Index – Ice Templating and Freeze-Drying for Porous Materials and Their Applications

Index


  • a
  • absorption process 284–285, 287
  • absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) 66, 284
  • acceleration mechanisms 338
  • accumulated particle layer 50
  • active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) 5, 63, 65, 66, 277, 283
  • ADME see drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME)
  • aerosol particles 289
  • air drying 3, 89
  • aligned porous organic cage (CC13) 342
  • Al2 O3‐ZrO2 composites 197
  • alumina cryogels 162, 167
  • alumina platelets 193, 214
  • alumina‐zirconia composites 145, 177
  • aluminosilicate colloids 193
  • ameloblastin 212
  • American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) 185, 187
  • ammonium persulfate (APS) 116, 159, 339
  • ammonium polymethacrylate 146
  • annealing process 6, 7
  • antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGP) 148
  • antifreeze proteins (AFP) 4, 148, 149, 158
  • aptamers 87
  • atmospheric freeze‐drying 68, 89, 295
  • atomic force microscopy (AFM) 283
  • Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) 260, 291, 318–320
  • b
  • bacterial cellulose nanowhiskers (BCNW) 109
  • banding 51, 52
  • Barrett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) method 106
  • BCS Class II drug celecoxib 294
  • β‐1,2,3,4,6‐pentaacetyl‐d‐galactose (BGAL) 110
  • β‐relaxation of matrix 81
  • bioavailability 63, 65, 66, 71–73, 82, 277, 280, 284–295, 303
  • bioceramics
    • macroporous bioglass scaffolds 166
    • porous hydroxyapatite scaffolds 165
    • tissue engineering 165
  • biocompatibility 121
    • freeze‐drying approach 124
    • laminin‐containing gelatin cryogels 122
    • macroporous scaffolds 122, 123
    • mESC clusters 124
    • mMSCs 123
    • 3D porous scaffolds or hydrogels 122
  • biodegradable aliphatic polyesters 191
  • biofunctionality 122
  • biopharmaceutical formulations
    • nucleic acid‐based formulations 87–89
    • peptide formulations 82–83
    • protein formulations 83–85
    • protein solid formulations 81
    • vaccine formulations 85–87
  • biopharmaceutic(s)
    • bioprocessing76
    • during freeze‐drying 77
    • during freezing
      • cold denaturation 76
      • ice‐water interface 77
      • pH change 77
      • protein concentration 76
    • during solid state storage
      • chemical reaction 78, 79
      • physical instability 79, 80
      • protein stability 80
      • stabilization mechanisms 81
    • protein pharmaceutics 76
  • Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) 66, 71, 277–279, 294, 295
  • Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) 66, 71, 279
  • biosafety 121
  • blood‐brain barrier (BBB) 290, 291, 303
  • Boltzmann velocity distribution 51
  • bone fracture 181
  • bone tissue engineering 165, 177, 181, 191, 197, 333
  • boron nitride (BN) 260, 323, 325
  • bridging zone effects 187
  • Brinell test 186
  • Brownian diffusion 47, 49, 288
  • c
  • Caco‐2 cell lines 278
  • camphene 12, 55, 119, 145, 147, 153, 159, 163, 168, 251
  • carbon cryogels
    • doping 235
    • freeze‐drying process 233
    • metal oxide nanoparticles 237
    • microspheres 236
    • organic resins 236
    • polymeric (organic) gels 230
    • pore structures 235
    • pyrolysis procedure 234
    • sulfonated carbon cryogels 237
  • carbonization 18, 229, 238, 240–242, 264, 327, 341
  • carbon nanofibers (CNFs) 264
    • CVD approach 241
    • directional freezing procedure 242
    • electrospinning method 244
    • hydrothermal and solvothermal reactions 242
    • synthesis of PDI‐COOH 242
    • thermal annealing and carbonization 241
  • carbon nanotubes (CNTs) 206, 229, 313
    • aerogels/cryogels 246
    • based porous materials
      • chitosan structures 247
      • CNT‐PDMS composite 249
      • mechanical stability 247
      • MWCNTs 247
    • CVD 245
    • sp2‐hybridized CNT 245
  • cell growth 22, 105, 121–123, 165, 168, 258
  • cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) 105, 116, 314–317
