Index – Information Services and Digital Literacy

Index

A

abundance, 40, 70, 73, 80, 116, 121–6
activism, 51, 60, 69, 75
adulthood, 94
adults, 38, 70, 78–82, 94, 116, 125, 132
adverse selection, 8–9
affective computing, 97
affordances, 65, 91, 102
Agamben, Giorgio, 65
agency, 49, 99, 103, 136
aggregation, 45, 71, 114–15, 117
agonistic pluralism, 141
AJAX, 46
Akerlof, George, 8
algorithms, 115, 117–19
altruism, 59, 62, 69–70, 76, 109, 119
amateurism, 47, 71
amateurs, 19, 45, 64, 71–2, 96, 109, 116
amplification, 53–4, 64
anomie, 61–2, 65
anonymity, 92
appropriations, 49, 53, 83, 89, 91, 106–7, 112, 136–8, 140
archives, 4, 27–8, 34, 64, 103, 125
archivists, 25, 28
ARPANET, 37
atomism, 104–6
augmented reality, 47–8
aura of authenticity, 125
authenticity, 125–7
authorities, 8, 27–8, 67, 117, 120
authorship, 22, 56, 75–6
autonomous technology, 97–8, 126–7

B

barriers, 17–19, 23, 25, 33–4, 38–9, 56, 85, 121, 130–1, 140
Bauman, Zygmunt, 8, 64, 68
behaviour, 8, 11
behaviour, collective, 52
behaviour, economising, 10–12, 112, 140
behaviour, information, 80, 82–3, 132, 139
behaviour, information-seeking, 12
behaviour, reading, 11, 83–7
behaviour, voting, 10
behaviourism, 8, 31
beliefs, 13–14
Benjamin, Walter, 50, 125–6
Benkler, Yochai, 58, 64
Berners-Lee, Sir Tim, 37, 47, 67
bias, 107–9, 112
Big Brother, 61
big brothers, 93
blogging, 38, 59–61, 76, 85, 94, 104, 109–12
bookmarking, 62, 108
books, 14, 60, 81, 84–7, 127
border (method), 143–4
Borgman, Christine L., 42–3
bouncing, 84
boundaries, 2, 4–5, 16–27, 33–4
boundaries, information, 101–5, 107, 112–13, 115, 117–18, 120, 124, 126–8
boundaries, social, 55–6, 59, 62–3, 65, 67, 69, 72, 75–6
boundaries, technology, 35–43, 45, 48–9, 51, 54
boundaries, user, 78–9, 81–4, 86–91, 94–9
boundaries of knowing, 129–31, 133, 135–45
boundary activities, 27
boundary objects, 19–23, 29, 32, 91, 97, 120, 137–8, 140–2
boundary practices, 21, 33
boundary spanners, 22
Bowker, Geoffrey, 19, 83
broadband, 38, 78
broadband providers, 88
broadcast yourselfism, 59–63, 68–9, 111, 114, 134
browsing, 84
Business 2.0, 64

C

capitalism, 64
CarrotMob, 66
cars, 88
cashpoints, 43, 133
Castells, Manuel, 57
catalogues, 51–2, 78, 81, 134
categories, 19, 21, 57, 82–3, 112, 143
censorship, 66
Chartier, Roger, 87
Chatman, Elfreda, 18, 144
Checkland, Peter, 20
children, 79–81, 84, 86, 94, 116, 125
choice, rational, 4, 11, 75
citizen journalism, 69
citizen reporters, 63
citizens, 67–8, 76
classifications, 19
clickworks, 57
Cluetrain Manifesto, 71
cognitive surplus, 73
collaborative action, 58–9
collective action, 59–60, 74, 134
collective authorship, 75–6
collective individualism, 61
collective opinion, 114
collectivism, 51, 98
colonisation, 67, 75, 108
commercial information services, 28
commercialism, 55, 63–6, 68, 79, 108
commoditisation, 79
commons, 58–9, 64
communalism, 60–2, 68–9, 75–6
communication, 17, 19–20, 37–8, 56–7, 60, 64, 66, 81–5, 109–12
communicative action, 11–12
communitarianism, 66–7
communities, 20–2, 58–62, 65, 68–9, 76
competences, 31–2, 142–4
complex easiness, 131–3
computer literacy, 30–1
computerisation, 45
computers, 40–4, 142
computers, personal, 40–4
consensualism, 141
consensus, 114
constructivism, 74, 136
consumerism, 64, 67–8, 76
contextuality, 103–5
contributions, 68, 70, 110–11, 115
control, illusion of, 105
convenience, 11, 44–5, 84, 131–2
convergence, 47–9, 54, 65, 69, 82
coolness, 111
cooperation, 19–20, 56, 59, 64
costs, 39, 64, 66
cowboys, 68
creation, 63, 66, 70
creative class, 111
creativity, 63–4, 82
credibility, 9, 126
crowdsourcing, 57
Cult of the Amateur, 71
culture of participation, 2–3, 16, 32, 52, 55–6, 62–4, 66, 68, 70, 74, 120
culture of sharing, 64
culture of solitary authorship, 76
customers, 64, 67–8, 70
cybernetics, 50, 97–8
cyberspace, 92, 117

