## Index

A

AC parallel circuits, 181

AC series–parallel circuits, 208

Acceptor impurities, 490

Active instruments, 434

Active network, 44

All-day effi ciency, 291

Alternating current (AC), 150

Ampere, 4

Amplifi er circuit, 553

common base, 551

common collector, 550

common emitter, 550

Anode, 494

Apparent power, 248

Winding, 320

Armature current reaction, 326

Armature windings, 406

Astable multivibrator, 567

Attraction-type MI instruments, 451

Audio frequency (AF) oscillators, 552

Auxiliary winding, 393

Average value, 154

AVO meters, 467

B

Balanced load, 244

Balanced supply, 243

Bandwidth, 219

Barkhausen’s criteria, 555

Barrier voltage, 491

Base, 500

Batten wiring, 479

Biased clippers, 565

Biasing, 492

Biasing of p–n junction, 491

Bilateral circuit, 44

Bipolar junction transistors (BJT), 500, 502

Bistable multivibrator, 569

Blocking capacitor, 550

Brake magnet, 460

Branch, 44

Breakdown voltage, 495

Bridge rectifi ers, 543

C

Capacitive reactance, 170

Capacitors, 37

Cartridge fuse, 482

Cathode, 494

Charging of the capacitor, 37

Chokes, 37

Circuit, 44

Circuit parameters, 44

Clamping circuits, 566

Cleat wiring, 478

Clipper, 564

Clipping circuits, 563

Coil, 244

Collector, 500

Colpitts oscillator, 556

Common base amplifi er, 551

Common-emitter confi guration, 504

Concealed conduit wiring, 479

Conducting materials, 5

Conduction time, 521

Conduit wiring, 479

Controlled half-wave rectifi er, 521

Controlled sources, 47

Cork screw rule, 17

Cramer’s rule, 57

Creeping, 461

Cross-field theory, 389

Cumulative compound generator, 324

Current, 4

Current coil (CC), 467

Current divider rule, 52

Current magnification factor, 228

Current source, 46

Current transformers (CT), 464

Cut-in voltage, 495

Cut-off region, 517

D

DC generator, 323

DC motor, 327

DC network, 44

DC shunt motor, 333

DC transients, 131

Delta connection, 245

Depletion region, 491

DIAC, 523

Differential compound generator, 324

Differentiator, 563

Digital instrument, 433

Direct current (DC), 149

Direct loading method, 338

Direct-on-line, 370

Distribution factor, 411

Distribution transformers, 269

Donor atoms, 489

Double revolving field theory, 389

Double-base diode, 516

Drain, 510

Dynamic error, 438

Dynamic impedance, 227

Dynamic response, 438

Dynamically induced EMF, 24

E

Earth electrode, 477

Earthing, 476

Eddy current, 273

Eddy current damping, 447

Eddy current loss, 278

Electric field, 4

Electric network, 44

Electric potential, 5

Electromagnetism, 16

Electron–hole pair, 487

Electronic oscillator, 552

Electrons, 2

Emitter, 500

Emitter follower, 551

Energy, 9

Enhancement MOSFET (EMOSFET), 513

Equivalent impedance, 227

Errors of measuring instruments, 453

Extrinsic semiconductor, 487, 488

F

Faraday’s laws of electromagnetic induction, 21

Feedback circuit, 553

Fictitious loading, 288

Field control method, 331

Field effect transistor (FET), 486, 509

Filters, 559

Firing angle of SCR, 521

Fleming’s left-hand rule, 20

Fleming’s right-hand rule (FRHR), 22

Forward-biased p–n junction, 492

Four-point starter, 333

Fractional-pitch winding, 408

Frequency, 152

Frictional error, 453

Full-wave bridge rectifier, 544

Full-wave rectifier, 543

Fundamental wave, 154

G

Galvanometer, 448

Gate control process, 519

Generating action, 403

Ground node, 64

H

Half astable multivibrator, 568

Half-power frequencies, 220

Half-wave rectifier, 537

Hartley oscillator, 555