  • cellulose nanofibres (CNFs) 127, 242, 259, 314–317
  • centrifugal casting 180
  • centrifugation freezing 154–155
  • ceramic‐ceramic composites
    • crack deflection 214
    • ductile phase 214, 218, 219
    • fabrication procedure 214
    • graphene‐ceramic composites 216
    • MASC process 215
  • ceramic composites 215
    • ceramic materials 177
    • fabrication methods 180, 182
    • fracture toughness 180
    • freeze‐casting (ice‐templating) method 182
    • materials 202
    • matrix and second/dispersed phase 179
    • mechanical characterizations
      • fracture mechanics and toughness 186–187
      • hardness 185–186
      • porous ceramics 189–191
      • strength 182–185
      • toughening mechanism 187–188
    • mechanical properties 181
    • polymer‐ceramic composites 178, 179
    • porous and non‐porous 177
    • properties 178
    • satellites and space‐born systems 179
    • strength and toughness 181
    • thermal stability and corrosion resistance 178
    • toughing mechanisms 179, 180
  • ceramic‐metal composites (CMCs) 209
  • ceramic particles
    • alumina particles 142
    • particle size 144, 145
    • solid content 143
  • ceria‐& magnesia‐doped zirconia 177
  • cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) 149, 150, 189, 212, 216
  • chemical vapour deposition (CVD) 197, 206, 241, 245, 246, 250, 321
  • chitosan 87, 90, 105, 108, 111–113, 116, 117, 120, 121, 123–127, 130, 159, 168, 190, 192, 193, 199, 206, 240, 247–249, 259, 291, 319
  • circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy 70
  • citric acid 146, 147, 161
  • clay particles 157, 193, 194, 199
  • CNCs seecellulose nanocrystals (CNCs)
  • CNF/CNC suspension
    • acid hydrolysis process 317
    • cellular or nanofibrous aerogel 314
    • crosslinking reactions 317
    • freeze‐dried CNC and CNF foams 316
    • freeze‐thaw process 317
    • ice‐templating 314
    • wet stretching 315
  • CNFs seecarbon nanofibers (CNFs)
  • C3N4‐GO aerogel 260
  • CNTs seecarbon nanotubes (CNTs)
  • coacervation 90
  • cold denaturation 76
  • collagen‐apatite gel 159
  • collagen‐PLGA‐CaP scaffolds 192
  • colloid(s) 2, 15, 17, 39, 47, 55, 74, 103, 129, 130, 150, 154, 155, 166, 189, 190, 240, 313, 318–322, 325–328, 344
  • colloidal templating 169, 240, 264
  • compressed CO2 12
    • aligned porous structure 110
    • directional freezing 111
    • supercritical fluids 110
  • computer‐controlled freezing stage 13, 21, 107
  • concentration‐temperature diagram 337
  • confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) 118, 122
  • conjugated microporous polymers 103
  • contact shielding processes 187
  • controlled drug release
    • chitosan 125
    • curcumin 125
    • PVA hydrogels 124
    • silica microspheres 125
  • controlled freezing
    • freezing process
      • directional freezing 18, 19
      • ice‐templated microspheres 19, 20
      • liquid nitrogen 18
    • freezing samples
      • bulk samples 13
      • liquid nitrogen, injection into 14
      • spray freezing 14
    • ice crystal growth
      • directional freezing 13
      • random freezing 12
  • CoolSafe 90 22
  • core‐shell particles 326–328
  • covalent organic frameworks (COFs) 103, 341
  • crack bowing 187
  • crack‐bridging 179
  • crack deflection 179, 181, 187, 188, 198, 201, 214
  • crack‐tip opening displacement (CTOD) 187
  • crack tip shielding 187, 188
  • creep 178, 181, 184, 185
  • crosslinked polymerization 15
  • crosslinking process 3, 114
  • cryogels 116–118, 120, 122, 129, 131, 160–162, 167, 230–242, 246–247, 341
  • Cryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy (CryoTEM) 35–36, 39, 114, 283
  • cryopreservation 4, 7, 29, 31, 86, 91, 344
  • cryoprotectants 4, 65, 75, 78, 82, 85, 86, 91, 124
  • cryo‐sol‐gelation
    • alumina cryogels 162
    • dry gels, formation of 161
    • inorganic gels 159
    • porous ceramics or inorganic cryogels 160
    • tetraethyl orthosilicate 160, 161
    • zeolite particles 160
  • CryoTEM seeCryogenic Transmission Electron Microscopy (CryoTEM)
