Index – Exploring Sustainable Development

Index

Aalborg Charter 13940

Abidjan (Ivory Coast) 131

acid rain 333

Africa 1301, 182, 184, 1978, 253, 255, 262, 270

agenda 79, 21, 27 39, 79, 86, 143, 156, 213, 298, 300, 315, 319

agriculture 27, 140, 157, 165, 179206, 211, 216, 2536, 261, 316

and biotechnology 1949, 2035

co-operatives 182, 188, 191

and corporate influence 181, 185, 1912, 197, 199, 203, 205

costs 181, 1834, 188, 190, 1945

credit 1812, 187, 200

cropping systems 18990, 200, 203

dike-pond 188

environmental impacts of 1826, 192, 202, 211, 252, 261, 316

and environmental stewardship 183, 186, 18891, 2012

extension services 1801, 186, 200, 206

intensive 17986, 261

labour 180, 182, 1923, 205

low-input 18790, 2013, 205

and off-farm inputs 179, 185, 189

organic 179, 186, 18893, 195, 2023, 205, 208

overproduction 1801, 190, 201, 211

precision farming 189, 1934

production growth 180, 182, 185

research 179, 181, 185, 187, 190, 1947, 199206

and structural readjustment programmes 181

subsidies for 1801, 184, 187, 1989, 2013, 205, 211

trade 1801, 187, 1912, 1956, 1989, 2013, 206, 255

Agriculture, Ministry of (MAFF) (UK) 187, 202, 203

agro-chemicals 1812, 1845, 1878, 190, 1935, 197, 203

agroforestry 189, 200

aid

regional 67

overseas 678, 86, 196, 201, 2735

AIDS 182

air

freight 157

quality 35, 129, 132, 134, 1378, 151, 157, 210, 256, 262, 269, 323

Alliance of Small Island States 289

Alaska 2349, 241, 243

Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act 239

American Corn Growers’ Association 196

Amman (Jordan) 131

antibiotics 186

appropriate development 39, 148, 186, 206, 2412, 315

Arctic North 28, 23049, 254

ecosystems 233, 2356, 244, 248

mineral mining 230, 2345, 23941, 246

oil and gas exploration 2346, 23941, 2458

Arctic Council 238, 2469

Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS) 2467

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 241

Argentina 194, 196

Asia 1301, 172, 180, 182, 1845, 198, 200, 211, 254, 270

Asian Development Bank 150

Asian economic crisis 1997–98 172, 211

Association of the Indigenous Minorities of the Russian Federation 245, 247

AstraZeneca 196

Australasia 270

Australia 201, 265, 275

Austria 191, 271

aviation, civil 273

Bangladesh 254

basic needs 5, 130, 137, 1467, 151, 153, 158, 179, 200, 319

Bayer 196

BEQUEST network 125

Berger report 242

best practice, promotion of 129, 134, 1512, 1634, 21920, 2245, 2389, 2467, 249, 2701

Beverly-Kaminuriak Caribou Management Board (BKCMB) 2434

biodiversity

conservation and promotion of 133, 147, 153, 164, 192, 195, 205, 2123, 223, 232, 246, 277

convention on, see Convention on Biological Diversity

threat to 35, 129, 1578, 179, 1834, 188, 197, 2002, 209, 2523, 256

biofuels 188, 190, 260, 2624, 272

bio-piracy 170, 197

bio-prospecting 164, 170

bio-regionalism 389, 1734

Bio-Safety Protocol 197, 294

biotechnology 48, 179, 1949, 2035, 318

Bombay (India) 130

Bosch 175

bottom up strategies 5, 86

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) 181, 202

Bradford (UK) 145

Brazil 152, 193, 196, 199, 205, 260

Brazilian Landless Rural Labour Movement 201

British Petroleum (BP) 262

British Standards Institution 161

Broken Hill Proprietary Ltd 240

Brown agenda 100, 1478

brownfield development 140, 142

Brundtland report (World Commission on Environment and Development) 57, 31, 37, 47, 136, 146, 158, 169, 300, 324

Building a New Japan programme 20911

building design 133, 138, 142, 1534, 176, 256, 258, 262, 268, 270

business

costs and profitability 15861, 1648, 170, 1723, 1901, 196, 251, 255, 262, 268, 272, 276, 314, 321

efficiency and sustainable development 15862, 164, 1667, 170, 1778, 314, 321, 325

environmental attitudes of 159, 166, 1689

greening of 15960, 162, 1667, 1778

and participatory initiatives 2223

and regulatory compliance 160, 164, 167

and resource efficiency 134, 158, 15962, 164, 16670, 177, 207, 21011, 258, 2679

self-interest 160, 164, 168, 170, 275, 314, 318

and social justice 16970

supply chains 163, 166, 175

and stakeholders 159, 176

and sustainable development 27, 42, 15678

technical knowledge and innovation 156, 15862, 1689, 173, 175, 2078, 262, 267, 314, 318

Cabinet Office Energy Review 2002 (UK) 272

California (USA) 192, 265

Canada 152, 194, 2329, 242, 246, 275

Canadian Arctic 2346, 238, 23944, 316

Capital

as interest group 20

Critical Natural 15, 48, 58, 167, 250, 267, 276, 317, 332

economic overhead 14

factor of production 14

fixed 14

Human 1415, 39, 45, 47, 131, 146, 148, 1501, 157, 171, 173, 177, 181, 183, 231, 237, 242, 254, 320, 326, 3357

