Index – From Incremental to Exponential

INDEX

  • Accountability, lack of, 110111
  • Agile methodology, 140
  • Agrawal, Ajay, 15
  • Air-quality sensors, 105106
  • Akbar, Ali, 168
  • Alexa, 27, 45
  • Allbirds, 92
    • from zero to $1 billion in two years, 5051
  • Amazon, 92, 98, 123, 152, 200
    • Allbirds and, 50
    • ambidextrous leadership, 102103
    • cloud service, 176, 178. See also Amazon Web Services
    • disruption and, 102
    • evolution, 44, 45
    • facilities, 44, 46
    • vs. Google, 44, 98, 176
    • impact on retail commerce, 44
    • Innovator’s Dilemma and, 54, 102
    • is remaking all of retail, 4849
    • listening and, 104
    • vs. Microsoft, 178, 180
    • Moore’s law and, 43
    • most profitable parts of, 102
    • physical stores, 48
    • platforms and, 123125, 129
    • product searching on, 4445
    • Sainsbury’s and, xi, 197
    • small teams and, 134
    • and subscriptions to products, 2
    • transportation and logistics, 21, 45. See also Amazon Prime
    • Walmart and, 185187
  • Amazon Alexa, 27, 45
  • Amazon Go, xi, 48, 197
  • Amazon Prime, 186
  • Amazon Web Services, 102, 123124. See also Amazon: cloud service
  • Ambidextrous leadership, 102103
  • Andreessen, Marc, 7677
  • Anheuser-Busch InBev (ABInBev), 163166
  • Apple, 82, 131, 199
  • Apple engineers, 67, 69
  • Apple Pay, 95, 200
  • Apple Watch, 10, 1920, 38, 108, 199200. See also iPhone
  • Application programming interfaces (A.P.I.s), 125
  • Artificial intelligence (A.I.), 16
    • ABInBev and, 166
    • advances in, 18, 197198
    • information processing and, 129
    • medical devices and, 20
    • Netflix and, 54
    • and predictions, 1517, 27
    • the scramble for, 17
    • Tesla and, 27, 52
    • TikTok and, 83
    • Watson and, 3233
  • Assembly line, 56, 62
  • Asymmetric growth (platforms), 126127
  • Automobiles. See also Driver in the Driverless Car
    • as software and the art of the impossible, 5153
  • Balance, struggle for, 114
  • Ballmer, Steve, 176, 177
  • Batteries, 5253
  • Bedier, Osama, 95
  • Beeching, Philip, 104105
  • Beinlich, Kurt, 150
  • Bell Labs, 63
  • Bezos, Jeff, 40, 129, 147, 148. See also Amazon
  • Bird, Brad, 109110, 144
  • Black cabs, 1315
  • Blank, Steve, 142143
  • Blind (app), 88, 90
  • Bloomberg, Michael, 191
  • Boeing, 4
  • Borrowing liberally and literally, 143144
  • Boston, 6566
  • Brainstorming, 155156
  • Brand, diminished influence of, 8081
  • Britain. See Black cabs; Governments: British; Sainsbury’s
  • British Airways, 134, 149, 152
  • Brynolfson, Erik, 56
  • Buyer, shift in power from seller to, 80
  • BuzzFeed, 4142
  • Cable television, 3941
  • Cameras, 1819, 48
  • Capital expenditures, large
    • can be a weapon rather than a weakness, 164165
  • Celebrated Failure Award, 167168
  • Chambers, John, 110, 111
  • Change. See also Cultural transformation; specific topics
    • failure to adapt and change, 97
  • Cheddar (TV channel), 42
  • China, 9, 70, 74, 79
  • Chips, computer, 16, 17
  • Christensen, Clayton M., 55, 57
    • disruption and, 35, 38, 106, 198, 199
    • on forming external businesses to compete with parent companies, 106
    • Innovator’s Dilemma, 3435, 106, 198
    • on requisites for public-sector innovation, 192
    • Tesla and, 54, 198, 199
    • Uber and, 38, 198199
  • Cisco
  • Cloud computing, 3233, 3941, 76. See also Amazon Web Services
  • Coaches, not bosses, 153157
  • Coca-Cola, 167
  • Collaboration, 154157
  • Comcast, 4041
  • Common Threads initiative, 117, 119
  • Communication(s). See also Nonviolent Communication
    • changes in style, substance, mechanism, and volume of communications, 8889
    • DIY, cheap communications available to everyone, 85
    • how we communicate has changed everything, 8386
    • unrestricted, free communications means loss of control, 8586
  • Company culture. See Culture
  • Compensation packages, 73