  • cubic ice (Ic) 31, 35
  • CVD seechemical vapour deposition (CVD)
  • cycloolefin copolymer (COC) tubing 129
  • d
  • dairy fermentation industries 90
  • deamidation 78
  • debonding 179, 181, 187, 188
  • deep‐eutectic solvents (DES) 336
  • dehydration stresses 76, 77, 86
  • Derjaguin–Landau–Verwe–Overbeek (DLVO) theory 52
  • differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) 70, 79, 83, 114, 118, 283
  • direct foaming method 141
  • directional freezing 7, 13, 141, 143, 150
  • dispersant/stabilizer 147–148
  • disulfide formation 79
  • DNA 86–89, 122, 293
  • DNAzymes 87
  • drug classification 71, 277–280
  • drug‐excipient interaction 281
  • drug nanoparticles 290, 292
    • absorption process
      • lung by pulmonary delivery 288–289
      • orally administering route 285–288
    • metabolism and excretion
      • lipophilicity‐hydrophilicity excipients 292
      • renal clearance 291
    • nanoparticle clearance and distribution
      • endocytosis 290
      • RES 289
      • systemic circulation in blood 290
      • variation of pHs 291
    • physicochemical techniques 304
    • toxicology
      • concentration and time 293
      • nanomaterials 293
      • physical mechanisms 293
      • routes of entry into body 293
  • dry gels, formation of 161
  • dynamic laser scattering (DLS) 83, 283, 298
  • e
  • elastic modulus‐composite strength 192
  • elastic‐plastic fracture mechanics (EPFM) 186, 187
  • electrofreezing 6
  • electrophoretic deposition 180, 182, 199
  • emulsification 90, 244
  • emulsion(s) 2, 11, 12, 18, 20, 55, 65, 74, 75, 85, 86, 90, 113, 114, 117, 124, 126, 130, 234, 254, 281, 295, 296, 301, 333, 335
  • emulsion‐freeze‐drying 74, 78, 334
    • approach 303
    • efavirenz nanoparticles 301
    • fluorophore 300
    • hydrophobic dyes and poorly water soluble drugs 298
    • lipid‐based emulsions 295
    • method 298
    • MCTs 296
    • Oil Red O (OR) 296
    • organic nanoparticles 298
    • surfactants 300
  • emulsion‐templated macropores 334
  • emulsion‐templated SCMC 112
  • emulsion‐templating 11, 16, 55, 103, 112, 113, 155, 169, 253, 255, 297, 333
  • enamelin 212
  • enamel‐mimic ceramic‐polymer composites
    • carbonated HAs 211
    • freeze‐casting approach 214
    • mechanical properties 212
    • secretion and maturation, stages 212
    • zirconia 212
  • encapsulation 90
    • chitosan 126
    • freeze‐dried scaffolds 126
    • hydrophobic organic nanoparticles or microspheres 126
  • enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect 290, 291, 304
  • epoxy/BN composites 217, 218
  • epoxy/3D‐BN composites 217, 218
  • European Medicines Evaluation Agency (EMEA) 284
  • European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) 37
  • extracellular matrix (CEM) 121, 290
  • extrusion 73, 90, 281
  • f
  • FDDS seefloating drug delivery system (FDDS)
  • filtration/gas permeation 163
  • flash freezing 249, 251
  • flexural tests 185, 187
  • floating drug delivery system (FDDS) 72–74
  • fluidized‐bed coating 90
  • fluorescence (Förster) resonance energy transfer (FRET) 300
  • food applications, freeze drying
    • encapsulation 90
    • probiotic foods 90–92
    • simple freeze‐drying 89
  • Fourier region 38
  • Fourier transform (FT) functions 37
  • Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) 70, 78, 83
  • freeze casting 29, 144, 155, 156
    • approach 199
    • ice‐templating method 182
    • materials 53
    • parameters 189
    • technique 31
  • freeze‐dried CNC I 315, 316
  • freeze‐dried materials 13, 14, 16, 17, 54, 55, 120, 131, 206, 328
  • freeze‐dried porous polymers 119, 130, 189, 258, 302
  • freeze‐drier shelf 84
  • freeze‐drying approaches 303
  • freeze‐drying process 3, 20, 22, 264, 335
    • additives in solution
      • biological samples 4, 5
      • ice crystals, formation of 6
      • lyoprotectants 5
      • stabilizer/binders 5
      • water or water solutions 6
    • aqueous solutions or suspensions 1
    • disadvantages 4
    • freezing methods 6, 7