Man-Made 14, 35, 39, 47, 157, 183, 225, 254, 268, 320, 326, 3357

mobility of 43, 1645, 1702, 1757, 211, 2346

Natural 15, 17, 345, 39, 42, 445, 157, 171, 183, 187, 231, 236, 252, 277, 320, 326, 332, 3357

relations with Environment 3258

relations with Labour 3258, 333

Resource 15

Social 15

social overhead 14

Total 19

capitalism 36, 435, 49, 156, 171, 175, 3246, 3279

crisis and restructuring 445, 49, 1713, 177, 3289

incompatibility with sustainable development 435, 172

carbon energy taxation 165, 264, 269, 2712

carbon sinks 185, 257, 2612, 265, 274

cartography and visualization 35, 41

chemical fertilizers 179, 180, 183, 187, 193, 261, 264

Chernobyl (Ukraine) 334

China 136, 182, 185, 194, 196, 211, 2746

chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) 252

circumpolar cooperation 2378, 2468

cities – see Urban

Cities for Climate Protection Campaign 2701

citizens’ movements 196, 210, 217

city region 57

Clean Development Mechanism 274

clean technologies 1602, 165, 167, 1734, 246, 248, 275, 3145, 318

climate change

adaptation to 2567, 275

and agriculture 194, 2536

causes of 1578, 252, 2601

and commercial opportunities 262, 266, 272

and consumer behaviour 46, 258, 2679, 273

convention on, see Framework Convention on Climate Change

costs and benefits of action against 255, 257, 26171, 2757

educational and information initiatives 2701

environmental impacts of 2524

and international initiative 46, 2736

and local government initiative 46, 26971

mitigation of 25761, 274, 323, 3334

and national government initiative 46, 2713

and regulation 2712

science of 2512

socio-economic implications of 2527, 263, 273

and sustainable development 29, 251, 2615, 2734, 277

and uneven development 251, 2547, 261, 263, 2734, 2767

Climate Change Levy (UK) 165, 272

‘climate-friendly’ business 262, 2667, 271

coal industry 262, 272, 333

Colby’s typology of development 231

colonialism 232, 234, 248

co-management of resources 2389, 2424

Common Agricultural Policy (EU) 1801

reform of 181, 199, 2013, 272

communal institutions 226, 233, 238, 243

communications technology 1334, 1423, 161

community development 41, 1289, 137, 1436, 14851, 1534, 1727, 188, 191, 197, 214, 230, 242, 262, 266, 316

and partnership with external agencies 1501, 17577, 1867, 206

community forestry 936

compact city 38, 77, 13942, 154

Confederation of British Industry (CBI) 272

congestion charging 140

conservation 38, 47, 138, 143, 164, 170, 201, 214, 247

Construction, Ministry of (MoC) (Japan) 209, 21622, 2256, 228

construction-led development 207, 20912, 215, 217, 219, 2289

consultation 139, 1435, 2135, 219, 2257, 234, 237, 248, 329

consumer attitudes and behaviour 12930, 134, 139, 157, 160, 1623, 168, 174, 181, 189, 1912, 1956, 201, 205, 258, 262, 264, 26771, 273, 275, 277, 3145, 330

consumerism 147, 158, 163, 237

Convention on Biological Diversity 7, 197

discourses of developing countries 293

negotiations 2934

US discourse 293

Convention on Desertification 295

convergence

global 734, 83

regional 723, 83

co-operatives 151, 182, 188, 191

co-option 2267

corruption 200, 210

Costa Rica 164

Council for Sustainable Development (Japan) 208

counter-urbanization 141

credit 151, 1812, 187, 200

credit unions 175

crime 130, 133, 235

Critical Natural Capital 15, 48, 58, 167, 250, 267, 276, 317, 332

Cuba 196, 204

culture, distinctiveness and diversity 206, 232, 235, 2379, 2412, 2469

cultural landscape 2112, 217, 219, 223, 225

Curitiba (Brazil) 142

Daly, H 1618

Daly Principles 1718

dams 209, 212, 2167, 228, 248, 263

Dar-es-Salaam (Tanzania) 131

debt

household 182, 185

international 181, 187, 198

decentralized concentration 140

decentralization of economic activity 141, 1724, 209

declaration of Universal Labour Standards 303

de-colonization 237

Defence, Ministry of (UK) 273

deforestation 93, 184, 200, 261

degree of sustainability of development 13, 31

democracy 45, 133, 146, 173, 177, 187, 2001, 227, 232, 2378, 2489, 320, 330

democratization 97

Denmark 163, 191, 266

dependency theory 5, 62

design for environment 162, 166

development – see also Economic development

degree of sustainability of 13

exporting 62

paths 13, 29

paths, promoting global convergence 734, 83

paths, promoting regional convergence 723, 83

three dimensions of 18, 29, 300

three dimensions of, integrating 30810

devolution of responsibility for forest management 79, 945

dialogues 283

difference, respect for 206, 232

discourses 20, 29, 283

dominant paradigm 284

dysfunctional cities 136

Earth Summit 143, 146, 208. 284

East Asia 172, 180

Eastern Europe 192, 2012

Eco-efficiency 27, 42, 1604, 1667, 16970, 1778, 314, 318, 325

eco-imperialism 309

eco-industrial parks 163, 175

ecological

economics 1618, 3367

footprint 129, 138, 153, 336

modernization 160, 166, 169, 177

e-commerce 174

economic activity, relocation of 402, 138, 163, 256, 266

economic development 130, 134, 139, 143, 147, 153, 156, 160, 163, 171, 1747, 2301, 235, 241, 248, 254, 256, 259, 2613, 271, 273, 332

definition 1011

changing the character of 47, 147, 1556, 1589, 168, 178, 324

planning for 42, 131, 134, 168, 1745, 2089, 321

uneven 62, 7476

economic diversification 180, 188, 191, 202, 2045, 237, 245, 256, 273

economic growth 10, 36, 38, 44, 130, 137, 147, 15560, 168, 1704, 187, 20811, 215, 217, 224, 2312, 234, 2367, 241, 250, 2525, 262, 273, 275, 317, 321, 3245

economic restructuring 132, 174, 210

eco-tourism 164, 170

education and training 35, 38, 456, 1303, 135, 137, 148, 1501, 154, 158, 1746, 1878, 200, 212, 21920, 225, 2278, 232, 237, 245, 247, 254, 256, 2701, 273, 319, 325, 330, 333

