Index – Functional Textiles for Improved Performance, Protection and Health

Index

A

AA30B, 216, 218
AA40B, 217
AA50B, 214, 216
AA30R, 218
AA50R, 214, 216
AAMA 30B, 218
AATCC 183–1998, 48, 51
AATCC Test Method 115–2005, 40
AATCC Test Method 134–2006, 40
absorption, 257
acceleration correction, 84
acridines, 378–9, 380
acrylamide, 200
activated carbon, 259
active camouflage, 251, 252
active drag, 232, 235
active-wear clothing, 176
adaptive camouflage See active camouflage
Add-Delete, 74
adsorption, 257–9
Aedes mosquitoes, 407
aerogel method, 454
aerosol filtration media, 264
aerospace textiles, 175
air permeability, 445, 450
air plasma treatment, 20–1
alizarin, 382–3
chemical structure, 382
alkanethiol, 328
allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), 490
alumina, 259
American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists, 39
American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM), 39
ammonium polyphosphate (APP), 113
Amonton’s law, 273
amorphous hydrogel, 307
ANOVA, 495
ANSYS system, 477
ANSYS V.6.1, 468
anthraquinone, 490
antibacterial colorants
chemical structure alizarin and purpurin, 382
anthocyanidine colorants and their glycoside form, 391
berberine and ampelopsin, 377
carthamin, 386
cationic dyes, 380
curminic acid and kermesic acid, 383
flavonol colorants, 389
gallotannins, ellagitannins, complex and condensed tannins, 392
lawsone and juglone, 385
lecanoric acid and usnic acid, 394
luteolin, 388
phycocyanobilin and prodigiosin, 394
prontosil and methylene blue, 379
shikonin and alkanin, 384
micro-organisms, 393–5
anthraquinones produced by C. lunata, 395
natural antibacterial colorants, 381–3
anthocynanins, 390–1
flavonoids, 387–90
quinones, 382–7
tannins, 391–3
photo-activated antibacterial colorants, 395–6
synthetic antibacterial colorants, 378–81
acridines, 378–9
quaternary ammonium antibacterial dyes, 380–1
sulfamid-based dyes, 379–80
textiles, 376–96
converting Troxerutin to vinyl monomer, 378
antimicrobial textiles
applications
protective clothing and linen products, 371
surgical gowns and drapes, 371
benzophenone and Rose Bengal
antimicrobial abilities, 370
photo-sensitisers, 370
development, 363–8
Halamine chemistry, 367–8
silver ion or other metals, 366–7
future trends, 371
medical applications, 360–71
performance, 368–9
principles, 361–3
difference in antimicrobial performance, 362
medical textiles and diseases transmission, 361–2
requirements for antimicrobial medical textiles, 362–3
quaternary ammonium salts, 363–6
antimicrobial colorants structure, 365
antimicrobial effects, 364
similar compounds, 363–6
structures, 364
technologies, 363, 369–70
current, 363
antistatic agents, 32, 33–4
antistatic textiles, 27–42
evaluation, 39–41
direct methods, 39–40
fabric cling test, 41
indirect methods, 40
simulation methods, 40–1
future trends, 41–2
effect of washing on surface antistatic coating, 42
R711 nanoparticulates, 42
principles, 28–32
key principles, 31–2
static charge generation mechanisms, 28–31
triboelectric series, 30
role, 33
types, 33–9
dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea and dimethylolethyleneurea, 36
durable, 35–8
graft polymerisation, 38
monomers with non-ionic or ionic groups, 37
non-durable, 34–5
phosphoric acid esters, 35
polyamines with polyoxyethylene groups, 36
polyhydroxypolyamines, 36
quaternary ammoniums, 34
Aquablade swimwear, 230
aramid fibres, 274
aramids, 105–7
Army Field Dressing, 313
aromatic polyamides See aramids
aromatic polyester fibre, 110
artificial kidney, 294–6
AS/NZS 4399, 48, 50
ash test, 40
ASTM 6603, 51
ASTM D 6544, 51
ASTM F2669-09, 436
atomic force microscopy (AFM), 10–11
attenuated total reflectance (ATR), 15
augmented Lagrange algorithm method, 466
automotive textiles, 177
Avogadro’s constant, 500
Avora, 109
axis-aligned bounding box (AABB), 85

B

B-spline skinning, 65
ballistic and fragmentation protection, 253
ballistics, 253–255
bamboo-carbon modified polyesters (BCMP), 191–2
BASF, 332
Basofil, 107
battlefield dressing, 313
bentonite, 313
bio-ceramics, 191–2
bioactive textiles, 301–3
bioartificial liver, 296
biocidal textiles, 362
biocides, 363, 366, 368
biocompatibility, 297–8
biomechanics
skin/fabric interactions, 462–86
computer model: skin friction blistering, 477–86
EFE model of skin/sleeve interactions during arm rotation, 465–77
biostatic materials, 362
bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate), 113
body scanning, 65
Boltzmann constant, 279
Boltzmann statics, 28–9
breathable fabric, 165, 208
British Redcoat uniforms, 250
Broglie wavelength, 9
brominated flame retardants, 113
burst strength, 299
BVD Company, 229