    • frozen solutions or suspension 14
    • gels or crosslinked samples 14, 15
    • ice templating 2
    • lyophilisation 4
    • porous materials 2
    • primary drying 7–9, 66
    • procedure 22–24
    • process development and design 68
    • solvent exchange process 15
    • varieties 67
    • water or water solutions 3
  • freeze‐tape‐casting 150–151
  • freeze‐thaw process 114–116, 317, 335, 336
  • freezing 20, 21
    • conditions, control of 55–56
    • induced self‐assembly 337
    • process 21
    • techniques 189
    • thawing‐freeze drying process 263
  • freezing front
    • constitutional supercooling 49
    • frozen fringe 52
    • ice banding 51, 52
    • ice crystals 50, 51
    • morphology instability
      • linear stability analysis 47, 48
      • morphology zones and stability diagram 48–53
      • Mullins–Sekerka equation 45–46
    • morphology zones 48
    • movement of particle 41
    • rigid‐ice models 53
    • stability diagram 49
    • theoretical models 49
    • z‐crystals and r‐crystals 49
  • Fresnel diffraction approximation 37
  • frozen polymerization 3
    • crosslinked aligned porous structures 118
    • cryopolymerization 120
    • polyHEMA hydrogels 119, 120
    • structure of polyTEGDMA 119
  • functional ceramics 216
  • furfuryl alcohol (FA) 196
  • g
  • gas‐in‐liquid foam 113
  • Gd‐doped ceria (GDC) 143, 151, 167
  • gelatin 64, 90, 120, 122, 124, 147–149, 158, 193, 247, 259, 326, 335
  • gelation/crosslinking 335–336
  • gelation‐freeze‐casting method
    • characteristics 158
    • gelation with gelatin 158
    • photopolymerisation (or photocuring) 158
    • polymerization (or gelation) of slurry 159
  • Gibbs–Thomson effect 43, 44
  • Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) 86
  • glycerol‐modified materials 130
  • good manufacturing practice (GMP) 281
  • graded porous ceramics 153–154
  • graphene
    • aerogels 256
    • filtration assembly 253
    • freeze‐drying
      • cellular monoliths 254
      • electrospraying 254
      • GO hydrogels 253
      • GO suspensions and subsequent freeze‐drying 251
      • ice templating and emulsion templating 253
    • GO and CNTs 261
    • GO‐polymer composites 258
    • organic solvents 258
    • properties and methods 250
    • 3D graphene networks 250, 251
  • graphene‐CNT aerogels 262, 263
  • graphene/graphene oxide 264, 313
  • graphene‐inorganic nanostructured hybrids 258
  • gravitational sedimentation 288
  • Guinier region 38
  • h
  • HA‐based ceramic composite 197
  • Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) 165
  • heat release rates (HRRs) 195
  • heat transfer 8, 9, 56, 164
  • helix‐reinforced zirconia‐epoxy composites 208
  • hexagonal ice (Ih) 6, 31, 35
  • hierarchically porous material 103, 341–344
  • high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) 298, 333
  • highly crosslinked polymers 104, 264
  • high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) 189, 236, 283
  • high‐value foods 89
  • HKUST‐1 342, 343
  • holotomography 36, 37
  • homogenization 11, 281, 295, 298, 303, 323
  • human bone, properties and porosity 191
  • human carcinogens 281
  • Hummers method 251
  • hydrogels 118
    • cell growth 123
    • drug delivery 124
    • freeze‐thaw PVA hydrogels
      • chemical crosslinking 114
      • crystallization 114
      • properties 114
      • PVAc 115
      • water‐miscible organic solvents 116
  • nanofibrous polymers 112
  • i
  • ice crystals 38, 51
    • crystalline phases 30, 31
    • cubic ice (Ic) 31
    • hexagonal ice (Ih) 31
    • ice‐templating or freeze‐casting technique 31, 32
    • snow crystals 31
    • supercooled water 30
  • ice fog technique 6
  • ice segregation induced self‐assembly (ISISA) 106, 141
  • ice segregation patterns 52
  • ice, solid‐liquid phase diagram 30
  • ice stability diagram 50
  • ice‐templated carbons
    • micropores 240
    • polyacrylonitrile 238
    • polyamic acid (PAA) 240
    • polyimides 238
    • sodium poly(4‐styrenesulfonate) (PSS) 240
  • ice‐templated ceramics