Holding current, 520

Hysteresis

loss, 278

motors, 399

voltage, 571

I

Ideal diode, 495

Ideal transformer, 285

Impendance triangle, 173

Independent and dependent sources, 46

Indicating-type instruments, 445

Indirect method, 377

Inductance, 36

Inductive reactance, 168

Inductors, 36

Infinite busbars, 422

Instantaneous value, 153

Instrument transformers, 462

Instrumentation system, 431

Instruments

active, 434

digital 433

indicating type, 445

measuring, 432

moving iron, 451

passive, 434

repulsion-type MI, 452

Insulated gate field effect transistor (IGFET), 512

Insulator, 3

Integrated circuit (IC), 485

Integrator, 562

Interbase resistance, 516

Interpoles, 318

Intrinsic semiconductor, 487

Iron-core inductor coil, 36

J

Joules, 8

Junction field effect transistor (JFET), 509, 510

K

Kirchhoff ’s current law (KCL), 55

Kirchhoff ’s voltage law (KVL), 55

L

Laminations, 272

LC tuned, 555

Lead-lag network, 559

Lenz’s law, 21

Light dependent resistors (LDR), 525

Light-emitting diodes (LED), 527

Line current, 245

Line voltage, 245

Linear and non-linear systems, 437

Linear circuit, 44

Linear time-variant system, 437

Liquid crystal displays (LCD), 528

Load sharing, 423

Loading effect, 437

Loop, 44

Losses in induction motors, 361

Low pass filter, 562

Lower and upper cut-off frequencies, 219

L–R Series circuit, 172

Lumped circuit, 44

M

Magnetic field, 4

Magnetostriction, 272

Mathematical modelling, 437

Maximum power transfer theorem, 101

Maximum value, 153

Maxwell’s mesh current method, 60

Measurement

error, 440

of energy, 459

of power, 454

Measuring instruments, 432

Measuring lag, 438

Mechanical energy, 10

Megger, 467

Mesh, 44

Metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET), 509, 512

Metastability, 570

Meter constant, 461

Millman’s theorem, 100

Minority charge carriers, 489

Monostable multivibrator, 568

Moving iron instruments, 451

Multivibrator, 567

Astable, 567

Bistable, 569

Monostable, 568

Mutual inductance, 28

Mutually induced EMF, 25

N

National grid system, 423

n-channel JFET, 510

Negative clamper, 566

Network, 43

Network theorems, 65

Neutral point, 244

Nodal analysis method, 63

Node, 44

No-load characteristic, 415

Non linear circuit, 44

Nonlinear oscillators, 567

Non-retriggerable monostable multivibrator, 568

Non-salient type, 404

Non-sinusoidal oscillator, 552

Non-sinusoidal wave, 153

Normal excitation, 428

Norton’s theorem, 90

n–p–n transistor, 501

n-type semiconductor, 488

n-Type semiconductor material, 488

O

Ohm, 5

Ohm’s law, 5

Optocouplers, 532

Optoelectronic devices, 525

Oscillators, 552

colpitts, 556

crystal, 552

hartley, 555

LC tuned, 555

negative resistance, 552

non-sinusoidal, 552

tuned circuit, 552

Wien Bridge, 558

Oscillatory circuit, 554

Over excitation, 428

P

Parallel circuits, 49

Passive instruments, 434

Passive network, 44

p-channel JFET, 510

Phantom loading, 288

Phase, 159

angle error, 464

current, 245

voltage, 245

Photo-darlington, 531

Photoresistors, 525

Phototransistors, 530

Pitch factor, 412

p–n junction, 490

p–n–p transistor, 502

Polar form, 188

Positive clamper, 566

Potential, 5

Potential node, 64

Potential transformers (PT), 467

Power, 9

Power diodes, 497

Power factor, 176

Power factor angle f, 173, 175

Power transformers, 269

Pressure coil (PC), 467

Protons, 2

p-type semiconductor material, 489

p-type semiconductors, 488

Pulsating alternating magnetic field, 18