D

databases, 103, 134
Deleuze, Gilles, 18
Delicious, 108, 115
democracy, 10, 61, 66–7, 69, 117–18, 120
democratic divide, 89–90
Denmark, 79
Dervin, Brenda, 25
digital dossier, 93–4
digital immigrants, 79–80, 94, 96, 98
digital libraries, 84–5, 125
digital literacy, 25–7, 30–3
digital natives, 77, 79–80, 96, 98–9
digital residents, 80, 96
digital visitors, 80, 96
digitality, 33–4, 99, 102–3
digitisation, 2, 36, 106, 112–13
disengagement, 121, 125
disugualizazione, 89
divides, 72–4, 89–90, 143
documentalists, 102
documents, 20–1, 56, 83, 92, 107, 109, 125
dogs, 92–3
Duranti, Luciana, 28
Durkheim, fimile, 61–2
Dutton, William, 39–40
Dyson, Esther, 16, 76, 107, 134
dystopianism, 35–6, 98

E

early adopters, 3
easiness, complex, 131–3
ebooks, 84–5
economic rationality, 11, 15
economic theories of knowing, 4, 8, 10, 123
economics of reading, 86
economy of knowing, 40, 42, 45, 51, 88, 101, 120, 126–7, 140, 142, 145
education, 142–5
effectiveness, 29, 140, 144
effortlessness, 58, 132
egalitarianism, 29–30, 67, 71, 76
egoism, 60–3
elderly, 80, 88
elections, 10–11, 63
email, 37–8, 122
emancipation, 52, 107–8, 131, 134–5, 143–4
emergence of boundaries, 136
emergence of information, 107–13
emergent authorship, 22
empowerment, 30, 49, 51–4, 59, 67, 91, 97–8, 134, 144–5
encyclopaedias, 57–8, 107
engagement, 55–8, 70, 73–5, 88–9, 91, 97, 99, 114, 134–5
engagement theory, 97
Engelbart, Douglas, 44
equality, 30
Europeana, 115
existentialism, 115
expertise, 29, 42, 47, 69, 71–2, 76, 110–11, 138
experts, 22–3, 71–2, 123, 133

F

Facebook, 3, 42, 60, 65, 67, 73, 94, 97, 115
fandom, 86–7
fatalism, 62
fiction, 86–7
Findahl, O., 81–2
finding information and knowledge, 1–2, 10, 14–15, 17, 23, 25, 77, 80–2, 88–9, 110, 117, 121, 123, 140–1
Finland, 4, 58
flaneurs, 15
flattening of hierarchies, 123
Flickr, 43, 59, 62, 115
Florida, Richard, 82, 87, 96, 111
flow theory, 122
followers of social media services, 61
forms of information, 47–8, 83–4, 106–7, 132
fragmentation, 61, 104
free and open software (FOSS), 16, 58, 135
free culture, 16, 63
freedom, 16, 54, 61, 63–9, 71, 75, 120, 132, 141
‘friends’ (in social media services), 61, 94