    • ceramic particles 142
    • formulations, effect of
      • additives 147, 150
      • binder 147
      • ceramic particles 142–145
      • dispersant or stabilizer 146, 147
      • solvent 145–146
    • freezing conditions
      • centrifugation freezing 154
      • combining freezing 155
      • directional freezing 150
      • freeze casting with magnetic field 155
      • graded porous ceramics 153
      • surface vacuum freezing 151
    • freezing velocities 157–158
    • pore structures 142
  • ice‐templated materials
    • control of freezing conditions 55–56
    • mesopores 341
    • microporous materials 341
    • solution/suspensions, formulation of
      • additive or binder 54
      • concentration of polymers or particles 54
      • emulsion 55
      • particle size and shape 53
      • solutes or particles 53
      • solvent 55
  • ice‐templated microhoneycomb structure 325
  • ice‐templated silica gels 161
  • ice templating 29, 112, 335
  • ice templating for porous structures
    • controlled freezing 12–14
    • ice crystal templates, removal of 14, 15
    • materials
      • pore structure and morphology 16
      • shape and form 15
      • types 18
    • solutes or particles
      • emulsions 11
      • in liquid medium 10
      • solutions 10
    • solvents
      • compressed CO212
      • emulsions 12
      • mixing solvents 12
      • organic solvents 11
      • water 11
  • ice‐templating technique/freeze‐casting
    • CryoTEM 35, 36
    • optical interferometry 34–35
    • optical microscope 33
    • small angle X‐ray scattering 38–40
    • X‐ray radiography and tomography 36–37
  • ice‐water interface 77
  • impact‐based pull‐out friction 179
  • impregnation 197
  • inertial impaction 288
  • inorganic cryogels 160
  • inorganic gels 159
  • interfacial‐curvature effects 44, 45
  • ionic liquids (ILs) 336
  • irectional solidification 141
  • j
  • J integral–crack Resistance (J‐R) curve 187, 188, 201, 209
  • Johari–Goldstein β (βJG) relaxation 81
  • k
  • Kirkendall effect 339
  • Krooper test 186
  • Kupffer cells 289
  • m
  • Mach–Zehnder optical interferometry 34
  • macroporous bioglass scaffolds 166
  • macroporous cryogels
    • glutaraldehyde 117
    • hydrated hydrogel 118
    • polymerization or crosslinking reactions 116
    • rate of freezing 117
    • supermacroporous cryogels 118
  • macroporous polymers 103
  • Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell lines 278
  • Magnéli phase 166
  • magnetically assisted slip casting (MASC) process 207
  • Maillard reactions 78, 79, 92
  • matrix vitrification 81
  • mESCs seemouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs)
  • mesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs) 123
  • mesoporous polymers 103
  • messenger RNA (mRNA) 87
  • microcracking 179, 188, 198, 201, 206
  • microemulsions 75, 103, 296
  • microgel templating 334
  • microplatelets 198, 217, 323
  • microporous polymers 103
  • military foods 89
  • miniemulsions 74, 321
  • mixing solvents 12, 145, 146, 161, 341
  • mMSCs seemesenchymal stem cells (mMSCs)
  • molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) hydrogels 127
  • molecular inclusion 90
  • mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) 289
  • Monte Carlo simulations 31
  • mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) 123, 124
  • Mullins–Sekerka equation
    • diffusion mechanism 46
    • steady‐state values 45
    • thermal conductivities of ice and solution 46
  • multiferroic magnetoelectric materials 178
  • multi‐wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) 232, 247–249, 261
  • n
  • nacre 182, 188, 192, 198–200, 259
  • nacre, ceramic‐polymer composites
    • inorganic platelets 219
    • layered polymer‐ceramic composites
      • alumina‐polymer composites 200
      • brick‐and‐mortar structure 200, 201
      • directional freezing 200
      • freeze‐dried scaffolds 204
      • graphene networks 206
      • hydrophobic hydration 205
      • mechanical properties 205
      • PMMA (grafted and non‐grafted) 201