El Niño 254

El Salvador 199

emissions trading 2735

employment 132, 137, 139, 145, 148, 151, 156, 161, 165, 168, 1714, 176, 182, 188, 1913, 205, 210, 223, 2301, 235, 2402, 262, 269

empowerment 41, 232, 2424, 329

energy

conservation and efficiency 128, 131, 138, 1402, 1534, 15960, 162, 166, 207, 21011, 2589, 262, 26774, 277

costs 166, 210, 259, 262, 264, 2689, 2723, 276

demand 157, 185, 248, 252, 2589, 2639

demand management 2578, 2669 271, 273

renewable 157, 160, 162, 190, 21011, 257, 25960, 2627, 26974, 277, 3334

sector 29

supply 147, 149, 200, 208, 257, 2624, 266, 268, 270, 277

Energy Saving Trust 269, 270, 272

Energy White Paper 2003 (UK) 265, 272

Engineering Employers’ Federation (UK) 272

Enhancement of Carrying Capacity Options Model 116

environment

as business stakeholder 159, 325

as political interest 20, 325, 327

Environment, Department of the (Canada) 231

Environment, Ministry of the (Japan) 208

Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Department of the (DEFRA) (UK) 187, 196, 2013

environmental

audits 161

businesses 1602

campaigning 45, 159, 170, 189, 1956, 205, 210, 212, 214, 217, 2223, 2257

costs 36, 128, 130, 153, 1556, 165, 167, 169, 1712, 183, 186, 188, 195, 207, 209, 2367, 241, 245, 250, 2523, 2556, 2634, 27677

costs, historic 29, 290

damage 43, 134, 1367, 151, 1578, 160, 163, 1657, 169, 172, 1826, 193, 2001, 20910, 221, 2347, 2401, 245, 250, 252, 255, 2613, 265

economics 1820, 3367

education 220, 2223, 228, 330

impact assessment 138, 239, 246

issues as constraint on economic development 159, 1668

justice 36, 1701

legislation and regulation 131, 138, 146, 160, 1645, 169, 177, 197, 208, 210, 23940, 2423, 2712

management 144, 147, 1601, 164, 166, 174, 181, 23940, 2467, 256

management systems (EMS) 161, 1634, 166, 1767

migrants 253

quality 356, 42, 44, 128, 131, 137, 139, 141, 151, 153, 1578, 163, 1679, 175, 177, 179, 1834, 186, 188, 1923, 195, 2012, 215, 220, 2234, 2302, 256, 2634

standards and national economic performance 160, 167

technologies 142, 155, 1605, 167, 169, 1735, 1938, 210, 236, 2389, 241, 2456, 248, 260, 2623, 265, 26870, 275, 277

Environmental Action Plan 2001 (EU) 273

environmental discourse

globalist 2856, 309, 310

differentiated 310311

Environmental Kuznets Curve 74

Environmental Quality 15

transfers of 63

equity

as contested ideal 47, 16971, 2758, 3267

inter-generational 13, 21, 29, 30, 36, 38, 423, 478, 146, 153, 171, 177, 186, 250, 257, 2614, 2758, 317, 3247, 3312, 3346, 338

intra-generational 13, 21, 29, 30, 36, 38, 423, 479, 128, 1301, 133, 137, 144, 1467, 1523, 159, 16970, 171, 177, 199200, 2123, 232, 250, 257, 2614, 2758, 31724, 3267, 3302, 3346, 338

Europe 12931, 1367, 140, 144, 163, 171, 184, 190, 192, 1956, 1989, 205, 2134, 217, 224, 253, 260, 264, 270, 273

European Community (EC) 180

European Union (EU) 46, 723, 13940, 152, 156, 161, 1645, 177, 181, 183, 190, 193, 1956, 199, 2013, 262, 265, 2713, 2756

European Wind Energy Association 266

experts, role of 3940, 145, 186, 226, 228, 315, 319

exporting development 62

external costs 42, 47, 128, 130, 146, 153, 1556, 165, 167, 169, 1712, 183, 186, 188, 194, 207, 209, 2369, 241, 245, 24950, 252, 2556, 2634, 266, 2767, 323, 326, 330, 332, 3345