G

gameplay, 73
games, 73
gap bridging, 17
gatekeeper technologies, 123
gatekeeping, 29, 39, 118–20, 123
generational differences, 79–82, 94, 96–9, 137
genre analysis, 112
genres of information, 45, 47, 109
GetUp, 66
Gibson, J.J., 65
Gibson, William, 47
gifts and gift-giving, 58–9, 61
girls, 83
global, 3, 16–17, 37, 40, 47, 57, 67, 76–77, 88–90, 98, 108, 120, 134
global communication, 17, 37
global divide, 89–90
globalisation, 57, 67, 98
good enough, 12–14, 141
goodness of information, 13–15, 33
Goody, Jack, 36, 95
Google, 90, 97, 107, 114–20, 135, 137
Google generation, 82, 88, 96, 98–9
gossip, 2
graphical user interfaces, 37–8, 41
gratifications theory, 10
Griesemer, James, 4, 7, 19–22
Grossberg, Lawrence, 12, 18, 26–7, 140, 145

H

Habermas, Jürgen, 11, 67, 120
Haiti, earthquake, 16
Halavais, Alexander, 52, 104, 106, 119, 124
Hansson, Joacim, 141
Hardin, Russell, 4, 8–16, 143
Hayek, Friedrich, 8, 10
Hayles, N. Katherine, 20
Haythornthwaite, Caroline, 57–8, 60
heavyweight peer-production, 57, 59–60
Heidegger, Martin, 53
heterotopia, 108, 113, 127
higher things, 15
Hogwarts, 86
homo informaticus, 77
‘how to’ documents, 69
HTML, 46
hurricane, 63
hybridisation, 82
hypertextuality, 102, 106

I

identities, 74, 91–5, 99
Idols (TV programme), 61
individualisation, 41, 57, 92, 124
individualism, 60–1, 68, 75
inequality, 72, 89
information, forms of, 47–8, 83–4, 106–7, 132
information, origins of, 110–11
information activities, 13, 15, 20
information asymmetry, 8–9
information culture, 1–2, 78–9, 88, 108, 112, 114, 131
information ecology, 18
information environments, 23, 47
information flaneur, 15
information institutions, 4, 27–8, 34
information limits, 18
information literacy, 30–3
information overload, 121–5
information poverty, 122
information retrieval, 2, 25
information seeking, 2, 4–5, 9–10, 12–18, 23, 25, 44–5, 54, 82–3, 85, 87, 95, 104, 110, 116–17, 123, 125, 131–5, 138, 144
information services, 25, 27–8, 32, 133, 138, 142
information sharing, 9, 29
information skills, 133
information source horizon, 19
informetrics, 105
infrastructuralisation, 44
infrastructures, 21, 23, 54, 75, 108, 120–1, 133
instrumental rationality, 11–16, 97
instrumentality, 53–4, 95, 97–8
interestingness, 115, 117
Internet Archive, 106–7
iPad, 50, 67
Iran, 66
irrationality, 11–13, 15
Italy, 89

J

Java, 46
JavaScript, 46, 115
jQuery, 115

K

Katrina, hurricane, 63
Keen, Andrew, 47, 71, 96
Kittler, Friedrich, 36, 48, 97
Kjellberg, Sara, 109, 112
knowability, 107, 113
knowing, limits of, 16–23, 143–5
knowledge, 7–16, 25, 28, 56, 69, 75–6, 108, 114, 141, 143
knowledge, oral, 56
knowledge, types of, 8, 11
knowledge gaps, 25
knowledge management, 16
knowledge production, 57, 69, 75–6, 108, 114
knowledgeability, 9
Kuhlthau, Carol, 10

L

learning outcomes, 32
legitimatisation, 134
leisure, 82
Lessig, Lawrence, 16, 65
librarians, 25, 27–9, 42, 132
librarianship, 30
libraries, 14, 25, 27–30, 51–2, 64, 107, 115, 125, 132–3, 140, 144
libraries, digital, 84–5, 125
library literacy, 30
library work, 29
LibraryThing, 115
Licklider, J.C.R., 37, 44
lightweight peer production, 57
‘Like’ buttons, 106
liminalities, 20
literacies, new, 30–3, 142
literacy, computer, 30
literacy, digital, 25–7, 30–3
literacy, information, 30–3
literacy, library, 30
literacy, media, 30
literacy, web, 31
long tail, 120
luddites, 50