C

calcium alginate, 307
camera calibration, 67–9, 68
camouflage, 250–3
capillary rise method, 19
carbon nanotubes (CNTs), 355
cardiovascular implantables, 299
Cassie–Baxter contact angle, 344, 349
Cassie–Baxter equation, 321, 345, 348, 349, 351, 352
Cassie–Baxter model, 344–5, 346
CDC guidelines, 371
cell adhesion, 302
Cellular Automata (CA), 497
cellular automata probabilistic model, 276
cellulose, 116
cellulose-based textiles
finishing treatments, 116–20
flame retardancy with sulfur derivatives, 119
grafting flame retardant monomers to cellulose, 119–20
inorganic phosphates, 116–17
organophosphorus compounds, 117–19
Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 436
ceramic nanoparticulates, 41–2
Chagas disease, 407
chain stripping, 102
charge-induced charge separation, 31
chelating agents, 366
chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents, 255
chemical modifications
improving superhydrophobic coatings for textiles, 320–35
applications, 331–4
chemical modifications for fabricating rough surfaces on textiles, 323–6
future trends, 334–5
hydrophobisation for lowering the rough textiles surface energy, 327–9
materials with low surface energy nanoscaled coating, 329–31
superhydrophobic textiles key principles, 321–2
chemical vapour deposition, 5
chemicals See textiles dyes
chemisorption, 258
chitosan, 219, 220, 286–7, 313
2-chloroethyl-ethyl sulphide (CEES), 456
chronic dermal ulcers, 310–11
Chrysanthemum cinerarifolium, 409
clothing
ultraviolet protection, 45–57
environment and fabric use, 55–6
fabric colour, dyes and UV absorbers, 53–5
fabric type and construction, 51–3
outlook, 56–7
sun-protective clothing standards, 50–1
UPF in vitro and in vivo testing, 48–50
clothing protection technology, 269–85
developments, 274–84
cell i in a 3-D Ising model with its neighbours, 278
3-D Ising model for filtration process, 282
energy difference due to airflow, 280
filter efficiency vs particle size simulation and experimental results, 283
model description, 277–81
modelling and simulation, 275–85
parameters for fibre and aerosol
particle, 283
textile components, 274–5
future trends, 284–5
key issues of protective clothing, 270–4
microclimate, 270–2
skin reactions and irritations caused by textiles, 272–4
comfort factor, 164
condensed phase action, 104
conductive textiles, 27–42
evaluation, 39–41
direct methods, 39–40
fabric cling test, 41
indirect methods, 40
simulation methods, 40–1
future trends, 41–2
effect of washing on surface antistatic coating, 42
R711 nanoparticulates, 42
principles, 28–32
key principles, 31–2
static charge generation, 28–31
triboelectric series, 30
role, 33
types, 38–9
conductivity, 40
constitutive equations, 276
contact-angle, 236–8, 341–3, 349–50
hysteresis, 349–50
defined, 349
measurement, 16–18
surface tension, 341–3
drop on a flat surface, 342
wettability, 341
contact-induced charge separation, 28–9
contact layer dressings, 307
continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT), 295
cotton fabrics, 141
cross-linking, 102
Cuprophan, 295
Curcuma longa, 377
cyclodextrins, 446
cylindrical mapping, 81–2

D

3D body imaging
collision detection and response, 85–9
edge–edge collision, 88
edge–edge collision detection and response, 87–9
point-triangle collision, 86–7
subject surface vertex and a panel triangle collision, 86
functional textiles, 64–94
future trends, 93–4
sewability and fit assessment, 91–3
sewability of the pattern, 93
virtual dressing integrated system, 92
stereovision, 66–72
data flow diagram, 68
foreground segmentation and coarse/refined disparity map, 72
pair of stereo images, 68
stereo imaging system setup, 67
stereo matching, 69–72
stereo matching algorithm, 70
system calibration, 67–9
system setup, 66–7
surface modelling, 72–80
3D surface models, 80
data resampling, 72–4
edge collapse, 76
initial mesh generation, 74–5
Loop’s evaluation rule for a vertex point, 78
mesh simplification, 75–7
mesh subdivision and optimisation, 77–80
mesh subdivision by mesh split, 77
modified Loop’s evaluation rule for an edge point, 78
optimised control mesh, subdivision mesh, and shaded model, 79
original scan data, 73
simplified mesh and its shaded model, 77
triangulation of torso, 75
virtual dressing, 80–91
adaptive sewing force, 83–5
body skeleton and initial positioning of panels, 81
hanging cloth with different strain control methods, 90
image series, 91
initial positioning and panel rolling, 80–3
merging nodes/particles on seam-lines, 85
multi-panel positioning, 83
self-rolling through cylindrical mapping, 82
sewing force, 84
strain control and size stability, 89–91
strain control through velocity adjustment, 90
Dacron, 229
Dacron vascular grafts, 302–3
Darcy’s law, 276
DawaPlus, 419
DawaPlus 2.0, 420–1
decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE), 121, 122
Defender-M, 250
Deflexion, 255
Degussa, 41
Delaunay triangulation algorithm, 73–4
deltamethrin, 410, 419
DEMEP, 121
dengue fever, 407
denticles, 230
desert marine, 250
dextranomer beads, 307
dichlorotribromophenyl phosphate (DCTBPP), 115
dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), 20
diffusion, 263–4
dimethyloldihydroxyethyleneurea, 36
dimethylolethyleneurea, 36
3-(dimethylphosphono)-N-methylolpropionamide (DMPMP), 117, 118
DIN 53 923, 18
dioctyle phthalate (DOP), 282
direct coupling reaction, 6
dirty bombs, 260
disparity gradients, 71–2
disparity space image (DSI), 69
Dow Corning 5700, 365
Dr Scholl’s Memory Fit, 152
dressing simulation, 80 See also virtual dressing
dry heat loss, 165
dual-sensitive (temperature and pH sensitive) polymers/hydrogels, 202–4
Du Pont, 229
DuPont NEN, 491
Dupre equation, 342
Dupre–Young equation, 342
durable antistatic finishes, 36–8
DuraNet, 415, 419
quaternary ammonium, 380–81
sulfamid-based, 379–80 See also textiles dyes
DYNA3D, 468
Dyneema, 253, 254

E

edge collapse, 75–6
edge points, 77
edge–edge collision, 87–9
electrical-active shape memory fabric, 137
electroactuating fibres, 219–21
electroless deposition, 6–7
electromagnetic radiation, 185
electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) See x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
electrospinning, 300, 449–50
electrostatic attraction, 264
Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Association, 39
electrostatic induction See charge-induced charge separation
EN 13758–13751, 51
EN 13758–13752, 51
encapsulation, 260–1, 262
end-scission, 102
Environmental Protection Agency, 435
estradiol, 491
residual in layers after 0.5-h diffusion, 493
residual in layers after 4-h diffusion, 494
transdermal absorption at different times, 492
estrogens, 491
percutaneous absorption parameters, 496
Exolit 5060, 113
expanded polytetrafluoroethylene, 299
expanded polytetrafluoroethylene composites, 262
extracorporeal liver assisted device (ELAD), 296
extracorporeal medical textiles, 294–97

