Index – Innovation in Aeronautics

Index

A

Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW), 39–40
active lift control, 170
active thickness control, 170–1
actuated surface roughness dynamic roughness elements, 43
Advanced Fighter Technology Integration (AFTI), 39–40
Advanced Qualification Program (AQP), 142
Aerion Corporation, 183
aero gas turbine, 236
aeroballistic range, 169
aerodynamic efficiency, 124
aerodynamics, 173–82
aircraft morphing concept and technology, 37–53
developments, 37–8
future trends, 52–3
morphing component technologies, 47–52
NASA research in morphing aircraft structure, 38–40
resurgence, 40–7
cruise efficiency, 173
design and integration, 179–82
constrained boom configuration, 180
critical wing packaging area, 179
swing wing structural analysis, 181
unconstrained boom configuration, 180
laminar flowcontrol, 173–4
propulsion system, 174–6
structures, 176–7
SBJ wing, 177
systems, 177–8
fuel tank arrangement, 178
synthetic vision system, 178
aeronautics
biologically inspired technology, 15–34
challenges and development, 34
independent human innovation, 18–21
mechanisms and systems, 25–31
nature as innovation source in aerospace, 21–5
robotics and biomimetic technology, 31–3
environment, 100–30
aeroplane characteristics, 105
aircraft performance, 116–20
climate, 128–9
discrepancy between energy liberated and revenue work, 120–1
economic efficiency, 104
energy liberated to revenue work ratio (ETRW) value determination, 106–14
impact, 104–5
improving the discrepancy between energy liberated and revenue work, 121–8
observation on ETRW, 114–16
innovation, 199–212, 363–76
computer-assisted engineering and design, 368–9
concept to implementation, 368
definitions, 200–2
disruptive technologies, 366–7
education, 376
future processes, 211–12
innovation agendas, 373–5
innovation culture development, 372–3
innovation environments, 208–9
innovation measurement, 202–4
key design drivers, 367
knowledge problem management, 209–11
process, 370–2
risk, 364–5
technology readiness levels, 365–6
whole innovations systems view, 211
intellectual property, patents and innovation, 263–301
aluminium to composite switch, 282
AMP equipment conception, 282, 284
AMP equipment definitions, 284–6
AMP equipment evolution, 287–98
AMP equipment family tree, 299–300
commercial aerospace industry innovation trends, 281–2
creativity and innovation for intellectual property, 265–71
intellectual property and patenting, 271–6
likely future trends, 264–5
patent to product conversion, 277–9
patent value establishment, 279–81
introduction to innovation, 1–11
challenges, 10–11
change, 8–10
concepts, 4–8
Lean Engineering, 323–58
challenges, 356–7
framework, 332–51
innovation dynamics, 325–7
Lean thinking, 327–332
Lean thinking and aerospace, 332–3
tailoring Lean Engineering, 351–6
project cost, time and technical performance risk mitigation, 305–21
future trends, 321
interdependence, 306–7
project value stylised view, 307
risk aspect, 307–11
risk value method (RVM), 311–13
UCAV project discussion, 318–21
unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV) project, 313–18
aeroplane, 105
aerospace, 21–5
industry values, 364
aft fan, 237
Agile, 328
air transport, 9–10
requirements to design, 249–51
revolution, 253–9
air transport innovation diagram, 255
revolutionary ideas, 233–59
assessment framework, 242–9
changes assessment timescale, 246
mind set, 233–5
technological change, 235–42
aerodynamics, 239–40
aircraft systems, 242
propulsion, 236–9
structures, 241–2
telecommunications and IT in society, 251–3
Air Transport Pilot’s Licence (ATPL), 145–6
Airbus, 265, 281–2, 287
Airbus A320, 220
aircraft morphing, 5
component technologies, 47–52
piezoelectric actuators, 48–50
pneumatic-actuation, 48
servo-actuation, 48
shape memory materials, 50–1
skins, 51–2
concepts and technologies to change flight aircraft aerodynamics, 37–53
concepts resurgence, 40–7
DARPA morphing aircraft structures (MAS) program, 41–2
NASA biologically inspired aerodynamic geometry, 40–1
university efforts in morphing research, 42–7
developments, 37–8
Wright brothers wing warping design, 38
future trends, 52–3
morphing micro air and land vehicle (MMALV), 53
NASA research in morphing aircraft structure, 38–40
aircraft performance, 116–20
mean locus of points A vs. data for Boeing and Airbus aircraft, 118
MOE / MMTO vs. MMP / MMTO approximate relation, 118
variation of ETRW, 119
airfoil camber, 44
airframe technology, 126
airline sale model, 252
Airline Transport Pilot Licence (ATPL), 138
airspace planner, 244
airspace system, 257
airworthiness, 182
ambiguity, 307
anti-gravity, 238
ARPAnet, 228
art citation scanning, 280
artificial intelligence (AI), 30–1
artificial muscles, 17, 27–9
icon of the arm wrestling challenge for match against human, 28
robotic arm prepared for a match against human opponent, 29
autoflight system, 140
automated material placement (AMP) equipment, 368
conception, 282, 284
definitions, 284–6
automated fibre placement (AFP), 285–6
automated tape laying (ATL) machine, 285
filament winding (FW) machine, 284–5
special purpose machine, 286
evolution, 287–98
early AFP programs and components, 293
early airframer ATL patents, 290
early ATL programs and components, 292
early equipment evolution diagram, 289
equipment evolution diagram, 292
equipment patent history, 296
large ATL vendor patent evolution, 291
multi-head AMP equipment evolution, 295
patents by year, 298
robotics placement equipment evolution, 294
special-purpose equipment evolution, 294
family tree, 299–300
illustration, 299
automatic engine health monitoring (EHM), 62
auxiliary power units (APUs), 79–80
aviation
human factors relation to technological developments, 132–151
developments and recent trends, 141–8
discipline, 132
future trends, 148–51
history, 134–41
socio-technical system context, 132–4
aviation fuel, 76
avionics, 6
capability, 88–9
cost, 86–8
current safety process, 93–4
demand, 90–1
future requirements, 92
future system, 94–6
temporal memory, 95
innovation development by digital technology, 83–99
overview, 83–6
evolution, 84
system-crew interaction, 97–8
timing, 91–3
ultimate avionics computer, 96–7