factors of production 14

Finance, Ministry of (Japan) 209, 218

Finland 246

firms, and spatial scale 57

flexible specialization 1734

flexibility mechanisms 287

flood hazards and control 185, 209, 2123, 21522, 2256, 228, 2525, 270, 276

food

aid 196

demand 182, 191, 200, 205, 252

genetically modified (GM) 1956, 198

industry 179, 181, 185, 1878, 1912 195, 1978, 205

quality 174, 181, 18991, 1945, 2012, 316

safety 174, 181, 188, 191, 195, 256, 316

security 151, 1802, 186, 1903, 195, 198, 205, 255

supply 1802, 191, 1989, 205, 232, 242, 2502, 316

Forest Convention negotiations 2945

Forest Stewardship Council 70

forestry 172, 201, 209, 242, 254, 260

Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) 7, 73, 250, 274, 327

discourses of other developed countries 288

discourses of developing countries 28992

International Negotiating Committee (INC) 285

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 252, 286

Kyoto Protocol 1689, 208, 2746, 28792

negotiations 28592

US discourse 28588

France 166, 202, 260

Friends of the Earth (FoE) 139

frontier economics 231, 2336, 245

fuel

cells 260

poverty 269

security 241, 262

Fukushima City (Japan) 2256

full-cost accounting 155, 1645, 2389, 256, 264

gender 36, 151, 200, 222, 264, 319

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 301, 3046

ruling on tuna dispute 306

genetic material, ownership of 164, 197, 204, 325

genetically modified (GM) crops 1948

genetically modified organisms (GMOs) 2045

genetic pollution 196

geographical difference 358, 48, 174, 186, 206, 232, 316, 335

geographical information systems (GIS) 35, 401, 121, 194

geography

capacity for synthesis 2, 345, 37, 40, 48

concern for social and environmental justice 367

as spatial analysis 2, 346, 38, 40, 48

as study of human-environment relations 345, 42

as study of place 346, 3942, 456, 48

and study of sustainable development 2, 25, 3749

geothermal power 259

Germany 166, 193, 214, 2189, 260, 2656

global environment, damage to 129, 134, 143, 1578, 1667, 169, 2515, 2689, 317

Global Environment Facility 274, 288

globalization 14, 47, 129, 157, 160, 1704, 181, 214, 230, 303, 311, 316, 325

conditionalist discourse 309

anti-conditionalist discourse 309

global positioning systems (GPS) 194

Global Strategy for Shelter 146

governance, good 97

greenhouse gases 1689, 190, 208, 2512, 257, 25960, 2635, 267, 2701, 273, 2747, 327, 333

Greenland 237, 246

Greenpeace 195, 306

green

agenda 100

products as business opportunities 1602

revolution 180, 182, 2035

spaces 1334, 141, 153

groundwater extraction 185

Group of 77 28992, 295

gross domestic product (GDP) 10

gross domestic product per capita index 11

habitat 140, 157, 1846, 18990, 205, 209, 2156, 218, 223, 226, 232, 2401, 244, 246, 252, 256, 262

Hartwick-Solow Rule 19

health and hygiene 35, 1301, 133, 137, 144, 1479, 151, 158, 160, 162, 1645, 169, 179, 181, 183, 186, 188, 190, 1957, 205, 210, 2156, 219, 225, 232, 245, 2534, 256, 2623, 269, 277, 325, 333

Hino (Japan) 2201, 2235, 2278

historical responsibilities for pollution 29, 290

households 57, 5960

housing 131, 1334, 1379, 1412, 1479, 151, 162, 242, 269, 271

human capital 1415, 39, 45, 47, 131, 146, 148, 1501, 157, 171, 173, 177, 181, 183, 231, 237, 242, 254, 320, 326, 3357

Human Development Index 11, 113

Hungary 192

hunger 180, 182, 194, 198, 203

hydroelectric power 20910, 212, 215, 234, 254, 259, 2624, 266

hydrological regimes 200, 209, 2112, 2156

hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) 260

Iceland 246, 259

Ilo (Peru) 1456

Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare 113, 118

India 136, 182, 185, 188, 196, 2045, 274

Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ministry of (Canada) 234

indigenous peoples 129, 2302, 23443, 245, 2479, 254, 264

Indonesia 136

industrial development, environmental impacts of 1301, 141, 1579, 162, 165, 183, 20911, 215, 2347, 245, 252, 257, 274

information 133, 135, 143, 152, 161, 168, 182, 202, 243, 271

information technology 401, 45, 1334, 1423, 152, 158, 161, 1734, 189, 191, 1934, 199

institutions 282

international 56, 30110

state 26, 28, 889, 923

integrated pest management (IPM) 18891

integrated river management 207, 2125, 21725, 228

intellectual property protection 170, 197, 204

interest groups 2930

inter-generational equity 36, 38, 423, 478, 146, 153, 171, 177, 186, 250, 257, 2614, 2758, 317, 3247, 3312, 3346, 338

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 252, 286

international

aid 678, 86, 196, 201, 2735

co-operation 47, 134, 164, 2378, 2469, 2736, 317, 323, 3301

International Council for Local Environmental Initiative (ICLEI) 1445, 151, 2701

International Energy Agency (IEA) 266, 2756

international environmental policy

globalist approach 701

gradualist approach 701

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) 117

International Labour Organization (ILO) 3014, 330

proposals to include labour standards in world trade rules 3024

International Monetary Fund (IMF) 302

international relations 29

definition 281

theories of 2812

International Standards Organization 161

International Trade and Industry, Ministry of (MITI) (Japan) 20910

International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture 197

International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) (World Conservation Union) 4

intra-generational equity 36, 38, 423, 479, 128, 1301, 133, 137, 144, 1467, 1523, 159, 16970, 171, 177, 199200, 2123, 232, 250, 257, 2614, 2758, 31724, 3267, 3302, 3346, 338