F

fabric blends, 100
fabric cling test, 40–1
fabric colour, 53–5
fabric porosity, 53
fabric structure, 275
far infrared, 186
far infrared textiles, 184–94
applications, 192–3
sportswear, 192
therapeutic, 192–3
warmth, 193
benefits and limitations, 193–4
FIR in relation to functional textiles, 190–2
bio-ceramics, 191–2
FIR fibres and fabrics, 190–1
FIR therapy, 186–90
FIR health effects, 187–90
phototherapy, 186–7
future trends, 194
IR principles, 185–6
electromagnetic radiation principles, 185
far infrared, 186
location and breakdown within the electromagnetic spectrum, 186
overview, 184–5
Fastskin, 230, 239
Fastskin FSII, 230
fibres, 198
Fibrin Sealant, 313
fibrous aerosol filters, 263, 264
Fick’s Second Law, 437, 496
fillers, 307
filtration efficiency, 275–6, 282–3
finite element method, 464
finite element model, 463
Fir-Tex, 191, 193
FIR therapy, 186–90
fire-retardant textiles, 250
fit assessment, 91–3
flame retardant additives, 103–5
flame retardant functional textiles, 98–123
additives, 103–5
fibres from addition of non-reactive additive to polymer, 111–14
additives for wet spun fibres, 113–14
melt additives, 111–13
phosphorous-containing flame-retardant additive, 114
finishing treatments, 114–21
ammonium salts of phosphoric and polyphosphoric acid, 117
cyclic phosphonate compounds for thermosol application, 115
guanidine phosphate salts, 117
hydroxyl functional oligomeric organophosphorus compound, 119
natural fibre fabrics, 116–21
organophosphorus flame retardants for cellulose, 118
synthetic fibre fabrics, 114–16
flame retardation of textile materials, 105–21
aromatic polyester, 110
fibres from inherently flame retardant polymers, 105–11
inherently flame retardant polymers, 106
inherently flame retardant polymers fibre properties, 111
phosphorus-containing monomers for polyester, 109
flammability and thermal behaviour, 99–102
fabric construction, 99–100
textile fibre types, 100–1
thermal behaviour of polymers, 101–2
test standards, 122–3
standard test methods, 123
flame retardant polyesters, 109
flame retardants, 98–123
addition of non-reactive additive to polymer, 111–14
environmental issues, 121–2
finishing treatments, 114–21
flammability and thermal behaviour, 99–102
test standards, 122–3
textile materials, 105–21
types, chemistry and mode of action of additives, 103–5
flame retardation, 98–123
Flamestab NOR, 116, 113
flammability, 99–102
textile fibre, 100–1
Flammentin FMB, 117
flavonoids, 387–90
antimicrobial functions, 390
flavones, 388
flavonols, 388–9
Flory–Rehner polymer solution theory, 438
Flovan CGN, 117
fluid mechanics, 231–4
fluoroalkylsilanes, 327
fluorocarbons, 445
form drag See pressure drag
formaldehyde resins, 490
Fortron, 108
Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), 15
friction blisters, 463
friction coefficient, 272–3
functional clothing, 64
functional medical textiles
bioactive textiles design, 301–3
biomolecules in conferring bioactive function, 301–3
developments and their mechanism of action, 293–314
extracorporeals and implantables, 294–7
artificial kidney, 294–6
bioartificial liver, 296
mechanical lung, 297
non-implantables, 303–14
bed sheet and non-woven care sheet designed to wick moisture away, 312
bed sore prevention incontinence device, 309
haemorrhage control dressings, 312–14
pressure ulcer prevention materials, 311–12
stages of wound healing, 304
structure and composition, 304–11
structure and composition, 297–301
biocompatibility, 297–8
cardiovascular implantables, 299
implantable biomaterials for tissue engineering, 300–1
functional shape memory textiles, 131–57
future trends, 155–7
SMA applications in textiles, 133–8
effect on textiles, 134–8
electrical-active shape memory fabric, 137
functionality of insulating property, 136
pseudoelasticity, 133
shape memory dress with SMA wires, 136
shape memory fabric with SMA wires, 135
shape recovery fabric with nitinol SMA wires, 135
smart garment with SMA wires, 137
SMA shape memory mechanisms, 132–3
one-way and two-way SME, 132
SMP applications, 140–55
basic fabric parameter, 147
crease retention, 141
easy wear and perfect match, 150
end-capped SMPU oligomers synthesis, 140
fibre spinning, 144–5
good shape retention, 142
improved dimensional stability, 143
moisture-responsive SMPs for sweat intelligent management, 155
Nike ‘Sphere React’ shirt with smart vent structure, 154
pressure of enlarged fabrics to ‘wearer, ’, 149
shape memory foams, 151–2
shape memory hollow fibre, 146
shape memory nano-fibres, 151
shape memory textiles with good damping properties, 152
smart breathability, 152–3
SMP coating, 140–4
SMP fabrics and garments, 146–51
SMP fibres prepared by wet and melt spinning, 145
SMPU fibre stress–strain curve vs other synthetic fibres, 145
SMPU oligomers reaction with cotton, 140
strain recovery ratio, 147
synthesis routine of SMPU with pyridine units, 154
textile products made of shape memory foams, 152
untreated and treated wool fabrics, 142
water/moisture-driven SME, 153–5
wrinkle-free effect, 141
SMP shape memory mechanisms, 138–9
thermal active SME, 139
strain recovery ratio
100% cotton knitted fabric, 148
100% shape memory knitted fabric, 147
50% SM fibre and 50% cotton knitted fabric, 148
untreated and treated wool fabrics texture, 144 See also shape memory alloys shape memory polymers
functional smart textiles
using stimuli-sensitive polymers, 198–21
drawbacks and limitations of current SSP/hydrogels, 204–5
smart functional textile, 205–21
stimuli-sensitive polymers, 198–204
functional textiles
3D body imaging and fit, 64–94
future trends, 93–4
sewability and fit assessment, 91–3
stereovision, 66–72
surface modelling, 72–80
virtual dressing, 80–91
flame retardant, 98–123
environmental issues, 121–2
flammability and thermal behaviour, 99–102
test standards, 122–3
textile materials, 105–121
types, chemistry and mode of action, 103–5
surface modifications, 3–24
applications, 19–23
0future trends, 23–4
physical and chemical
characterisation, 8–19
types, 4–7

G

gain factor, 349
gas-phase action, 103
Gauss–Seidel iteration, 89–90
gauze packing, 307–8
glass fibre, 108, 273
Gore-tex, 262
graft polymerisation, 6, 37
grafting, 6
grid density, 73
Gulf stream stitch, 229