M

Manovich, Lev, 36, 49, 102
marginality, 89, 138
markism, 48–9
Marxism, 54
mashups, 46
mass self-communication, 57
materiality, 84
Mattelart, Armand, 75
Mauss, Marcel, 58, 61
McLuhan, Marshall, 84, 97
media, convergence of, 45–8
media, language of, 36
media literacy, 30
Memex, 47, 50, 102
meritocracy, 72
Mexico, 65
microblogging, 16, 59–61, 85, 87
microchips, 40
microprocessors, 40
Microsoft, 104
miscellaneity, 102–3, 123, 126
mobile computing, 44
mobile phones, 38, 41, 47, 49, 78–9, 81–2, 84, 87
mobility, 143
mobs, 81–2, 87
modding, 64
Moldova, 66
monitoring, 67
monopolisation, 120
moral hazard, 8–9
moral panic, 96
Morville, Peter, 137, 140
motivation, 59–60, 104, 110
motivations, participation, 58–60, 69–70, 73, 109, 134
Mouffe, Chantal, 141, 144
Mumbai, 63
Mundaneum, 102
Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, Berkeley, 19
museums, 27–8, 34, 39
MySpace, 60, 62
Myth of Digital Democracy, The, 117–18

N

narratives, 26–7, 103, 106
NASA, 49, 57
negotiation, boundaries, 21, 24, 114
netiquette, 62
netizens, 67
networking, 37–40, 51, 54, 136
Neuromancer, 47
new literacies, 25–7, 30–3, 142
news, 3, 29, 45, 69, 108, 110–11
newspapers, 2–3, 86
newspapers, fictional, 86
Nolin, Jan, 48–9, 53, 134
non-engagement, 75
non-sharing, 70
non-use, 72–3, 80, 87–92
normativity, 138, 141

O

Obama, Barack, 118
objectification, 22, 33
Occupy movement, 108
ontologies, 105
OpenStreetMap, 16, 58–9, 135
opinions, 71, 90, 109, 111, 114–15
opinions, qualitative, 114
opinions, quantitative, 114–15
oral communication, 85
oral culture, 95
oral knowledge, 56
ordinary knowing, 13, 18, 23–4, 30, 45, 63, 87, 111–12, 123, 127–8, 135, 138–9, 143, 145
Orlikowski, Wanda, 53
Otlet, Paul, 102
ownership, private vs corporate, 119–20

P

PageRank, 115, 117
parents, 15, 94–5
participants, 70, 73–6
participation, culture of, 2–3, 16, 32, 52, 55–6, 62–4, 66, 68, 70, 74, 120
participatory culture, 3, 55, 61–4, 66, 68–70, 72–6, 120, 123
passive culture, 91
peer production, 58–9, 64
personal information environment, 3
personal information technology, 40–2
personalisation, 35, 37, 41–4, 54
photographs, 45–6, 60, 63, 73, 115, 122, 125
photosharing, 59, 62
physicality, 51, 112
physiological change of brain, 83
piggybanks, 68
pluralisation, 108
policies, 9, 39, 62, 71, 106, 108, 137, 144
politics, 117–18
Postman, Neil, 53
Potter, Harry, 86, 98
PowerPoint, 104
pragmatic web, 105
prairies, 68
Prensky, Mark, 79, 98
presentations, 104–5
privacy, 92, 94, 124
productivity, 44, 123
produsage, 50, 71, 74, 109
produsers, 71
professionalisation, 109
professionalism, 144
professionals, 26–9, 52, 71, 134, 137–8
programmers, 16, 131
programming, 46, 50, 131
prosumer, 71
provenance, 112, 126

Q

qualitative opinions, 114
quantitative opinions, 114–15
question and answer communities, 69

R

radio, 38, 57
railway, 38, 50–1, 82
rational choice, 4, 11, 75
rationalism, 11–12
reader devices, 84
readers, 31, 45–6, 56, 84–6
reading, 11, 83–7
records, 125–6
reference work, 29
regulation, 52, 67, 106, 110, 119, 134–5, 137
relativism, 14, 16
relevance, 4, 25–6, 61, 71, 82, 106, 114–18, 123, 126, 144–5
reliability, 127
remediation, 36, 49–50, 54, 108
reproduction, 125
reproductions of old forms of information, 106
Rheingold, 81–2, 87, 111
rights, civil and societal, 67, 76
RSS, 46