Inuit 234, 240, 244, 247

Inuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC) 237, 247

Inuvik Declaration 247

investment, international 148, 164, 167, 170, 172, 175, 246, 249

Iran 185

irrigation 17980, 182, 185, 194, 2156, 223, 256

Italy 260

Japan 28, 158, 196, 203, 20729, 25960, 265, 2745

attitudes towards sustainable development 2078, 211, 214, 219, 2289

cultural importance of water in 2112, 217, 219, 223

environmental damage in 20912, 215

environmental legislation in 208, 210

participatory initiatives in 21920, 2213, 2258

planning for economic growth in 20811, 2157

river management in 21112, 21425, 228, 319

Johannesburg Declaration 89

Johannesburg Plan of Implementation 89

Kalundborg (Denmark) 163

Karachi (Pakistan) 14951

katchi abadis 14950

Kawasaki (Japan) 221

Kenya 204

Khan, Dr Akhtar Hameed 145

Khartoum (Sudan) 131

Kinshasa (DR Congo) 131

knowledge-based economy 1734, 258

knowledge

expert 145, 169, 186, 226, 315

lay 39, 145, 148, 187, 189, 199, 2012, 206, 233, 238, 243, 315, 3189

Kuala Lumpur Declaration 290

Kyoto Protocol 1689, 208, 2746, 28792

Labour, relations with Capital 3258, 333

Lac de Gras diamond mine 240

Lagos (Nigeria) 131

Lancaster Sound (Canada) 233

land

adjustment policies 148

contamination 1323, 157, 160, 162, 236

overuse 1834, 200

reform 43, 187, 193, 199201, 214

rights 43, 1479, 170, 182, 1845, 187, 1989, 230, 2345, 23940, 2445

speculation 147

use 129, 137, 140, 148, 157, 179, 181, 2001, 206, 209, 211, 217, 219, 2234, 236, 252, 256, 261, 273

landfill 165, 221, 2601

landless poor 191, 199201, 205

landscape

quality 35, 141, 171, 184, 2012, 205, 2089, 213, 2623, 266

protection and reconstruction 184, 2123, 219, 2235

land-use planning 128, 131, 134, 13740, 142, 144, 1478, 263, 26970

Latin America 1301, 184, 198, 200, 254, 262, 270

Leeds (UK) 130

Lewis (UK) 265

liberation ecology 45

Libya 185

life chances, improvement of 133, 1478, 159, 172

life-cycle analysis 162, 166

Lima (Peru) 145

liveable city 1534

livelihoods 36, 49, 57, 60, 88, 147, 179, 1812, 18493, 1979, 2012, 2046, 2323, 2356, 2412, 245, 250, 2524, 256, 264, 316, 319, 333

local

belonging and community, promotion of 2213

democracy 39, 133, 146, 173, 177, 201, 2378, 2489, 31920

governance 131, 1334, 137, 146, 177, 320

government 129, 131, 133, 135, 13841, 1435, 1489, 153, 163, 1756, 187, 2146, 2189, 2223, 2256, 2345, 237, 23940, 267, 26971

initiative 39, 41, 456, 49, 129, 134, 139, 145, 148, 1504, 1745, 187, 214, 223, 225, 26971, 3157, 31921, 323, 32930, 334

Local Agenda 21 (LA21) 39, 1437, 151, 154, 2134, 225, 269, 315

Local Exchange Trading Systems (LETS) 175

local-global linkages 368, 41, 43, 469, 12830, 132, 143, 1513, 155, 171, 177, 230, 26971, 317, 31921, 3234, 329

difficulties in comprehending 1667, 268, 273

Local Government Act 2000 (UK) 145

Local Government Management Board (UK) 152

localities 567, 59

localized economic development and exchange 389, 41, 45, 47, 133, 1567, 163, 1725, 1912, 202, 259, 266, 316

local, return to 27

London (UK) 140, 145

long-term, attention to 131, 137, 148, 151, 1667, 172, 175, 177, 181, 191, 1967, 200, 228, 2312, 2369, 246, 250, 2556, 2656, 273, 277, 322, 324, 326

Mackenzie delta (Canada) 240

Mackenzie valley gas pipeline 242

Maldives 257

Mahathir Mohamad 290, 2945

Manchester (UK) 152

Manila (Philippines) 130

Manizales (Colombia) 145

man-made capital 35, 39, 47, 157, 183, 225, 254, 268, 320, 326, 3357

marginal land, cultivation of 184, 195, 199200

market

failures 256

forces 15960, 1645, 167, 169, 173, 2412, 2578, 2623, 2668

reforms 187, 206, 2712, 314

regulation of 165

Mediterranean Action Plan 73

Mediterranean Europe 202, 265

mega-cities 99, 124, 1301

Merck 164

methane 252, 2601

Middle East 131, 254

migration 68

Minamata Bay (Japan) 210

minimum acceptable compromise 284

modernization 11, 28, 86

monoculture 184, 189, 192, 205

Monsanto 194, 196, 204

Moscow (Russia) 234, 237

Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP) 69

multinational business 44, 57, 164, 170, 1725, 195, 197, 2045, 211, 241, 2623, 326