H

haemorrhage control dressings, 312–14
Halamine chemistry, 363, 367–8
halogen-based flame retardants, 103
halogen compounds, 111
Hamaker constant, 278, 279
heat-induced charge separation, 31
heat release rates, 101
Heim, 109
HemCon, 313
hemodialyzers, 294
hexabromocyclododecane, 121
hexafluorozirconate, 120
high-density polyethylene, 416
high-performance fibre polyjdiimid azopyridinylene(dihydroxy) phenylene} See M-5 fibre
hoefnagels, 329
Honestometer, 39–40
hydrated salts, 169
hydrocolloids, 306
hydrophilic monomers, 37
hydrophobisation, 327–9
alkyl molecules, 328–9
fluorinated molecules, 327–8
non-fluorinated polymer, 329
silicon compounds, 329
surface reactive molecules for low-surface-energy modifications, 327
hydrothermal synthesis, 324–5
hydroxy-functional organophosphorus oligomer (HFPO), 118, 119
hydroxymethyl phosphinyl propanoic acid, 110

I

ICON-MAXX, 424
impermeable fabrics, 165
implantables, 294–7
implantable biomaterials for tissue engineering, 300–1
electrospinning, 300
phase separation, 301
self-assembly, 300–1
role of functionality, 297–1
biocompatibility, 297–8
cardiovascular implantables, 299
inertial impaction, 263
infrared functional textiles See far infrared textiles
inherently flame retardant fibres, 99, 105–11
inherently flame retardant polyesters, 109–10
inherently flame retardant polymers, 105, 106, 111
inorganic phosphates, 116–17
insecticides, 409–14
insecticide-laden textiles key issues, 414
pyrethroids, 409–13
chemical structure, 410
repellents and synergist chemical structure, 412
treated textiles application and effectiveness, 413–14
insects
diseases, 405–9
Chagas disease, 407
dengue fever, 407
leishmaniasis, 407–8
Lyme disease, 408
lymphatic filariasis, 408
vector-borne diseases and associated vector control agents, 406
West Nile disease, 408
pyrethroid-laden textiles protection from biting, 404–26
bednets in situ treatment and other textiles, 424–25
factory-produced long-lasting insecticidal nets and textiles, 414–24
future trends, 425–26
insecticide-laden textiles key issues, 414
insecticide-treated textiles application and effectiveness, 413–14
insecticides, repellents and synergist chemical structure, 412
pyrethroids and other insecticides, 409–13
pyrethroids chemical structure, 410
integrins, 302
intelligent-polymers See stimuli-sensitive polymers (SSP)
interactive chronic wound dressings, 308, 310
interception, 263
Interceptor, 419
International Standards Organisation (ISO), 39
interpenetrating network (IPN) material, 266
interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN), 204
invisibility cloak, 253
IR light, 185
iridescence, 252
Ising model, 276–7

J

Jacobi iteration, 89–90
Jantzen Company, 228, 229
Joint-Service Lightweight Integrated Suit Technology (JSLIST), 250

K

K-O TAB 1-2-3, 424
kaolin, 313
Kappaflam P, 31, 115
Kawabata Thermolabo apparatus, 271
Keggin-type POM, 456
Kermel, 105
KES-SE Frictional Analyzer, 273
Kevlar, 105, 250, 253, 255, 274

L

Lagrange multiplier method, 466, 467, 477
lake, 383
Laplace equation, 440
Lastex, 229
latent heat, 166
lattice Boltzmann model, 276
Lawsonia inermis, 376–7
leishmaniasis, 407–8
LifeNet, 420
Lifshitz theory, 278
Lifshitz–van der Waals (LW), 342
light therapy See phototherapy
limiting oxygen index (LOI), 101
liquid absorptive capacity, 16, 18
long-lasting insecticidal nets, 414–21
effectiveness in controlling vector-borne diseases, 421
effectiveness measurement, 414–15
factory-prepared, 415–21
commercially available LLINs that contain pyrethroids, 417–18
Loop’s subdivision algorithm, 77–80
lotus effect, 340
low-level laser therapy (LLLT), 187, 194
lower critical solution temperature(LCST), 199
lucidin, 383
Lycra, 229
Lyme disease, 408, 411
lymphatic filariasis, 408
LZR Pulse fabric, 231
LZR racer swimwear, 231

M

M-5 fibre, 254
chemical structure, 255
m-aramid, 101
MA30B, 217
MAD system, 235
Magellan Systems International LLC, 254
magnesium oxide (MgO), 455
MAGNET, 415, 419
marigold See Tagetes patula L.
mechanical filtration, 261
mechanical lung, 297
median knock-down time (MKDT), 415
medical textiles, 177, 361–2
melamine fibres, 107
melt additives, 111–13
membranes, 261, 262, 446–50, 451
microporous membranes, 446–8
relationship between protection performance and air permeability, 447
nanoflbrous membranes, 448–50, 451
air permeability, water vapour transmission rate and protection performance against pesticide mixture, 451
microporous membrane vs fabric and non-woven SEM micrographs, 449–50
selectively permeable membranes, 448
mesh simplification, 75–7
mesh triangulation, 74–5
meta-aramid fibres, 105, 274
metal oxides, 453–5
aldicarb solution degradation with reaction time, 454
metal-organic frameworks (MOF), 259–60
metamaterials, 252–3
methacryloyloxyethyl orthophosphoro-tetra ethyl diamidate, 119
methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocusaureus (MRSA), 361, 390
methyl parathion, 435
micro-encapsulation, 284–5
Micro-Tribometer, 273
microcirculation, 187
microclimate, 270–2
microencapsulated PCM, 173–4, 175
core-shell schematic, 173
MicroPCMs See microencapsulated PCM
microporous polypropylene hollow fibre, 297
military textiles, 249–67
aerosols, 260–6
aerosol capture mechanisms, 263
alumina membrane, 262
conducting interpenetrating fibrous network, 266
electrospun web vs human hair, 265
expanded polytetrafluoroethylene, 264
meltblown glass fibre aerosol filtration media, 262
size exclusion membrane, 261
ballistics, 253–5
camouflage, 250–3
chemical structures of M-5and PBO fibres, 255
toxic chemicals, 255–66
bulk toxic or burning liquids, 256–7
gases and vapours, 257–60
microwave-treated 50:50 nylon:cotton, 258
MOF filled with adsorbate, 260
water and dodecane droplet on treated 50:50 woven nylon:cotton, 257
USA fielded camouflage, fielded ballistic protection and fielded CBW agent protection, 251
Mincor TX TT, 332, 333
minimal erythema doses (MEDs), 48–9
modacrylics, 108
moderately flammable fibres, 100
monochlorotriazinyl-ß-cyclo dextrin (CDMCT), 422
chemical structure, 423
Monte Carlo simulation, 276, 279, 281
Monte Carlo technique, 497
Mooney-Rivlin 2-parameter constitutive equation, 468
multilayered fibres, 275