B

basic patent, 276
Bayh-Dole (1980), 279
beam transports, 239
bio-sensors, 29–30
biofuel, 71–2, 237, 250
biologically inspired technology
aeronautics, 15–34
challenges and development, 34
independent human innovation, 18–21
mechanisms and systems, 25–31
artificial intelligence (AI), 30–1
artificial muscles, 27–9
bio-sensors, 29–30
ground penetration inspired by gophers and crabs, 26
inchworms motors, 29
pumping mechanism, 26–7
nature as innovation source in aerospace, 21–5
robotics and biomimetic technology, 31–3
biomimetics, 15, 16–17, 31–3
Blackler’s knowledge designation, 210
blended wing body (BWB), 78, 240
Boeing 737–200, 258
Boeing Company, 265, 281, 297, 341
Boeing Technical Fellow, 372
boundary objects, 337
bulk airfoil, 44
Business class, 252
bypass flow ratio, 236

C

cabin environment, 158–60
camber control, 170–1
capability, 88–9
capacity-led design, 253
capacity limits, 3
carbon airplane, 298
carbon cycle, 65
carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP), 282
Cessna Citation X, 354–5
change ratio, 342
civil airliner industry, 239
climate, 128–9
climate change, 233
coefficient of environmental performance (CEP), 104–5
combustion, 102
Compact Hybrid Actuators Program (CHAP), 41
component efficiency, 60–1
computational fluid dynamics (CFD), 60
computer-aided design (CAD) systems, 368
computer-based reservation systems (CRS), 251
Concorde, 202, 234, 258
Confederation of British Industry, 201
Conrac Corporation, 288
constant volume combustion, 72–5
practical limits to engine efficiency, 73
core engine, 68
corporate inventor, 273
cost, 86–8
cost index (CI), 104
cost risk, 310
creative phase, 204
crew resource management (CRM), 137–8, 150
critical moments, 267
customer engagement, 334–6
customer value for products, 336
practices for early and often engagement, 335
cycle temperatures, 60
high-temperature capabilities, 61

D

Dassault, 184–6
HiSAC Long Range Family, 186
HiSAC Low Boom Family, 186
HiSAC Low Noise Family, 185
Dassault Mercure, 258
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), 9, 186–7, 225–31, 375
aviation innovation, 227
aviation innovation examples, 228–30
aviation-related programs, 230–1
1960s, 231
1970s, 231
1980s, 230–1
1990s, 230
Lockheed Martin QSP Concept, 187
morphing aircraft structures (MAS) program, 41–2
Northrop Grumman QSP Concept, 187
philosophy and structure, 226
degree of novelty, 202
demand, 90–1
Department of Trade and Industry, 201
Design for X, 342–3
development phase, 204
direct operating cost (DOC), 218
discontinuous innovation, 202
disruptive innovation, 270
disruptive technology, 366