S

satisficing, 12, 14, 124
scarcity, 121, 124
Schivelbusch, Wolfgang, 50
search box, 43, 137
search engine, 43, 52, 77, 82, 86–8, 93–4, 98, 104, 106, 116–21, 127, 134, 136–7
searching information, 2, 13–14, 17, 43, 77, 81–3, 88, 95, 104, 117–19, 123, 125, 140
Seattle, 65, 108
Second Life, 17, 62
seeking recognition, 59, 61, 63, 69
Semantic Web, 48, 105, 107, 136
serendipity, 12, 111, 127
sharing, 59–60, 62–4, 66
Shirky, Clay, 73–4, 123
Shneiderman, Ben, 97
Simon, Herbert A., 12, 124
simplicity, 132
skills, 31, 43, 73, 77, 80–1, 132, 143
skills, lack of, 9
skills, writing, 86
slacktivism, 60, 63
slideshows, 104
smartphones, 41, 44
social divide, 89–90
social librarianship, 30, 96, 132
social media, 57, 59–61, 65, 70, 82, 98, 108–9, 115, 117
social networking, 43, 60–2, 70–1, 73, 104, 111, 121
social reading, 86
social web, 2, 10, 16, 22, 55, 57, 59, 61–71, 78, 93, 113–16
software, shortcomings, 42
solitary authorship, 56
solvability, 26–7, 33, 133–5
somebodies, 93
Sonnenwald, Diane, 19
spam, 111
specialist knowledge, 8
speedism, 49
Spotify, 59
squirreling, 84
Stallman, Richard, 132
stance, 111
standards, 19–21, 46, 67
Star, Susan Leigh, 4, 19–22, 139
status updates, 42, 60–1, 73, 85, 104
Stiglitz, Joseph, 9
stories, 26–7, 111
structuration theory, 53, 135
subjectification, 92
successfulness, 144
suicide, 61–2
super knower, 8
surfers, 110
surveillance, 66, 93
Sweden, 78–9, 58, 80, 85, 90, 115
synchronisation, 51

T

taboos, 19, 143
tagging, 70, 114–16
talko, 57–63, 68–9, 114
Tapscott, Don, 71, 96
teachers, 15, 22, 104, 117
techno-determinism, 64, 98, 134
technologies of inclusion, 90
technostress, 121
teenagers, 78, 80–2, 84, 86, 94–5, 112
telephone, 39, 41, 43, 49, 78, 81, 86, 88, 133
television, 3, 33, 38, 49–50, 73–4, 79, 91
Tenopir, Carol, 84–5
terms of service, 65
territory (concept of Deleuze, Guattari, Grossberg), 18–19, 137, 141
territory of knowing, 23, 107, 120–1, 126, 129–31, 134, 141, 144
Thelwall, Mike, 111
Tocqueville, Alexis de, 61
Toffler, Alvin, 51, 70–1, 121
transhumanism, 50, 97–8
tribalism, 87
Turkle, Sherry, 54, 131
tweens, 80
tweeting, 3, 45, 60, 108–9, 111
Twitter, 3–4, 60, 67, 80, 108, 111

U

ubiquity, 40, 42, 91, 93, 95, 132
uploading, 43
usability, 42–5, 51–4, 84, 127, 132
userism, 16, 98
Ushahidi, 45
utopianism, 35–6, 97–8, 107–8

V

Virilio, Paul, 50, 97
virtual reality, 47, 103
virtual worlds, 41, 43, 47, 103
voting, 10–11, 114, 116–18
Vygotsky, Lev, 32

W

Warschauer, Mark, 90
Web 2.0, 36–47, 55
web literacy, 31
webometrics, 105, 116
Weinberger, David, 39, 85, 102–3, 119, 123–4, 126, 141
Wenger, Etienne, 21, 74, 140
Wikimedia Foundation, 108
Wikipedia, 9, 16, 29, 57–9, 62, 69–74, 82, 106–8, 110, 114–15, 127, 135, 137
Wikipedians, 110
wikis, 56, 76, 114
wisdom of the crowds, 71
Wordpress, 61
work (as a context of information use), 8, 13, 16–17, 19–20, 34, 36, 42, 58–61, 63–4, 66, 68–71, 79–80, 82, 110, 114, 122–3, 134, 145
work tasks, 83
World of Warcraft, 62
World Trade Organization, 65, 69, 108
World Wide Web, 105–7

X

Xanadu, 102
XML, 46

Y

Yahoo, 69, 90
YouTube, 43, 59–61, 76, 114

Z

Zapatists, 65
Zerubavel, Eviatar, 19–20, 143
zone of proximal development, 32