Mulvihill, P R and Jacobs, P 237, 239, 242

Nairobi (Kenya) 131

National Environmental Protection Act (USA) 239

National Institute for Biodiversity (Costa Rica) 164

National Insurance 165

natural capital 15, 345, 39, 42, 445, 157, 171, 183, 187, 231, 236, 252, 277, 320, 326, 332, 3357

natural gas 2346, 239, 2412, 245, 248, 2589, 265, 333

natural hazards

physical defences against 21112, 2156, 256

vulnerability to 250, 2535, 257

Natural Resources Agency (Japan) 210

nature 48, 164, 173, 186, 198, 210, 218, 222, 325, 332

nature, capitalization of 15

needs

basic 5, 130, 137, 1467, 151, 153, 158, 179, 200, 319

prioritizing local 39, 143, 145, 14851, 1704, 1767, 2001, 204, 213, 219, 228, 232, 2378, 241, 262, 266, 3156

negotiating stance 284

Nenets 236, 245

neo-liberal theory 282

neo-realist theory 281

Netherlands 257, 271

new industrial districts 173

New National Development Plan (Japan) 20910

new towns 136, 142

New Zealand 201

Nigeria 189

Delta Region 63, 69

Nile delta (Egypt) 255

non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 41, 6970, 1489, 152, 170, 187, 226, 282, 3045, 332

non-renewable resources 157, 165, 183, 1856, 188, 2301, 2338, 2401, 264

North America 131, 137, 140, 158, 163, 166, 171, 184, 1914, 196, 198, 205, 2134, 224, 2345, 23841, 2446, 270

North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) 73

North-South gap

international 68

UK 75

Northwest Territories (Canada) 2404

Norway 246

Nouakchott (Mauritania) 131

Novartis 196

nuclear power 211, 235, 259, 263, 266, 272, 318, 3334

Nunavut (Canada) 240, 244

Nunavut Land Claims Agreement 244

Nunavut Wildlife Management Board (NWMB) 244

nutrition 181, 195, 198

Nuuk Declaration 247

Ogoniland 69

oil industry 1623, 167, 2346, 23941, 245, 2478, 2612

Ontario (Canada) 240

open economies 606

Orangi Pilot Project 145, 1501, 154

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) 289

O’Riordan, T 23, 2834, 300

Ottawa (Canada) 234, 237

out-of-town developments 138, 140

overcrowding 141, 253

overgrazing 184

Pakistan 185

participation 247, 289, 39, 41, 49, 86, 128, 131, 1334, 1427, 1501, 154, 207, 2135, 21923, 2257, 238, 240, 269, 315, 3212, 32930

limitations of 144, 154, 163, 2145, 2223, 2256, 228, 31920, 322, 32930

Pearce, D 12, 15, 20, 50, 64, 338

Peru 199

pest control 1835, 18890, 1934

pesticides 1801, 1835, 18790

pharmacia 196

Philippines 172, 189, 199, 259

Photovoltaics 260, 264

PICABUE methodology 120 PlanetYork 270

Planning Policy Guidance Notes (UK) 138

Poland 192

POLESTAR model 118

Population Development Environment (PDE) model 1178

political

ecology theory 24, 43, 45, 49, 336

economy theory 5, 31, 43, 3367

protests 149, 210

reform 45, 131, 1334, 1389, 173, 187, 198, 2004, 230, 232, 23740, 242, 2446, 2489, 31920, 330

rights, denial of 2356, 245, 247

sustainability threshold 332

‘polluter pays’ principle 165

pollution 12832, 134, 1378, 1402, 149, 151, 153, 1578, 166, 171, 183, 20911, 227, 2336, 245, 253

control and prevention 47, 158, 1601, 1657, 1901, 194, 202, 208, 21011, 2312, 239, 246, 262, 277

polyculture 18990, 200, 206

population growth 128, 1301, 1367, 147, 158, 182, 184, 186, 1923, 230, 2523, 259

Portland (USA) 270

post-modernist theory 282

post-Fordism 1734

poverty 36, 41, 43, 45, 49, 128, 1301, 133, 139, 1467, 150, 16871, 184, 186, 1945, 198, 200, 2035, 231, 241, 245, 255, 257, 259, 273, 276, 317, 321, 324

precautionary principle 197, 238, 239, 251, 255, 288, 321

primary goal 284

privatization 91

product stewardship programmes 162

progress, development as 5

property

defence of 154, 2123, 218, 2201, 225, 228, 254, 257

rights 1489, 199200, 240, 242, 245

protectionism 2023, 211

public transport 138, 140, 142, 165, 191, 259, 269, 2712

quality of life 38, 12932, 134, 137, 139, 141, 1469, 1515, 169, 323

Quantifiable City Programme 11926

recreational space 140, 153, 217, 219

recycling 40, 135, 1603, 165, 1689, 173, 1756, 188, 231, 314

regimes 283

weak 73, 283

strong 73, 283

models of formation 283

regional environmental management policies 163, 1756

regional planning 152, 163, 174

Regional Sustainable Development (RSD) model 117

regulation theory 44, 3289

regulatory regimes 445, 177, 202, 274

remote sensing 35, 1934

renewable resources 133, 157, 1612, 183, 186, 188, 190, 215, 2313 2358, 2414, 248

and energy supply 160, 162, 257, 25960, 262, 2637, 26974, 277

management 28

Renewables Obligation (UK) 271

research 137, 150, 1612, 168, 179, 181, 185, 187, 190, 1947, 199200, 2026, 219, 227, 236, 246, 251, 256, 2723

resource

depletion 35, 157, 1834, 187

efficiency 38, 40, 128, 1312, 134, 1378, 140, 142, 147, 153, 15864, 1889, 193, 207, 210, 231, 277

management 160, 187, 231, 2379, 240, 2424, 249, 256, 261

Rio Earth Summit 143, 146, 208

Rio Declaration 78, 2958

River Bureau (Japan) 216, 2189

river management regimes 28, 207, 209, 21120, 2248

ideological conflict over 227

river restoration 207, 21214, 21720, 2228

constraints upon 213, 21820, 2278

limitations of 2235

road pricing 142

Rockefeller Foundation 204

Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution (UK) 265

Royal Dutch Shell 6970

rural development 1801, 1878, 191, 2001, 2045

Russia 234, 2369, 2458, 2746

Russian Arctic 230, 2346, 2389, 2446, 248

Saami Council 247

salinization 185

salmonella 181

sanitation 131, 1378, 1467, 14951, 153, 253

Sao Paulo (Brazil) 130

SATURN model 121

scale 51

geographical 51

spatial 52

science 158, 169, 186, 188, 198, 205, 238, 246, 251, 255, 321, 332

Seki, Masakazu 218

self-determination 2378, 245

self-reliance 39, 145, 148, 1501, 188, 197, 200, 230, 234, 237, 239, 242, 248, 3156, 329