E

earned value management, 318
economic efficiency, 104
electrical propulsion, 78–80
distributed electrical fans concept, 79
electro-mechanical counter-pointer altimeter, 135
electronic flight control system (EFCS), 218
energy liberated to revenue work ratio (ETRW), 104, 129–30
discrepancy, 120–1
discrepancy improvement, 121–8
comparison of mean locus of points A for current and future composite aircraft, 123
variation of MMF/MMP with cruise Mach number, 127
observation, 114–16
variation of normalised ETRW with normalised range, 115
value determination, 106–14
MOE/MMP, 112
MOE/MP, 109
MOE/MTO, 111
theorem 1, 108
theorem 2, 108
theorem 3, 108–9
theorem 4, 109–10
theorem 5, 110–11
theorem 6, 111
theorem 7, 111–12
theorem 8, 112–13
theorem 9, 113–14
theorem 10, 114
engineering tools, 347–9
design impact on F/A-E/F manufacture and assembly, 349
lean engineering, 346
enhanced ground-proximity warning systems (EGPWS), 92
environment, 6–7
aeroplane characteristics, 105
aircraft performance, 116–20
climate, 128–9
discrepancy between energy liberated and revenue work, 120–1
economic efficiency, 104
energy liberated to revenue work ratio (ETRW) value determination, 106–14
impact, 104–5
improving the discrepancy between energy liberated and revenue work, 121–8
key design driver in aeronautics, 100–30
observation on ETRW, 114–16
European Aeronautic Defense and Space (EADS) company, 287
expertise, 278
extendable nose spike, 171
low boom signature, 171
low boom signature with nose spike, 172
NASA F-15B ‘Quiet Spike’ test configuration, 172

F

F-117 Nighthawk Stealth Fighter, 228
F-16 program, 350
fabric placing, 293
failure mode and effect criticality analysis (FMECA), 248
families of innovation, 202
Federal Court Improvement Act (1982), 279
fifth-generation innovation process, 207
first-generation innovation process, 206–7
five ‘M’s model, 132–3
flat charge laminators (FCL), 300
flight control systems (FCS), 84
flight crew, 136–7
flight deck, 89, 98
design, 139–41, 143–6
concept of human machine interface, 145
evolution, 149–51
flight management computer (FMC), 139
flight management system (FMS), 85, 139
flight testing, 166–7
baseline vs. low boom signature, 168
F-5 and F-5 SSBD, 168
Firebee UAVs and signatures, 167
scaled simulations of full scale signature, 169
Fluid Phase, 327–8
fly-by-wire (FBW), 84, 242
flying boat, 258
fossil fuels, 160
fourth-generation innovation process, 207
frequent flier programme (FFP), 252
future projects office, 215
fuzzy logic, 96–7

G

gas turbine, 56–9, 59–62
gas-turbine engine, 236
General Dynamics (GD), 288
generative innovations, 266
global environment, 158
Global Hawk, 228
global planform change
with direct control of wing area, 47
without direct control of wing area, 46–7
RoboSwift, 46
WVU swept-wing morphing demonstrator, 46
global warming, 243
globalisation, 211
gophers, 26
Gossamer Condor, 372–3
ground penetration, 26
biologically inspired ground penetrators, 27
ground-proximity warning system (GPWS), 97–8
Gulfstream, 183

H

Have Blue, 228
High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT), 156
HondaJet, 351–4
honeycomb-chambered cowling panels, 236
human factors, 7
developments and recent trends, 141–8
flight deck design, 143–6
hygiene factor, 148
system-wide depiction of the interactions between human factors sub-disciplines, 147
systemic view, 146–8
training, 142–3
discipline, 132
future trends, 148–51
flight deck evolution, 149–51
history, 134–41
early developments, 134–6
flight deck design, 139–41
late twentieth century, 136
selection, 136–7
training, 137–9
socio-technical system context, 132–4
technological developments in aviation, 132–151
hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC), 218
hydrogen, 75–7
hydrotreated renewable jet fuel (HRJ), 72
hygiene factor, 148