N

N-tert-butylacrylamide (NTBA), 200
N-halamines, 452–3
aldicarb degradation by DMDMH-and MTMIOP-treated fabrics, 452
N-N’ diethyl amino ethyl methacrylate, 202
Nafion, 448
Nano-Care, 333
nano-encapsulation, 284–5
‘nano neural knitting’, 303
NanoSphere, 333
nanotechnology, 445
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 446
natural fibre fabrics, 116–21
Navier–Stokes equation, 261
Netprotect, 419
Newstar, 105
N ‘N-methylene bisacrylamide (MBA), 201
Noflan, 120
Nomex, 101, 105, 274
non-durable antistatic agents, 34–5
non-implantables, 303–14
bed sore prevention incontinence device, 309
haemorrhage control dressings, 312–14
pressure ulcer prevention materials, 311–12
structure and composition, 304–11
occlusive dressings, 305–10
pressure ulcers, 305
stages of wound-healing, 304
wound-healing materials, 304–5
wound proteases sequestration and approaches to treating chronic dermal ulcers, 310–11
non-woven fabrics, 441–3
normalised cross-correlation(NCC), 69
novel pesticide protection clothing
aldicarb
degradation by DMDMH-and MTMIOP-treated fabrics, 452
solution degradation with reaction time, 454
development, 445–56
air permeability, water vapour transmission rate and protection performance against pesticide mixture, 451
enhanced repellency, 445–6
enhanced sorption, 446
membranes, 446–50, 451
microporous membrane vs fabric and non-woven SEM micrographs, 449–50
relationship between protection performance and air permeability, 447
human exposure, 434–6
chemical protective clothingsystems, 436
health effects, 434–5
mitigation strategies, 435–6
improving the functionality, 434–56
liquid penetration through porous materials, 440–45
non-woven fabrics, 441–3
relationship between fabric thickness and pesticide penetration, 444
woven fabrics, 443–5
mechanisms for chemical protection, 45
barriers to liquids permeation, 8
protection/comfort model, 437
repellency and liquids sorption, 40
textile material interaction with challenge liquid, 439
multifunctional materials with self-decontaminating properties, 450–6
cross-linking POM to cellulose, 456
DMMP overall balanced reaction with surface MgO, 455
metal oxides, 453–5
N-halamines, 452–3
polyoxometalates, 455–6
NSN 6840–6801–346–0237, 424
nylon, 229, 273
nylon, 6, 6, 229
nylon fabrics, 114

O

O, O-dimethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phos-
phorothioate, 435
occlusion, 305–6
occlusive dressings, 305–10
amorphous hydrogel, 307
chronic wounds, 308–10
contact layer dressings, 307
fillers, 307
gauze packing, 307–8
hydrocolloids, 306
semipermeable foam, 307
sheet hydrogels, 306
thin films, 306
wound vacuum assisted closure, 308
octabromodiphenyl ether (OctaBDE), 121
oil repellency, 21–2
Olyset Net, 415, 419
organophosphorus compounds, 117–19
orthophosphoric acid, 119
output aerosol concentration, 282
oxidised polyacrylonitrile fibres, 108