      • porous chitosan 206
  • magnetic field‐assisted freeze‐casting
    • freezing process 207
    • PMMA and epoxy resin 208
    • polymer phase 208
    • superparamagnetic nanoparticles 207
  • nacre and nacre‐mimic composites
    • freeze‐casting approach 199
    • layered material, preparation 199
    • mechanical properties 198
    • multiple energy dissipation mechanisms 198–199
    • toughening mechanisms 198
  • nacre‐like ceramic/metal composites
    • Al/TiC composite 210
    • lamellar composites 209
    • mechanical properties 210
    • porous alumina and zirconia scaffolds 209
    • SiC scaffold 210
  • nacre‐like composites of alumina 209
  • nanocasting 169
  • nanodispersions 113, 298, 299
  • nanoemulsions 74, 75, 87, 296
  • nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC)‐MMT composites 196
  • nanofibrous polymers
    • chitosan nanofibers 111, 112
    • hydrogels 112
    • porous polymers 111
  • nanoformulation approaches
    • drug nanoparticles, characterization of 282
    • drug solubility 283
    • drug solubility and bioavailability 280
    • nanosizing techniques 281
    • poor water solubility problem 280
    • solvents, classes 281
  • nanomedicine
    • drug classification systems, `the rule of 5 280
    • drug compounds and NCEs 277
    • drug solubility 278, 279
    • FDA regulations 278
    • freeze‐drying 294
    • lyoprotectants and stabilizers 295
    • organic solvents 295
    • poorly water‐soluble drugs 294
    • WHO 278
  • nanoparticles 313
    • clearance and distribution 289–291
    • ice‐templating approach 328
    • toxicology 293–294
  • nanoparticles and colloids
    • Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) 319
    • freeze‐drying 318
    • freeze rates 319
    • ice‐templating approach 322
    • polymeric microgels 322
    • polymer nanoparticles 319
    • 3D aerogels 319
  • nanosizing/nanoformulation techniques 280
  • nanosuspensions 105, 281, 283, 284, 288, 296, 298
  • nanotoxicology 293
  • nanowires 16, 17, 108, 130, 313, 324
    • Au 318, 319
    • CNFs formation 242
    • and nanofibers
      • chitin nanofibers 323
      • ice‐templating approach 323
      • phenylalanine nanofibers 323
  • natural rubber (NR)–MMT composites 195
  • new chemical entities (NCEs) 82, 277
  • nucleic acid‐based formulations
    • cancer and genetic disorders, treating 87
    • freeze‐dried siRNA 88
    • liquid formulations 88
    • nucleotides 87
    • spray freeze‐drying 88
    • therapeutics 87
  • nucleotides 87
  • nutraceutical foods 89
  • o
  • ODTs see Orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs)
  • oil‐in‐water (O/W) emulsion 12, 20–22, 55, 74, 75, 112, 113, 124, 126, 154, 189, 253, 254, 263, 295–298, 300–303, 333
  • oils/organic solvents 128
  • oligonucleotides 87, 295
  • opsonins 289
  • optical interferometry 34–35
  • optical microscope 21, 22, 33–34
  • orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) 73
  • organic solvent‐based systems
    • BCNW 109
    • home‐made mould 109
    • PAN‐DMSO solution 109
    • porous PCL 108
    • porous PLGA 108, 109
  • organic solvents 11, 29
    • ice‐templating approach 11
  • organoleptic foods 89
  • orientated freezing 141
  • Ostwald–Freundlich equation 280
  • oxidation 79, 162, 167, 168, 178, 229, 235, 248, 258, 260, 287, 314
  • oxidized CNTs 262, 263
  • p
  • particle and freezing front, interactions
    • critical freezing velocity 42
      • attractive and repulsive force 41, 42
      • parameters, solid/liquid interface 42
      • geometry and interfacial‐curvature effects 44
      • interfacial premelting 44
      • particle radius on critical velocity 43, 44
      • thermal gradient on critical velocity 42
      • viscosity on critical velocity 43
  • particle‐depleted region (PDR) 50, 51
  • particulate matter (PM) 293
  • Pd nanoparticles 167, 260, 318
  • pectins 106, 194
  • peptide formulations
    • cell penetrating peptides 83
    • micro‐and nano‐encapsulations 83
    • molecular weight 82
    • secretin 83