I

impact function, 309, 312
improvement patent, 276
in situ, 293
inchworms motors, 29
industrial capability, 207–8
industrial innovation, 201, 265
information flow, 343–4
practices for smooth flow, 344
product development information waste sources, 345
information technology (IT), 251–3
Ingersoll, 297
innovation, 67–80
aero gas turbine fuel consumption evolution, 67
aeronautics, 1–11, 263–301, 365–78
agendas, 375–7
avionic systems development by digital technology, 83–99
capability, 88–9
cost, 86–8
current safety process, 93–4
demand, 90–1
future requirements, 92
future system, 94–6
overview, 83–6
system-crew interaction, 97–8
timing, 91–3
ultimate avionics computer, 96–7
biologically and independent, 18–21
beak of birds inspired tongs, 19
four legs animals inspired furniture, 20
legged robots developed for space application, 21
military application of legged robotics, 20
spider web inspiration for human made tools, 19
challenges, 10–11
cost, schedule and technical performance risk management, 10
intellectual property, 10
lean engineering, 10–11
change, 8–10
future air transport, 9–10
management, 8
process, 8
technology, 9
computer-assisted engineering and design, 368–9
concept to implementation, 368
concepts, 4–8
aircraft morphing, 5
avionics, 6
biological inspiration, 4–5
environment, 6–7
human factors, 7
jet engines, 5–6
supersonic passenger air travel, 7–8
culture development, 372–4
disruptive technologies, 366–7
education, 376
key design drivers, 367
long term improvements, 77–80
medium term improvements, 71–7
nature in aerospace, 21–5
EAP activated blimp, 23
envisioned EAP-activated blimp, 23
flying mechanism that emulates the bird, 22
inspiration by aerodynamic principles of aircraft, 22
Tipuana tipu seed, 24
tumbleweed, 25
near term improvements, 68–71
process, 372–4
risk, 366–7
supersonic passenger air travel, 155–89
aerodynamics, 173–82
airworthiness, 182
history, 156–7
manufacturers and design organisation, 183–8
operational issues, 157–62
sonic boom, 162–73
technology readiness levels, 367–8
trends in commercial aerospace industry, 263–301, 281–3
aircraft market overview, 283
innovation process
aeronautics, 199–212
definitions, 200–2
innovation dimensions, 200
future processes, 211–12
innovation environments, 208–9
innovation measurement, 202–4
technology readiness levels, 203
knowledge problem management, 209–11
national innovation process diagram, 205
whole innovations systems view, 211
Integrated Design Teams, 354
Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD), 341–3
IPPD impact on for airframe companies, 341
practices, 341
Integrated Product Teams, 336
intellectual capital See intellectual property
intellectual property, 10
aeronautics, 263–301
creativity and innovation, 265–71
creative process, 267–8
innovative products, 268–70
product development process overview, 271
US patent system perceived deficiencies, 277
patenting, 271–6
intellectual property processes, 274–6
reasons, 272–4
intercooling, 69
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 101
internal rate of return, 216
International Council of Systems Engineers (INCOSE), 376–7
Iridium satellite program, 342
Isambard Kingdom Brunel Financial Success, 202

J

jet engine, 5–6, 368–9
challenges, 64–7
carbon cycle, 65
drivers design, 56–81
fuel consumption evolution, 80
innovation, 67–80
overview, 56–9
disruptive technology, 56–7
gas turbines enabled aircraft, 57
industry nature, 57–9
large aero engine sector entry, 58
technological drivers, 59–64
technology roadmap, 81
Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM), 339