  • Competition, 36, 53, 66, 70, 198. See also Regional Advantage; Walmart; specific topics
    • New Innovator’s Dilemma and, 35, 38
    • platforms and, 126127
    • against startups, ix, 7, 8, 49, 55
  • Competitions, companywide, 134
  • Computer chips, 16, 17
  • Computing platforms. See Platforms
  • COVID-19 (novel coronavirus disease 2019), 9, 10
  • Cray supercomputers, 18
  • Crowdfunding, 141142
  • Cruise Automation, 164165
  • Cultural transformation, Microsoft’s, 113, 175176
    • changing culture, 178181
    • move fast, fix things, be nicer, 176178
  • Culture, 89, 149, 157, 181. See also under Nadella, Satya; specific topics
  • Culture, people, and genuine connection, 6566
  • Curtis, Alastair, 170, 171
  • Customers, inability to solve real problems because of disconnection from real, 73
  • Danone, 159160
  • DARPA Grand Challenge, 138
  • Darrell, Bracken, 169175
  • Defense Advanced Research Projects Administration (DARPA), 138
  • Delivery services/product delivery, 21, 186. See also Amazon Prime
    • food delivery, 125, 199
    • package delivery, 2829
  • Design focus, 169170
  • Design principles and purpose, 170173
  • Design sprints, 140141
  • Design thinking, 140, 143
  • Design Thinking program, 157
  • DeWALT, 132
    • helps construction unplug, 132133
  • Diffusion, innovation, 25
  • Diffusion of innovation model, 24, 24f
  • Disruption(s). See also Exponential disruption; specific topics
  • Distance, lack of, 106108
  • Distribution power (platforms), 126
  • Diverse teams, 134
  • Diversifying, 173174
  • Diversity, 68
    • and innovation, 36
    • of viewpoints, 155
  • Dollar Shave Club, 128, 173
    • came out of nowhere, 38
    • vs. Gillette, 57
    • innovation, 5, 6, 49
    • marketing, 5, 6, 49, 173
    • razor blades and, 56
    • sales, 6
    • videos, 5, 6
    • YouTube and, 5, 6, 91
  • Dreamers, recruiting, 144145
  • Driver in the Driverless Car: How Your Technology Choices Create the Future, The (Wadhwa and Salkever), 18, 21, 138
    • key message, 21
  • Driverless cars, 52, 53, 70, 81, 138
  • Drone delivery, 10, 2829, 4546
  • Drones, 2829, 125, 183
  • eBay, 37, 49, 119, 123, 124, 126
  • Ecosystems, 94
    • innovation, 74
    • from marketplaces to platforms that support entire, 123124
    • Silicon Valley, 66
  • Eight Deadly Sins of Stasis, 103114
  • Electric-utility industry, 182184
  • Empathy, 177, 189. See also Nonviolent Communication
  • Employee suggestion box, digital, 134, 146, 149, 152
  • Empowerment and experimentation, 157158
    • checklist for, 159
  • Exponential disruption, 201. See also specific topics
    • artificial intelligence (A.I.) and, 16. See also Artificial intelligence
    • a case study in, 2829
  • Exponential growth curves, 18, 31
  • Exponential innovation, what is driving, 1820
  • Exponential technologies combining to become breakthrough innovations, 1617
  • Exponentially advancing technologies, ix, 19, 2527, 57, 122, 172, 195, 201. See also specific topics
  • Eyre, Rachel, 161
  • Facebook
  • Facebook advertising, 91, 166
  • Facilitation, 154, 156
  • Factories, 56
    • battery, 52, 53
    • drones and, 29
  • Failure, 167168
    • Wall Street’s lack of tolerance for, 9798
  • Falcon Heavy, 1
  • FalconX, 1
  • Federal Aviation Agency (FAA), 28
  • Feedback (innovation game), 134
  • Feedback loops, 60, 194
  • Finance, 4647
  • Fitbit, 1920, 38, 107
  • Fitness trackers, 107. See also Fitbit
  • Food delivery, 125, 199
  • Ford Greenfield Labs, 6970, 74
  • Ford Motor Company, 6970, 74
  • FuelBand, 107108
  • Future Brands, 160162, 166
  • Gans, Joshua, 15
  • Gartner, 22, 23f
  • Gates, Bill, 176
  • General Electric (GE), 29, 129, 182
  • General Motors (GM), 164165
  • Gerstner, Louis (“Lou”), 32, 112
  • Gigafactory, 52, 53
  • Gillette, 57
  • Goldfarb, Avi, 15
  • Google, 41, 98, 152153, 199, 200
    • vs. Amazon, 44, 98, 176
    • vs. Apple, 67, 9597
    • design sprints, 140141