  • permeation pathways 287, 288
  • permitted daily exposure (PDE) 281, 282
  • pharmaceutical formulations
    • cyclodextrin and lipids 64
    • excipient food ingredients 65
    • freeze‐dried formulations 65
    • parenteral formulations 65
    • percentage of excipients 63
    • physicochemical properties 66
    • polymers 64
    • sugars 64
  • pharmaceutical freeze‐drying, PAT tools 71
  • pharmaceutical products 64, 66, 67, 72, 80, 281–283, 294, 301, 303
  • pharmaceutics
    • categories 71
    • emulsion freeze‐drying 74–75
    • FDDS 73
    • freeze‐drying 72
    • high‐throughput synthesis and screening techniques 71
    • ODTs 73
    • solid pharmaceutical formulation 72
    • spray freeze‐drying process 72–73
  • phase transformation toughening 179
  • phenolics 89
  • photopolymerization/photocuring 119, 158–159
  • plasticity 184, 188
  • plasmid DNAs (pDNAs) 87–89
  • platelets and nanosheets 323–325
  • PLGA see poly(lactic‐co‐glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles
  • Poisson's ratio ν 183
  • polyacrylonitrile (PAN) 109, 238, 239, 241, 249, 326, 327
  • polyaniline nanoparticles 339
  • polyaniline nanotubes 339–341
  • polyborosiloxane (PBS) 259, 260
  • poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) 189
  • polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) 178, 204, 249, 260, 323
  • polyethyleneimine 87, 127, 240, 325
  • polyHEMA nanowires 117, 119, 120, 130
  • polymer‐clay composites 194, 195
  • polymerization/gelation 159
  • polymerization in frozen solutions
    • acceleration mechanisms 338
    • chemical reactions 337
    • interfacial polymerization 339
  • polymerization or crosslinking reaction 116, 131
  • polymer migration approach 129
  • polymer nanofibers 111, 313
  • polymer nanoparticle/colloid suspensions 66, 232, 313, 319, 322
  • polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) 103, 341
  • polymer sponges
    • biocompatible sponges 105
    • biological properties 105
    • cellulose nanofibers 105
    • hydrophilic polymers 105
    • ice templating 106
    • sponge structure 104
  • poly(N‐isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) 105, 117, 120, 122, 124, 296–298, 322, 326, 327, 334
  • polypyrrole film 339
  • polypyrrole (PPy) nanoparticle suspension 321
  • polystyrene (PS) nanoparticle dispersion 319–320
  • polyTEGDMA 119
  • poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) 115
  • poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) 4, 5, 21, 22, 54, 64, 105, 108, 111, 113–117, 121, 124–127, 131, 147–150, 154, 162, 163, 189, 190, 195, 196, 205, 216, 236, 241, 247, 253, 256, 259, 290, 292, 294, 298, 300, 301, 319, 321, 323, 326, 335, 336
  • poly(vinyl butyral) 146, 147
  • poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane 129, 241
  • Porod region 38, 39
  • porous alumina‐polymer composites 193
  • porous carbon materials
    • activated carbons 229
    • carbon cryogels 230
    • CNTs and graphene 229
    • freeze‐drying process 230
    • ice templating 230
  • porous ceramic‐ceramic composites 196–198
  • porous ceramic/polymer composites
    • clay‐based composites 193–196
    • freezing techniques 189
    • hydroxyapatite (HA)‐based composites 191, 193
  • porous ceramics
    • advantages of ice templating 141
    • bioceramics 165–166
    • catalysis 167–168
    • categories 141
    • cryo‐sol‐gelation 159–162
    • electric/electrode materials 166–167
    • filtration/gas permeation 163
    • freeze casting 168–169
    • by gelation‐freeze‐casting 158–159
    • by ice templating 142–158
    • properties 141
    • thermal insulators 163–164
  • porous lead‐zirconate‐titanate (PZT) scaffolds 216
  • porous metals, ice‐templating see ice‐templating, porous metals
  • porous polymers 104
    • directional freezing 107
    • water‐based systems 107, 108
  • porous silica 18, 126, 129, 142, 147, 150, 154, 156, 159, 160, 189, 190, 229
  • post‐freeze‐drying crosslinking
    • biopolymeric scaffolds 120
    • in liquid medium 121
    • SCMC nanofibers 121