self-sufficiency 389, 47, 148, 153, 173, 175, 191, 195, 205, 242, 245, 266, 3167

sense of place 35, 42, 134, 1534, 173, 206, 221, 316

Seoul (South Korea) 131

set-aside payments 201, 272

Siberia 2356, 245

Sindh Katchi Abadi Authority 149

slum clearance 138, 14850

small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) 150, 1667, 1735, 242, 268

‘smart growth’ movement 141

social

justice 36, 39, 133, 137, 144, 147, 16871, 2134, 319

progress 199, 206, 261

Social Exclusion Unit (UK) 139

Social Learning Model 328

societal change 23, 32731

SOCIOMAD model 117

soil

erosion 35, 43, 1834, 189, 2012, 252

quality 1834, 18990, 1923, 195, 253

Soil Association 195

solar power 210, 258, 260, 26266, 270

Solow, R 12, 19

South Asia 180, 182, 184

South-East Asia 211, 254

South-east England 163, 192

South Korea 136, 196

‘Spaceship Earth’ 286

Spain 266

SPARTACUS model 1223

spatial hierarchy, need for coordination of action at different levels of 46, 1346, 139, 153, 177, 198, 231, 26777, 31920, 3234, 3302, 3345, 338

spatial scale

ecological 52

social science 52

squatter settlements 14751, 199

Stalin, Joseph 234

states 55

regulatory powers of 47, 159, 165, 172, 177, 198

role in promoting sustainable development 47, 1345, 13840, 146, 148, 165, 168, 177, 179, 187, 190, 2003, 21720, 2468, 267, 2716, 31920, 323, 332, 335

state subsidies as trade barriers 305

Statement of Forest Principles 295

stratospheric ozone depletion 164, 169, 317

structural readjustment programmes 181

sub-national regions 56

subsidiarity 97, 2389, 323

subsidies and grants 45, 165, 168, 1767, 1801, 184, 187, 1989, 2013, 205, 211, 222, 264, 269, 2713

subsistence preference 2389

supra-national regions 55

sustainability 13, 100

sustainability indicators 1123, 139, 1434, 224

sustainable city 1324, 153, 263, 3234

role of extra-urban links 1346, 1513, 3234

Sustainable Communities Plan (UK) 139

sustainable consumption 1623

sustainable development

as ambiguous concept 33, 3134

contested by different interest groups 39, 299300

developmentalist ideal 46

ecological economics theory of 1618, 3367

efforts to legitimate 21920, 2223, 228

environmental economics theory of 1820, 3367

equity, contested views of 6, 21

environmentalist ideal 34

as focus of contest 36, 457, 168, 2279, 319, 322, 3247, 3324, 337

importing 47, 63, 128, 153, 170, 173, 236, 320, 323, 332, 335

as ideal path 21, 31

globalist discourse 29, 83, 30912

gradualist discourse 29, 83, 30912

and liberalization 82

limitations of current theories 3367

political ideals 13, 20

political process of 8, 22, 31

and political systems 23

political and theoretical discourses 2022, 3031

as pragmatic experimentation 24

and societal change 23, 32731

spatial characteristics of 23, 25

spatial configuration of 478, 137, 13941, 17277, 2056, 31620

strategies 60

strategies, international 27980

strong interpretations of 1678, 178

theoretical advance 3379

theoretical concept 13, 21

as top-down initiative 1445, 214, 2189, 2267, 3134

trade in 6771

uneven 76

universal ideal 3, 31

sustainable development, conditions for

Daly principles 1718

Ideal condition 16

Strong condition 1617, 19, 28

Weak condition 20

Very Weak condition 1920, 50, 84

Hartwick-Solow Rule 19

sustainable development, definitions of

environmental economics 12, 50

Brundtland Report 6, 12

UN Conference on Environment and Development 7

World Conservation Strategy 4

World Summit on Sustainable Development 9

sustainable development, implementing

bottom-up approach to 79

limitations of top-down approach 78

limitations of participatory approach 26, 79, 81. 869

top and bottom approach 82

sustainable development, monitoring

Genuine Savings Index 646, 113

Green GDP 113

adjustment for trade 656

Environmental Space method 59, 66, 113

Ecological Footprint method 59, 66, 113

Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare 113, 118

sets of sustainable development indicators 1145

sustainable development, planning for 24, 38, 412, 128, 1356, 1456, 1545, 1747, 213, 266, 323, 3312, 3345, 3378

balancing devolution, spatial coherence and equity 3345

conflicts between states and regions 7980

limitations of top-down approach 78

limitations on local autonomy 81

in peripheral regions 77

political influences on 332

politics of three-way tradeoffs 332334

three dimensions of development in, integrating 280

top and bottom approach 82

six conditions for 3312

in urban areas 26, 778

sustainable livelihoods 57, 60, 88

Sweden 145, 246

Switzerland 191, 214, 2189, 260

Taiwan 196

Tanaka, Kakuei 209

targets for change 133, 135, 154, 163, 1678, 186, 261, 26972, 2746

taxation, reform of 45, 142, 165, 1767, 264, 269, 2712

technology transfers 41, 164, 174, 2456, 273, 275, 315, 318

teleworking 1423

Tennessee Valley Authority 216

Thailand 172, 191

Tokyo (Japan) 209, 2213, 226

top-down strategies 77, 86

Town and Country Planning Association (UK) 141

trade, international 43, 45, 47, 157, 164, 167, 170, 1723, 180, 192, 1956, 198, 2013, 206, 209, 3167, 323, 335