    • Design Thinking program, 157
    • driverless cars and, 70
    • Gmail, 84, 98, 148149
    • high-speed Internet access and, 200201
    • listening to employees for new ideas, 104
    • OKR (Objectives Key Results) model, 134
    • platforms and, 2, 123, 125127
    • walkouts, 89, 90
  • Google AdWords, 5, 128, 166
  • Google Fi, 200201
  • Google Maps, 14, 125
  • Google Pay, 95
  • Google Pay Send. See Google Wallet
  • Google Ventures, 96, 140
  • Google Wallet, what went wrong with, 9495
    • inflexibility in its business model, 9697
    • right product, right vision, wrong approach, 9596
  • Government (technological) innovation
  • Governments, 63, 64
  • Greeley, Greg, 147
  • IBM, 3233, 76, 102, 112, 115
  • IBM Life Sciences, 32
  • Idea competitions, 134
  • Ideas, 171
    • listening to employees for new, 104
    • small innovation ideas can add up quickly, 149
  • IDEO, 82, 140
  • Incumbency, the many advantages of, 163164
  • Incumbent superpowers, checklist of, 167
  • Industrial age, 57
  • Industry 4.0, 19
  • Industry clusters, 59, 77
  • Industry–academic partnerships, 60
  • Innovation. See also specific topics
    • creating innovation by reducing friction, removing barriers, 133134, 136
    • small innovation ideas can add up quickly, 149
  • Innovation black holes, 7576
  • Innovation clusters, 64, 69. See also Industry clusters
  • Innovation culture, x, 60, 77, 136, 149, 150, 153, 201. See also specific topics
  • Innovation Diffusion model, 2425, 24f
  • Innovation friction, checklist for decreasing, 135
  • Innovation game, 35. See also specific topics
    • ways it has changed, 3536
  • Innovation manifesto and mindset for change, 150153
  • Innovation platforms, 124, 125
  • Innovation prizes and contests, 137139
  • Innovator, checklist for making everyone an, 152
  • Innovator’s Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail, The (Christensen), 3435, 106, 198. See also Christensen, Clayton M.
  • Intellectual capital is “leakier” than ever, 81
  • iPhone, 19, 24, 144, 177
  • Jackets. See under Patagonia
  • Jobs, Steve, 131, 143, 172
  • Launch, failure to, 97
  • Laundromats, mini-libraries in, 194195
  • Lean startup methodologies, 142143
  • Legacy brands, resource advantages of, 165168
  • Legacy firms. See also under Open access, open source, and collective product development
    • lack of diversity and global perspective, 8283
  • Libraries in laundromats, miniature, 194195
  • Linux, 86, 176
  • Listening culture, 114
    • vs. unwillingness to listen, 114115
  • Logitech
    • Bracken Darrell and, 169175
    • design principles, 171
    • from slow death to thriving, 169175
  • Longboard Island Lager, 166
  • Machine age, second, 56
  • Management, changes in, 36
  • Maps, 1315, 125
  • Massachusetts Route 128 (“America’s Technology Highway”), 65, 66
  • “Matrix management” system, 111
  • Maybury, Mark, 133
  • McAfee, Andrew, 56
  • McMillon, Doug, 185187
  • Media companies, the fight for attention and shift in valuations of, 4043
  • Media disruptions, massive, 3940
  • Media services, over-the-top (OTT), 39, 41, 42, 54
  • Medical devices and technology, 9, 10, 1920. See also Fitness trackers
  • Merck, 63
  • Microsoft. See also Nadella, Satya
    • vs. Amazon, 178, 180
    • vs. Apple, 177, 180
    • reinvention of, 113. See also Cultural transformation, Microsoft’s
    • smartphones and, 176, 179
  • Microsoft Azure, 176, 178180
  • Money-transfer services, 47. See also Payment platform, Payment systems
  • Moore, Gordon, 61, 61f
  • Moore’s law, 18, 37, 40
  • Motivating, 153154, 156
  • Mozilla, 105106
  • Mozilla Connected Devices, 105106
  • Musk, Elon, 12, 5153
  • Nadella, Satya, 113
  • Net neutrality, 39
  • Netflix, 3842, 54
  • Netherlands, 6667
  • Network effects (platforms), 126
  • New Innovator’s Dilemma, 35, 38
  • New Jersey, 6263
  • NextEra Energy demonstrates innovation in a utility, x, 7, 181