P

P, 84, 107
P-N Synergism, 104
para-aramid, 254
para-aramid fibres, 105
passive camouflage, 251
passive drag, 232, 234–5
penalty algorithm, 466
Penalty methods, 467
pentabromodiphenyl ether (PentaBDE), 121
peptides, 301–3
Peptite 2000, 302
performance swimwear, 226–46
biomechanics of swimming, 231–6
drag force associated with swimming, 231–4
drag force measurement, 234–5
swimwear design and drag force, 236
development, 227–31
design, 229–31
effect on swimming performance, 231
history, 227–8
materials used, 228–9
effect of innovative swimwear on swimming performance, 236–45
contact angles for different typesof fabrics, 237
drag force and physiological and biomechanical responses, 238–45
water repellency, 236–8
future trends, 245–6
studies on innovative performance swimwear and wetsuits, 241–4
PermaNet, 415, 419
PermaNet 3.0, 420
permethrin, 410, 411
persistent organic pollutants (POPs), 122
personal protective equipment, 275, 435
personal protective technologies (PPT), 269
pesticide penetration, 440, 445
pH-responsive fibres, 210–19
cross-linking, 210–11
cycles of swelling and de-swelling, 217
equilibrium swelling without any load and retractive force during de-swelling, 215
fibres with physical cross-links, 213–19
modification of an existing precursor fibre, 211–13
pH-responsive polymers, 201–2
phase-change material microcapsules (PCMMcs), 192
phase-change materials
applications of PCM incorporated textiles, 175–7
active-wear clothing, 176
aerospace textiles, 175
autodfbdtive textiles, 177
cotton fabrics with microcapsules, 176
medical textiles, 177
other areas, 177
incorporation in textile structure, 172–5
coating, 174
core-shell microencapsulation, 173
fibre technology, 175
lamination, 174
microencapsulation, 173–4
process, 166–7
heating and cooling cycles, 167
phase-change cycles, 166
thermo-regulating textiles, 163–78
applications, 175–7
challenges, 177–8
thermal comfort and clothing, 164–5
thermo-physiological comfort, 168
types, 168–72
hydrated salts, 169
influence of molecular weight on heat of fusion, 172
latent heat storage materials and their thermal properties, 170
linear hydrocarbons thermal properties, 171
long chain hydrocarbons, 169–71
organic and inorganic PCMs, 169
polyethylene glycol, 171
phase separation, 301
Phloxine B, 380
phosphinic acid derivatives, 113
phosphoramidates, 119
phosphoric acid esters, 34–5
photobiomodulation, 187
photocatalytic coatings, 23
photocatalytic oxidation, 453
phototherapy, 186–7, 194
physical vapour deposition, 4
physisorption, 258
pigment Red 83 See alizarin
piperonyl butoxide (PBO), 411
Planck’s constant, 279
plasma, 37
plasma sputtering, 366
plasma surface modification, 7
point-triangle collision, 86–7
Poiseuille equations, 440
poly(2-hydroxypropylene spirocyclic pentaerythritol bisphosphonate) (PPPBP), 115
poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm), 199, 204
chemical structure, 200
poly(p-phenylene-2 6-benzobisox-azole) (PBO), 254
chemical structure, 255
poly-phenylene benzobisoxazole, 108
polyacrylic acid (PAA), 201–2, 379
polyacrylonitrile fabrics, 115–16
polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibres, 211–12, 453
polyamides, 112
polyamines, 36
polybenzimidazole (PBI), 107–8
polyepoxides, 36
polyester, 229
polyester fabrics, 114–15
polyether ether ketone (PEEK) composites, 262
polyetherimide, 107
polyethylene glycol, 171
polyethylene paraffin compound (PPC), 171–2
polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 299
poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyval-erate), 354
polyhydroxypolyamines, 36–7
polymide fibre, 107
polyolefin fibres, 113
polyoxometalates, 455–6
cross-linking to cellulose, 456
DMMP overall balanced reaction with surface MgO, 455
polyphenylene sulphide fibres, 108
polyvinyl chlorides, 108
polyvinylidene fluoride, 31
pomegranate See Punica granatum L.
porosity, 440
PostGL, 468
Potts model, 103
pressure drag, 232–3, 236
pressure-induced charge separation, 31
pressure ulcers, 305
bed sheet and non-woven care sheet designed to wick moisture away, 312
bed sore prevention incontinence device, 309
prevention materials, 311–12
Proban CC, 117
Procon, 108
Prontosil, 379
protease sequestrant dressing, 310–11
pseudoelasticity, 133
Punica granatum L., 392
pyrethoids, 409
pyrethroid-laden textiles
bednets in situ treatment and other textiles, 424–5
chemical structure
insecticides, repellents and synergist, 412
monochlorotriazinyl-β-cyclodextrin, 423
pyrethroids, 410
factory-produced long-lasting insec-ticidal nets, 414–21
commercially available LLINs that contain pyrethroids, 417–18
effectiveness in controlling vector-borne diseases, 421
effectiveness measurement, 414–15
factory-prepared, 415–21
factory-produced textiles, 421–4
future trends, 425–6
protection from biting insects, 404–26
biting insects and diseases they carry, 405–9
insecticide-laden textiles key issues, 414
insecticide-treated textiles application and effectiveness, 413–14
pyrethroids and other insecticides, 409–13
vector-borne diseases and associated vector control agents, 406
pyrethroids, 407, 409–13
chemical structure, 410
pyroelectric effect, 31
PYRON, 108
Pyrovatex CP, 117
Pyrovatim PBS, 117
Pythagoras’s theorem, 349, 352

Q

quadric error metrics, 75
quaternary ammonium salts, 363–6, 380–1
antimicrobial effects, 364
structures, 364
quaternary ammoniums, 34, 35
Quercus infectoria (QI), 393
Quikclot, 313
Quikclot Combat Gauze, 313
quinolones, 386–7
quinones, 382–7
anthraquinones, 382–4
benzoquinones, 385–7
naphthoquinones, 384–5

R

R711 silica nanoparticulates, 41–2
random-chain scission, 102
random walk model, 497
Rayleigh criterion, 8
reactive oxygen species (ROS), 370
readily flammable fibres, 100
regeneration process, 363
Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals, 122
regularisation parameter, 72
relatively non-flammable fibres, 100
resistivity, 40
resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate), 113
Restriction of Hazardous Substances
(RoHS), 122
Reynolds number, 233
Rhinovirus, 456
roll-off angle, 347–9
self-cleaning effect by superhydro-phobicity, 347
water drops on a tilted surface, 348
rubber fibre, 273
Ryton, 108