trade in sustainable development 83

trade laws 62

trade-offs 30, 48, 169, 277, 3325, 338

traditional societies 28

‘Tragedy of the Commons’ 233

transnational corporations 44, 57, 164, 170, 1725, 195, 197, 2045, 211, 241, 2623, 326

transport and access 35, 3840, 128, 131, 1334, 13643, 147, 154, 157, 1613, 165, 168, 1734, 176, 191, 209, 216, 245, 253, 25860, 2634, 267, 26973, 316, 323

transport planning 1334, 138, 1402, 26973

Transport Act 2000 (UK) 140

trickledown strategies 86

Tsurumi River basin (Japan) 2213

Tsurumigawa River Network (TR Net) 220, 2223, 225, 228

Ukraine 274, 334

underdevelopment 5

uneven development 36, 41, 434, 489, 746, 1702, 324

uneven sustainable development 76

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) 234, 236, 2389, 244

United Kingdom (UK) 136, 13841, 1435, 1656, 181, 183, 1867, 1903, 1957, 2023, 214, 2589, 2646, 26873, 316, 333

United Nations (UN) 274

United Nations Centre for Human Settlements 152

United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), Rio de Janeiro 1992, 2, 78, 30, 37, 39, 146, 284

United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (UNCHE), Stockholm 1972, 286

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 301

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), Man and Biosphere Programme 4

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 196, 274

United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 1823, 187, 197, 199, 201

United Nations General Assembly 8

Special Session on Sustainable Development (1997) 8

United Nations Sustainable Cities Programme 151

United States of America (USA) 141, 164, 1679, 180, 1836, 188, 1946, 201, 203, 214, 216, 234, 23841, 2468, 2534, 25962, 265, 271, 2747, 327

unsustainable development 356, 424. 49, 314, 321

export of 47, 53, 63, 128, 153, 165, 211, 320, 323, 326, 332, 3345

urban

air pollution modelling 1212

boundaries, definition of 106

ecological footprint 129, 138, 153

environmental impacts 38, 1025, 12831, 137, 1402

form 27, 32

governance 131, 1334, 1367, 146, 154

growth, limits to 1367

infrastructure 131, 137, 140, 142, 14651, 253, 269

management 127

metabolism 1002

modelling 40, 26, 1102, 1257, 152

planning 1314, 136, 13743, 1456, 148, 154

planning tools 1089

population growth 128, 1301, 1367, 147

renewal and revitalization 38, 138, 154

spatial form 38, 128, 132, 134, 13642, 153, 259, 263, 269

sustainability 1059, 12855

sustainability indicators 1146

sustainability indices 1124

sustainability models 26, 11526

sustainability scenarios 152

water sustainability models 11921

urbanization 130, 136, 142, 157, 180, 192, 2089, 2112, 221, 223

Urban Task Force (UK) 139, 142

Urban White Paper 1999 (UK) 139

US government

discourse on FCCC 2858

US climate action plan 287

US climate change strategy 289

US Senate and climate change policy 287

Value added tax (VAT) 272

vehicle fuel duty 142, 176, 272

vested interests as barrier to change 456, 168, 191, 200, 219, 222, 228, 322

Washington DC (USA) 237

war 198, 2534

waste

management 1345, 147, 153, 155, 1601, 165, 188, 190, 215, 2601, 269, 314

minimization 47, 128, 132, 1345, 142, 15860, 161, 163, 1656, 168, 173, 268

Watari Riverside Society 226

water

cultural importance of 2112, 217, 219, 223, 228

management and supply 131, 133, 138, 1467, 149, 158, 161, 163, 1802, 185, 187, 194, 209, 212, 215, 236, 240, 244, 2536, 263

quality 35, 129, 1324, 137, 147, 151, 157, 183, 1856, 1901, 2012, 2102, 2356, 253, 2634

retention capacity 185, 209, 2123, 217, 221

use rights 179, 187, 199, 216

wave and tidal power 260, 263, 266

welfare provision 1323, 137, 144, 1589, 232, 256, 273, 325

Western Europe 158, 166, 193, 235

wetlands 1845, 202, 2523, 256

wildlife

as a renewable resource 2323, 235, 237, 240, 2434

cultural significance of 233, 243

wind power 25960, 2626, 2723, 334

win-win arguments 156, 15964, 1667, 178, 267, 314, 318, 321, 334

World 3 model 117

World Bank 150, 181, 187, 274, 302

World Business Council for Sustainable Development 170

World Commission on Environment and Development: see Brundtland report

World Conservation Strategy 4, 30910

World Energy Council 259

World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, 2002 2, 89, 308, 319

World Trade Organization 74, 170, 195, 201, 203, 301, 3048, 317, 330

proposals to include environmental standards in world trade rules 3048

Cancun meeting 308

Doha meeting 307

Seattle meeting 307

Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF) 304, 306

Yamal peninsula (Siberia) 2356

Yokohama (Japan) 2212

York (UK) 270

Yorkshire 75

Young, O 2389, 244

Yukon goldfield 234

Zambia 196

Zimbabwe 200