    • talent, consistency, and foresight, 182184
    • a toe in the water, 181182
  • Nike, 82, 107108
  • Nokia, 111112, 179
  • Nonviolent Communication (Rosenberg), 175176
  • Noyce, Robert, 61, 61f
  • Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness (Thaler and Sunstein), 188
  • Nudge unit, 188190
  • Nudges, 188190
  • Off the Eaten Path, 162
  • “1,000 True Fans” (Kelly), 87
  • Online commerce, 4445. See also Amazon
  • Open access, open source, and collective product development, 8689
    • changes in style, substance, mechanism, and volume of communications, 8889
    • legacy communication channels are withering, 8788
    • model of collaborative innovation, 8687
  • Open-source operating system, 176
  • Open-source software community, 179
  • O’Reilly, Charles A., III, 102, 103, 106107
  • Organizational culture. See Culture
  • Over-the-top (OTT) media services, 39, 41, 42, 54
  • Package delivery, 2829. See also Delivery services/product delivery
  • Pandemics, 9, 10
  • Parker, Geoffrey G., 129
  • Parking in Washington, DC, 193194
  • ParkMobile, 193194
  • Patagonia (clothing company), 120, 122, 127
    • Boulder store, 119120
    • a business world turned upside down, 120121
    • Common Threads initiative, 117, 119
    • consignment store, 120
    • “Don’t Buy This Jacket” ad campaign, 117122, 118f
    • eBay and, 119
    • revenue, 119, 120
    • Worn Wear program, 119120
  • Patience, lack of, 105106
  • Payment platform, mobile, 9496, 125
    • switching to a, 193
  • Payment systems, 47, 125. See also Apple Pay
  • “People” people, recognizing, 174175
  • Photography. See also Cameras
  • Pixar Animation Studios, 109, 110, 144, 145, 155
  • Platform characteristics, common, 125126. See also Platforms
    • asymmetric growth and competition, 126127
    • distribution power, 126
    • network effects, 126
  • Platform design, innovative companies work hard on, 128129
  • Platform-making company, programming Amazon to be a, 129 Platform Revolution (Parker et al.), 129
  • Platforms. See also under Ecosystems
    • every company wants to be a platform company, 127130
    • and marketplaces at the center of innovation breakthroughs, 128
    • transaction, innovation, and combined, 124125
  • PM2.5 air quality sensor, 105106
  • Political support, lack of, 113114
  • Porter, Michael, 6364, 69
  • Prediction machines, 15. See also Artificial intelligence
  • Product development cycles moving faster, 82
  • Product searching, online, 4445
  • Project SensorWeb, 105106
  • Rahal, Peter, 9192
  • Razor blades, 56. See also Dollar Shave Club
  • RCA (Radio Corporation of America), 29, 30, 63
  • Red Hat, 32, 33, 179
  • Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley (Saxenian), 65
  • Research and development (R&D), 107
    • R&D centers, 70
  • Research and development (R&D) budgets, 60
    • and corporate performance, 60
    • reallocating R&D money, 170, 174
  • Resources, lack of, 108
  • Ries, Eric, 142143
  • Risks, failure to take, 9798
  • Robo, Jim, 182183
  • Robot vehicles, 138. See also Driverless cars
  • Robots. See also Drones
    • Amazon’s use of, 21, 46
  • Rockets, 1. See also SpaceX
  • Rogers, Everett, 2425, 24f
  • Rosie (robotic maid), 2021
  • Ross, Stephen, 89
  • Route 128. See Massachusetts Route 128
  • Rulebreakers, recruiting, 144145
  • RXBAR, 91
    • from zero to $600 million in sales in five years, 9193
  • Sainsbury’s, 160163, 197
    • Amazon and, xi, 197
    • cashierless technology and, xi
    • Future Brands, 160162, 166
    • Nectar loyalty program, 161
  • Salesforce, 123, 124, 179
  • Salmon-skin crisps, 160
  • Saxenian, AnnaLee, 65
  • Sears, Roebuck and Company, 43
  • Second machine age, 56
  • Second-order innovator’s dilemma, 54
  • Sensors, 21
  • SensorWeb, 105106
  • Shirky, Clay, 8586
  • Silicon Valley, 6667, 7273
    • advantages over competitors, x–xi, 6668, 129, 143