  • powder X‐ray diffraction (PXRD) 70, 283, 343
  • pre‐cooled shelf freezing 7
  • primary drying
    • freeze concentrate 7
    • freeze‐dryer set‐up 8
    • ice sublimation 8
    • time 9
    • vacuum and pressure 8
  • pristine graphene (PG)‐MWCNT 232, 261
  • probiotic(s) 90–92
  • probiotic foods
    • cryoprotectants & lyoprotectants 91
    • fermentation processes 90
    • freeze‐drying 91
    • rehydration 92
    • sugar protectants 91
  • process analytical technologies (PAT) 70–71
  • process zone effects 187
  • protein formulations
    • alkaline phosphatase 83
    • freeze drying 83, 84
    • insulin‐loaded PLGA 85
    • spray drying and spray freeze drying 85
    • stabilization 84
  • protein glycation (Maillard reaction) 78–79
  • protein stability 76–81, 83, 85
  • PVA gel structure 115
  • PVA/silica composite 154, 189
  • PVOH seepoly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)
  • PZT/epoxy composites 217
  • q
  • quality by design (QbD) approach 70
  • quench freezing 7
  • r
  • random freezing 12–13, 18
  • reduced graphene oxide (rGO)‐MWCNT aerogels 261, 263
  • replicating approach 141
  • RES seereticuloendothelial system (RES)
  • resistance temperature detector (RTD) 8, 71
  • resorcinol (R)‐formaldehyde (F) system 230, 264
  • reticuloendothelial system (RES) 289, 290, 293
  • ribonucleic acid (RNA) 87
  • ribosomal RNA (rRNA) 87
  • ribozymes 87, 88
  • Ritonavir (RTV) 301
  • rule‐of‐five approach 66, 72
  • t
  • tape casting 180, 182, 199
  • teeth, columnar motifs 213
  • temperature gradient microscope stage (TGMS) 34
  • tensile stress‐strain profile 183
  • tert‐Butanol (TBA)‐water 106, 294
  • tert‐butyl alcohol (TBA) 145–147, 159, 160, 164, 165, 316, 317
  • tetraethyleneglycol dimetharylate (TEGDMA) 119
  • tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) 160, 161, 166
  • Texaphor 963 147
  • thermal annealing 233, 241, 253
  • thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) 178
  • thermal insulators 163–164, 168
  • thermocouples 8, 33, 37
  • thermoelectric (TE) properties 263
  • Thermos flask effect 8
  • thin film freezing 73, 84, 294
  • 3D porous graphene networks 259, 260, 262
  • TiO2 phase 166, 168
  • tissue engineering
    • cell growth 121
    • scaffolds 131
  • toughening mechanism
    • in ceramics 187–188
    • intrinsic and extrinsic 188
    • second phase 188
  • toughening mechanisms 179, 187–188, 198, 201, 208, 219
  • transfer RNA (tRNA) 87
  • transmission electron microscopy (TEM) 35, 36, 70, 167, 282–283, 340
  • u
  • ultimate compression strength (UCS) 206
  • ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) 177, 178
  • ultrasound‐induced freezing 7
  • unidirectional freezing 13, 106, 141
  • USA Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 70, 277
  • UV‐initiated frozen polymerization 15
  • v
  • vaccine(s) 67, 71, 73, 85, 87, 91
  • vaccine formulations
    • adjuvants 86
    • in liquid forms 86
    • stabilizing mechanisms 86
    • types 86
  • vacuum drying 1, 3, 15, 192
  • van der Waals interactions 45
  • vapour deposition 181
  • Vickers test 185, 186
  • VirTis AdVantage freeze dryer 23
  • w
  • water‐based systems
    • aqueous PVA solutions 107
    • cellulose and collagen 108
    • chitin or chitosan 108
  • water, drug solubility classification 278
  • water entrapment 81
  • water‐in‐oil (W/O) emulsion 74, 295
  • water replacement mechanism 78, 81, 84
  • water treatment
    • macroporous cyclodextrin materials 127
    • MIP hydrogels 127
    • porous sponges 127
  • wedge‐based system 108, 109
  • Weibull expression 180
  • wet milling 281, 298, 303
  • wet stretching 315
  • wide angle X‐ray scattering (WAXS) 283
  • World Health Organization (WHO) Essential Drug List 278
  • x
  • X‐ray absorption imaging 36
  • X‐ray diffraction 316
  • X‐ray diffraction data 31
  • X‐ray phase contrast imaging 36
  • X‐ray radiography and tomography
    • advantages 36
    • ice crystals 37
    • modes of 36
  • z
  • ZrO2‐epoxy composite 207
  • zwitterionic chitosan derivatives 291