S

‘scaffolding’ effect, 100
scanning electron microscopy (SEM), 9–10
Scotch cellophane tape 5912, 492
Securus fibre, 152
self-assembling peptides, 302
self-assembly, 300–1
self-cleaning, 340
self-cleaning clothes, 331
self-rolling, 81–2
semipermeable foam, 307
sewability, 91–3
sewing forces, 83–5
shape memory alloys
applications in textiles, 133–8
pseudoelasticity, 133
effect on textiles, 134–8
electrical-active shape memory fabric, 137
electro-active shape memory textile products, 137
functionality of insulating property, 136
other textile products, 136
problems, 138
shape memory clothing, 135–6
shape memory dress with SMA wires, 136
shape memory fabrics, 134–5
shape memory of a fabric with SMA wires, 135
shape memory yarn, 134
shape recovery of a fabric with nitinol SMA wires, 135
smart garment with SMA wires, 137
shape memory mechanisms, 132–3
one-way and two-way SME, 132
shape memory clothing, 135–6
shape memory effect, 131, 132–3, 156
shape memory fabrics, 134–5
shape memory foams, 151–2
shape memory materials (SMMs), 131–57
future trends, 155–7
SMA applications in textiles, 133–8
SMA shape memory mechanisms, 132–3
SMP applications in textiles, 140–55
SMP shape memory mechanisms, 138–9
shape memory nano-fibres, 151
shape memory polymers
applications in textiles, 140–55
basic fabric parameter, 147
coating, 140–4
crease retention, 141
easy wear and perfect match, 150
end-capped SMPU oligomers synthesis, 140
fabrics and garments, 146–51
fibers prepared by wet and melt spinning, 145
fibre spinning, 144–5
improved dimensional stability, 143
moisture-responsive SMPs for sweat intelligent management, 155
Nike ‘Sphere React’ shirt with smart vent structure, 154
pattern with good shape retention, 142
pressure of enlarged fabrics to‘wearer’, 149
shape memory foam textile products, 152
shape memory foams, 151–2
shape memory hollow fibre, 146
shape memory nano-fibres, 151
shape memory textiles with good damping properties, 152
smart breathability, 152–3
SMPU fibre stress–strain curve vs other synthetic fibres, 145
SMPU oligomers reaction with cotton, 140
SMPU synthesis routine, 154
strain recovery ratio, 147
untreated/treated wool fabrics SEM images, 142
water/moisture-driven SME, 153–5
wrinkle-free effect, 141
shape memory mechanisms, 138–9
thermal active SME, 139
untreated and treated wool fabrics SEM images, 142
shape memory polyurethane, 140–1
synthesis routine with pyridine units, 154
shape memory yarn, 134
shear-thickening fluids (STF), 254–5
sheet hydrogels, 306
shikonin, 384
silica gels, 259
silk, 120–1, 273, 302
silver, 363, 366–67
silver salts, 366
simulation, 40–1
single fibre efficiency, 276
single wall carbon nano-tubes(SWCNT), 219
skin/fabric interactions biomechanics, 462–86
blister, 477
3-D blister with different radius ratio, 478
2-D FE model, 480
displacement and hot spot stress, 483
displacement at different frequencies, 480
geometry model, 477
computer model: skin friction blistering, 477–86
contact algorithm, 477–8
displacement and hot spot stress at five friction coefficient levels, 481–2
material properties, 477
maximum tangential friction stress and normal pressure at different friction coefficient, 483
modal natural frequencies, 479
model and material properties, 477–8 1st order modal shape with frequency, 479
EFE model of skin/sleeve interactions during arm rotation, 465–77
FE model for skin-fabric-arm system under an arm rotation, 466
initial contact between fabric and skin with a velocity, 476
method, 465–9
model parameters, 468–9
numerical resolution/software, 468
parameters/ranges for four simulations, 469
shear stresses at different initial gap between fabric and skin, 472
sleeves displacements away from the arm contacting point, 473
stress response with different fabric density, 472
system description/analytical model, 465–8
maximum Von-Mises stress
normalised with the second set skin parameters, 469
relative with the second set skin parameters, 469
normalised effective shear stress different fabric modulus levels, 470
different friction coefficients, 471
skin friction drag, 232, 236
skin irritation, 272–4
skin substitutes, 309–10
slow-releasing mechanism, 363
SMA wires, 134–5, 137
Small Vision System, 67
smart garment, 137
SMP fibre spinning, 144–5
‘soft deletion’ strategy, 77
soft rigid armour, 253
soft wearable armour, 253
sol–gel, 7
processing, 323–4
Spandex, 229
spandex fibre, 273
Spectra, 253
Spectra/Dyneema, 250
Speedo, 226, 230, 231, 239
Sphere React Shirt, 153–5
Staphylococcus aureus, 380, 383
static charges, 27, 28–31
static dielectric constant, 279
stereo matching, 69–72
algorithm, 70
example, 72
stereovision, 66–72
stimuli-responsive polymers See stimuli-sensitive polymers (SSP)
stimuli-sensitive polymers (SSP), 198–121, 198–204
approaches to improve the response, 205
conversion to fibres, 208–21
change in shape of different SSP fibres, 211
cyclability behaviour of modified acrylic fibre, 213
electroactuating fibres, 219–21
functionalised SWCNT on magnitude and strain rate of composite fibres, 221
modifled PAN fibre chemical structure, 212
pH-responsive fibres, 210–19
proposed structure of the copoly-mers and fibre, 214
rate of transition and transition temperatures of SSP fibres, 210
SSP fibre produced from poly(NTBA:Am::27:73) copoly-mer, 209
SWCNT/chitosan composite fibres response towards change in applied voltage, 220
SWCNT concentration on tenacity of SWCNT/chitosan composite fibre, 219
temperature-responsive fibres, 209–10
drawbacks and limitations of current SSP/hydrogels, 204–5
dual-sensitive (temperature and pH sensitive) polymers/hydrogels, 202–4
integration to textiles, 206–8
coated yarn rate of transition, 207
coated yarn structures, 206–7
responsive breathable fabric, 208
water-vapour transmission for coated fabrics, 208
mechanism of action, 199
pH-responsive polymers, 201–2, 203
commonly used polymer systems, 203
mechanism of action, 202
smart functional textile, 205–21
temperature-responsive polymers, 199–201
copolymer structure, 201
PNIPAm chemical structure, 200
Stoke’s law, 280
stratum corneum, 491
stroke distance, 238–9, 240
stroke rate, 239, 240
subject surface, 85
sulfur derivatives, 119
sum of squared differences (SSD), 71
sun-protective clothing standards, 50–1 See also ultraviolet-blocking fabrics
sunlight, 185
Sunsheen fabric, 229
superhydrophobic surface, 321
superhydrophobic textile, 340–57
applications, 354–7
market approach, 356–7
new product development, 355–6
potential markets and new products using self-cleaning technologies, 356
research review, 354–5
contact-angle, 341–3, 349–50
drop on a flat surface, 342
hysteresis, 349–50
surface tension, 341–3
wettability, 341
future trends, 357
physical modification, 341–4
roll-off angle, 347–9
self-cleaning effect by superhydro-phobicity, 347
water drops on a tilted surface, 348
rough surfaces, 343–6
contact angle, 344
hydrophobicity, 344–6
liquid drop, 344
liquid reservoir, 343
wettability, 343–4
rough wetting, 343–7
artificial lotus fabric modelling, 346–7
roughness pattern upper-sectional view, 346
superhydrophobic rough surfaces preparation, 349–53
liquid drop sitting on cylinders, 352
plain woven fabric cross-section, 350
predicted vs measured apparent contact angles of woven surfaces, 353
superhydrophobic textiles
applications, 331–4
multifunctionalisation, 334
self-cleaning, 331–3
water droplets rolling through surfaces with dust, 333
water repellence, 331
chemical modifications for fabricating rough surfaces, 323–6
complex particle coating, 325–6
hydrothermal synthesis, 324–5
procedure for preparation on cotton substrate, 326
sol-gel processing, 323–4
future trends, 334–5
hydrophobisation for lowering the rough textiles surface energy, 327–9
alkyl molecules, 328–9
fluorinated molecules, 327–8
non-fluorinated polymer, 329
silicon compounds, 329
surface reactive molecules for low-surface-energy modifications, 327
improving through chemical modifications, 320–35
key principles, 321–2
droplet behaviour on a flat surface, 322
materials with low surface energy nanoscaled coating, 329–31
superhydrophobicity, 22
‘surface flash, ’, 100
surface modelling, 72–80
surface modifications
applications for functional textiles, 19–23
biomedical applications, 19–20
conductivity and antistatic properties, 22–3
increasing hydrophilic character, 20–1
photocatalytic coatings, 23
UV-protection, 23
water and oil repellency, 21–2
improving textile functionality, 3–24
future trends, 23–4
physical and chemical characterisation, 8–19
microscopic techniques, 8–11
atomic force microscopy, 10–11
polyester non-woven, 8
resolution, 8
scanning electron microscopy, 9–10
untreated polypropylene non-woven, 10
spectroscopic techniques, 11–15
contact angle measurement, 17
effective depth and take-off angle, 14
Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, 15
photoionisation process energy diagram, 13
x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, 11–15
XPS measurements schematic set-up, 12
types, 4–7
plasma technology, 7
vapour deposition, 4–5
chemical vapour deposition, 5
CVD process schematic, 5
physical vapour deposition, 4
PVD process schematic, 4
wet surface modification techniques, 6–7
electroless deposition, 6–7
grafting, 6
sol-gel, 7
wetting and wicking of modified textiles, 15–19
capillary rise method, 19
contact angle measurement, 16–18
liquid absorptive capacity, 18
water droplet on silicone surface, 17
survey scan, 14
swimming velocity, 239, 240
swimwear, 226
history, 227–8 See also performance swimwear
synthetic antibacterial colorants, 378–81
synthetic fibre fabrics, 114–16