Pure semiconductors, 487

Purely capacitive circuit, 165

Q

Q-factor, 228

Quality factor, 217

R

Radio frequency (RF) oscillators, 552

Radio frequency choke (RFC), 555

Ratio error, 464

R–C filters, 561

RC oscillator, 557

R–C series circuit, 176

Receiving end, 268

Recombination, 487

Rectangular form, 188

Rectifiers, 537

Relaxation oscillators, 552

Reluctance motors, 398

Repulsion-type MI instruments, 452

Resistors, 36

Resolution of instrument, 436

Resonant

condition, 217

current, 231

frequency, 217

Retriggerable monostable multivibrator, 568

Reverse saturation current, 518, 529

Reverse-biased p–n junction, 492

Right-hand-grip rule, 22

Ripple, 539

R–L–C series circuit, 178

S

Salient-type rotors, 404

Saturature current flows, 498

SCHMITT trigger, 570

Second harmonic, 154

Self-excited generator, 324

Self-induced EMF, 25

Semiconducting material, 3, 486

Semiconductor devices, 485–532

Semiconductor diodes, 494

Semiconductors, 486

Sending end, 268

Separately excited dc generator, 323

Series circuit, 49

Series–Parallel circuits, 50

Service connection, 475

Service line, 475

Service mains, 475

Seven segment displays, 528

Shaded pole method, 392

Shaded portion, 395

Shading ring, 395

Shunt clippers, 564

Shunt generator, 324

Silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), 486, 518

Single phasing, 244

Single-phase AC circuits, 165

Single-phase AC series motors, 396

Single-phase synchronous motors, 398

Sinusoidal wave form, 153

Slip-ring type rotor, 353

Solenoid, 17

Source, 510

Span of the coil, 354

Specific heat, 11

Specific resistance, 5

Spiral winding, 408

Split-phase induction motors, 393

Split-phase method, 392

Squirrel-cage type rotor, 353

Starter for a DC motor, 331

Star connection, 244

Star–Delta transformation, 111

Starter, 330

Starting winding, 393

Statically induced EMF, 24

Step motors, 399

Step-down transformer, 269

Stepper motors, 399

Step-up transformer, 269

Superposition theorem, 65

Surface conduit wiring, 479

Swamping resistor, 448

Swinberne’s method, 338

Symmetrical system, 244

Synchronization, 422

Synchronous

condenser, 428

impedance, 417

motor, 425

motor V-curve, 428

reactance, 417

T

Temperature error, 453

Thermal energy, 11

Thevenin’s theorem, 77

Three-phase synchronous motor, 357

Three-point starter, 331

Three-Wattmeter method, 261

Threshold, 437

Time constant, 133

Time period, 152

Time-delay relay (TDR), 373

Transducer, 431

Transfer characteristic, 511

core type, 274

ideal, 285

power, 275

shell type, 274

Transient response, 131

Transient time, 131

Transistor amplifier, 485, 550

Transistor as a switch, 508

Transistor as an amplifier, 506

Transistor configurations, 504

TRIAC, 523

Triggering, 520

Triggering voltage, 519

Tuned circuits, 220

Two-Wattmeter method, 258

U

Unbalanced load, 244

Unbalanced supply, 243

Under excitation, 428

Unijunction transistor (UJT), 516

Unilateral circuit, 44

Universal motor, 396

Unshaded portion, 395

V

Valence electrons, 486

Variable conversion unit, 432

Very large scale integrated (VLSI) circuits, 2

V–I characteristic, 495

Volt, 5

Voltage amplification, 511

Voltage divider, 559

Voltage divider rule, 51

Voltage source, 45

W

Watt, 9

Wave winding, 408

Waveform generator, 552

Wien Bridge oscillator, 558

Windage loss, 337

Windings wound, 271

Wiring, 478

cleat, 478

conduit, 479

wood casing, 478

Wood casing wiring, 478

Y

Yoke, 318

Z

Zener breakdown, 498

Zener diode, 498