social Decentering (RSSD), and the Escalation and De-escalation of Relationships




4.3.1Intimacy/Stages and RSSD/Social Decentering

4.3.2Relationship Satisfaction and Relational Assessment

4.4Summary and Conclusions


5Social Decentering and Relationship-Specific Social Decentering (RSSD) in Marital Relationships

5.1Previous Research on Empathy and Perspective-Taking in Marriage

5.2Empathic Accuracy and Marriage

5.3The Measurement of Other-Orientation in Marriage

5.4Theoretical Relationship between Social Decentering, RSSD, and Marital Satisfaction

5.5The Role of Social Decentering and RSSD in Marriage

5.6Social Decentering and RSSD as Complementary or Symmetrical?

5.7A Model of Social Decentering and Marriage

5.8The Relationship between RSSD and Marriage

5.9A Reflection Exercise to Promote Social Decentering


6A Study of Social Decentering and Relationship-Specific Social Decentering (RSSD) within Marriage

6.1The Couples

6.2The Measures

6.3Research Challenges Unique to Studies on Other-Orientation


6.4.1Social Decentering


6.4.3Relationship Between Social Decentering and RSSD

6.4.4Social Decentering and Marital Satisfaction

6.4.5RSSD and Marital Satisfaction

6.4.6Social Decentering, RSSD, Relationship Attitudes, and Relational Communication Social Decentering and RSSD Related to Self-Reported Relationship Attitudes and Communication Behaviors Respondents’ Level of Social Decentering Related to Their Spouse’s Perceptions of Their Relationship Attitudes and Communication Behavior Respondents Level of RSSD Related to Their Spouse’s Perceptions of Their Relationship Attitudes and Communication Behavior Impact of Respondents’ Social Decentering and RSSD on Their Perceptions of Their Spouse’s Relationship Attitudes and Communication the Respondents’ and Their Spouse’s Levels of Social Decentering and RSSD Affect the Respondents’ Perceptions of Their Spouse

6.4.7Social Decentering, RSSD, and Positive Relationship Discussions

6.5Discussion and Conclusions

6.5.1Symmetrical (Similar) or Complementary (Different)

6.5.2Age and Length of Marriage

6.5.3Marital Satisfaction

6.5.4Marital Attitudes and Communication

6.5.5Limitations of the Study

6.5.6Lessons Learned: Implications for Counselors and Married Couples


7Social Decentering and Relationship-Specific Social Decentering (RSSD) in Context: Health Care Professionals, Teams, Organizations, and Intercultural Interactions

7.1Health Care Professionals

7.1.1Training Health Care Professionals to Socially Decenter



7.4Intercultural Interactions

7.5Other Contexts


Appendix A:The Social Decentering Scale

Appendix B:The Relationship-Specific Social Decentering (RSSD) Scale

List of Figures

List of Tables