    • attempts to re-create/replicate, 62, 64, 65
    • Boston compared with, 6566
    • cooperation and sharing/information exchange, 62, 66, 143, 144
    • culture and, 6568, 71
    • ecosystem, 66
    • ethos, 72
    • Frederick Terman and, 62, 64
    • hiring Valley leaders and talent to staff outposts, 7273
    • history and evolution, 60, 62, 6466
    • innovation ecosystems and, 74
    • methods, 62, 66, 144
    • origins and creation, 60, 62, 64
    • the power of an open system that welcomes outsiders, 6669
    • problems, 6869
    • stealing in, 144
  • Silicon Valley outposts, 7173, 77, 110
    • boondoggles and junkets, 5960, 6970
    • reasons for the failure of, 7174
  • Silver, Spencer, 150
  • Simplifying, 173174
  • Smartphone, 16, 106, 107, 125, 126. See also iPhone
  • Smith, Peter, 9192
  • Social contagion, 25
  • Social networks, 66
  • Software, 7677. See also specific topics
  • Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) business model, 180
  • Soul, 171
  • SoulCycle, 8890
  • SpaceX, 14, 53, 128, 200
  • Stanford University, 6064, 69
  • Stanley Black & Decker, 132, 133
  • Startups, 37
  • Steinberg, Jon, 42
  • Subscriptions, 6, 79. See also Amazon Prime; Dollar Shave Club; Netflix
  • Suggestion box, digital, 134, 146, 149, 152
  • Sunstein, Cass, 188
  • Survival as an endless task, 3233
  • Tapscott, Don, 86, 87
  • Taxes, 189191
  • Teaching vs. telling, 154
  • Team size, 134
  • Teams, 6162, 134. See also Top-down corporate innovation teams
  • Technology. See also specific topics
    • the limits of, 2021
  • Technology adoption curves, 2526, 26f, 84
  • Technology shifts. See also specific topics
    • are opening massive new markets, 8283
  • Television, 8788
  • Terman, Frederick, 6264
  • Tesla, 27, 38, 54, 128, 199
    • A.I., 27, 52
    • cars as software and the art of the impossible, 5153
    • Clayton Christensen and, 54, 198, 199
    • disruption and, 54, 198, 199
    • Model 3, 199
    • platforms and, 125
  • Thaler, Richard, 188189
  • 3M, 108, 139, 148, 150, 152
  • “Toe in the water” strategy, 181182, 184
  • Top-down corporate innovation teams, the folly of dedicated, 75
    • innovation black holes, 7576
    • innovation teams can’t see new business models, 76
    • innovation teams struggle to identify nascent markets, 7677
  • Toyota, 104, 148, 152
  • Transaction platforms, 124
  • Transportation. See also Black cabs; Delivery services/product delivery; Driver in the Driverless Car; Drone delivery; Uber
  • Trump, Donald J., 89
  • Trust, 36, 37
  • Trust systems, 37
  • Tushman, Mike L., 102, 103, 106107
  • Uber, 38, 198199, 204n1
  • United Kingdom (UK). See Black cabs; Governments: British; Sainsbury’s
  • Utility industry, 182184
  • Venture capital, 64
    • spreading more broadly, 74
  • Venture-capital arms of companies, 75.
  • See also Google
  • Ventures Venture capitalists, 65, 66, 68
    • beer companies and, 164
    • Boston and, 6566
    • capital investments, capital expenditures, and, 164
    • platform business and, 127
  • Videoconferencing
  • Videoconferencing tools, 10, 84, 99, 100
  • Virtual reality (V.R.), 2325, 174
  • Voice commerce and voice assistants, 2021, 27, 4445
  • von Behren, Rob, 95
  • von Hippel, Eric, 150151
  • Wall, Jonathan, 95
  • Wall Street, lack of tolerance for failure, 9798
  • Walmart
    • Amazon and, 185187
    • from “deer in the headlight” to credible competitor, 184187
  • Warby Parker, 49, 50
  • Ward, Charlie, 146
  • Watson (computer), 3233
  • Webex, 99100
  • Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything (Williams), 86
  • Wikipedia, 8687
  • Williams, Anthony D., 86
  • Windows Azure, 176, 178. See also Microsoft Azure
  • Worn Wear program, 119120
  • Wrong people and wrong role, 109110
  • Zoom (software), 11, 84, 97, 100
    • Eric Yuan and, 100
  • Zoom Video Communications (Zoom), 100, 108
    • Cisco and, 100
  • Zuckerberg, Mark, 144, 200