T

Tagetes patula L., 389
TaumaDex, 313
Technora, 105
Teflon, 346
Teijinconex, 105
temperature-responsive fibres, 209–10
temperature-responsive polymers, 199–201
tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), 121
tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride (THPC), 117, 118
textile fibre, 100–1, 274
textiles
antibacterial colorants, 376–96
micro-organisms, 393–5
natural, 381–93
photo-activated, 395–6
synthetic, 378–81
textiles, 376–96
superhydrophobic, 320–35
key principles, 321–2
thermo-regulating with phase-change materials, 163–78
applications of PCM incorporated textiles, 175–7
challenges, 177–8
how PCMs work, 166–7
incorporation in textile structure, 172–5
thermal comfort and clothing, 164–5
thermo-physiological comfort, 168
textiles dyes
and chemicals transdermal permeation, 489–503
skin irritations key issues, 490–1
stochastic modelling for transdermal drug delivery, 496–502, 503
drug absorptions experimental vs simulation results, 503
drug simulated penetration into a bricks-and-mortar structure section, 500–2
model description, 498–500
staggered bricks-and-mortar model, 498
transdermal drug permeation in vitro study, 491–6
estradiol residual in layers after 0.5-h diffusion, 493
estradiol residual in layers after 4-h diffusion, 494
estradiol transdermal absorption at different times, 492
estrogen percutaneous absorption parameters, 496
materials and methods, 491–2
thermal comfort, 164–5
thermal decomposition, 102
thermal discomfort, 164
thermal energy storage (TES), 163
thermal insulation, 165
thermo-regulating textiles
phase-change materials, 163–78
applications of PCM incorporated textiles, 175–7
challenges, 177–8
how PCMs work, 166–7
incorporation in textile structure, 172–5
thermal comfort and clothing, 164–5
thermo-physiological comfort, 168
types, 168–72
thin films, 306
tissue engineering biomaterials, 300–1
titanium dioxide, 54, 369
titanium oxide thin films, 23
Tollens reaction, 366
Toray PPS, 108
transdermal permeation
drug in vitro study, 491–6
estradiol residual in layers after 0.5-h diffusion, 493
estradiol residual in layers after 4-h diffusion, 494
estradiol transdermal absorption at different times, 492
estrogen percutaneous absorption parameters, 496
materials and methods, 491–2
textiles dyes and chemicals, 489–503
skin irritations key issues, 490–1
stochastic modelling for transdermal drug delivery, 496–502, 503
transdermal drug permeation in vitro study, 491–6
transepidermal water loss (TEWL), 270
Trevira CS, 109
Tri-Carb 2900
TR, 492
triboelectric effect, 28
triboelectric series, 29, 30
tripwires, 230
tris (tribromoneopentyl) phosphate, 113
Trypanosoma cruzi, 407
turmeric See Curcuma longa
Twaron, 105, 253
twist factor, 443
Type III ballistic protection, 253
TYR, 226, 230, 239

U

Ultem, 107
ultra-high-surface area (UHSA) adsorbents, 259
ultraviolet absorbers, 53–5
ultraviolet-blocking fabrics, 45–57
environment and fabric use, 55–6
fabric colour, dyes and UV absorbers, 53–5
fabric type and construction, 51–3
outlook, 56–7
sun-protective clothing standards, 50–1
UPF in vitro and in vivo testing, 48–50
ultraviolet dosimetry, 50
ultraviolet protection, 23, 45–57 See also ultraviolet-blocking fabrics
ultraviolet protection factor (UPF), 45–57
environment and fabric use, 55–6
fabric colour, dyes and UV absorbers, 53–5
fabric type and construction, 51–3
in vitro and in vivo testing, 48–50
outlook, 56–7
sun-protective clothing standards, 50–1
ultraviolet radiation, 45–7
UMT Series Micro-Tribometer, 463
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), 435
Universal Scintillation Cocktail, 492
US Environmental Protection Agency, 413

V

Van der Waals forces, 278
vancomycin-resistant enterococci
(VRE), 361
Vectran, 110
Vectran HT, 110
Vectran UM, 110
velocity perturbation method, 235
vertex points, 77
viable epidermis, 492
virtual dressing, 66, 80–91, 92
Viscose FR, 113
Visil, 113
Von-Mises stress, 468, 473
defined, 470
Vyrene, 229

W

water repellency, 21–2
water-vapour transmission rate (WVTR), 208
wave-making resistance, 233–4
Weissmuller model, 229
Wenzel contact angle, 344, 349
Wenzel model, 344–5, 346, 352
Wenzel’s equation, 321
West Nile disease, 408
wet surface modification, 6–7
wetsuit, 240, 245
WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme, 414–15
wool, 273
wool fabrics, 142, 143
wool textiles, 120
work function, 13
World Health Organisation, 409
wound-healing materials, 304–5
wound vacuum assisted closure, 308
WoundStat, 313
woven fabrics, 443–5
relationship between fabric thickness and pesticide penetration, 444

X

X-Fiper, 105
x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), 11–15

Y

Young-Dupré equation, 439
Young equation, 341, 343, 344

Z

zeolite, 259, 313
Zipro, 120
Zylon, 108