K

kerosene, 237
Kremer Prize, 370–2

L

laboratory-scale simulation, 168
laminar flow control, 173–4
6XL with SLFC ‘glove, ’, 174
laser lithography, 241–2
Lean Advancement Initiative, 334
Lean Aerospace Initiative See Lean Advancement Initiative
Lean Aircraft Initiative, 324
Lean behaviour organisation, 337–8
practices, 337
stakeholders and integrated product teams, 338
lean engineering, 10–11
aeronautics innovation, 323–58
challenges, 356–7
Body of Knowledge (BoK), 357
education, 357
implementation, 356–7
framework, 333–51
early and often customer engagement, 335–7
excellence and continuous improvement, 340–1
excellence and continuous improvement practices, 340
improvement methods employment, 349–50
integrated engineering tools utilisation, 347–9
Integrated Product and Process Development (IPPD) implementation, 341–3
Lean behaviour organisation, 337–8
lifecycle value design, 344–5
perfect coordination, 338–40
practices, 338
process flow optimisation, 344–5
process flow optimisation practices, 345
risk management, 346–7
smooth information flow assurance, 344–5
tour airlines departure performance vs relational coordination, 339
value creation framework, 333
wrap up, 350–1
innovation dynamics, 325–7
industrial innovation characteristics, 326
major US aerospace firms, 325
Lean thinking, 327–332
5 Lean Thinking fundamentals, 329
estimated engineering waste, 331
production system attributes, 328
value-added and non value-added definitions, 330
Lean thinking and aerospace, 332–3
brief history, 332
tailoring, 351–6
advanced research and development application, 352–4
Citation X program practices, 354
engine testing lean improvement practices, 356
engineering support application, 355–6
examples of tailoring, 352
HondaJet proof-of-concept phase practices and tools, 353
new product development application, 354–5
Lean improvement methods, 349–50
F-16 program process improvements, 351
lean tools, 350
learning, 206
level of innovation, 202
life-cycle cost (LCC), 85–6, 86, 87
lifecycle value, 343–4
designing practices, 343
manufacturing variability reduction design sample, 344
Line Operations Safety Audits (LOSA), 142
line-oriented flighttraining(LOFT), 138–9, 142
local environment, 158
long-term drivers, 77
low boom aircraft shaping, 170

M

maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO), 63
market, 157
market pull, 207
material lay-down rate, 284
material sustainability, 160
mean times between failures (MTBF), 62–3
micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), 78
micro-politics, 209
microprocessors, 251
military stealth industry, 239
mission adaptive wing (MAW), 38–9
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, 188
Moore’s Law, 371
morphing aircraft structures (MAS)
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) program, 41–2
Lockheed Martin MAS demonstrator, 42
MFX-1 morphing demonstrator by Boeing Phantom Works, 42
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
Boeing F-11 incorporating the mission adaptive wing (MAW), 39
Boeing F/A-18A incorporating the active aeroelastic wing (AAW), 40
multi-head, 293

N

nanotechnology, 77–8
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
aircraft morphing structures, 38–40
Boeing F-11 incorporating the mission adaptive wing (MAW), 39
Boeing F/A-18A incorporating the active aeroelastic wing (AAW), 40
biologically inspired aerodynamic geometry, 40–1
hyper-elliptic cambered span biomimetic wing planform, 41
National Cooperative Research Act (1984), 279
National Sonic Boom Evaluation Office, 164
nature
innovation source in aerospace, 21–5
EAP activated blimp, 23
envisioned EAP-activated blimp, 23
flying mechanism that emulates the bird, 22
inspiration by aerodynamic principles of aircraft, 22
Tipuana tipu seed, 24
tumbleweed, 25
network science, 269
neural networks, 96

O

off-airport development, 256
off-body energy addition, 171, 173
organised innovation, 208
overall pressure ratio (OPR), 60

P

Pareto charts, 351
particulate material (PM), 103
patent
aeronautics, 263–301
intellectual property, 271–6
process, 368
piezoelectric actuators, 48–50
compact hybrid actuator (CHAP) systems, 50
THUNDER response, 49
pilot not flying (PNF), 150
platforms of innovation, 202
pneumatic-actuation, 48
pragmatic technology development, 206
Predator, 228
project de-risking, 366
proof-of-concept (POC) demonstrators, 257
propulsion system, 174–6
propulsive efficiency, 61–2, 69–70
SFC improvements, 62
wave rotor cycle, 69
pulse detonation, 74
pumping mechanism, 26–7

Q

Quiet Supersonic Platform (QSP), 166

R

recuperation, 69
reduced and internally-biased oxide wafer (RAINBOW), 49
requirement capture, 247
revolutionary ideas, 233–59
assessment framework, 242–9
changes assessment timescale, 246
clarity, 249
completeness, 248–9
consistency, 247–8
mind set, 233–5
risk, 203
risk index, 309–10
risk management, 346–7
approach illustration, 347
practices, 347
risk value method (RVM), 311–13
RoboSwift, 46–7
robotic fibre placement (RFP), 293
robotics
biomimetic technology, 31–3
JPL’s Lemur, 33
MACS crawling on a wall using suction cups, 32
robotics and biomimetic technology, 31–3
root cause analysis, 349

S

safety management systems (SMS), 93, 94
scenario techniques, 216
schedule risk, 311
second-generation innovation process, 207
secondary cirrus clouds, 66
selection, 136–7
servo-actuation, 48
Set Based Concurrent Engineering, 344
shape memory alloys (SMA), 50–1
simultaneous innovation, 290
Six Sigma, 327, 348
skins, 51–2
compliant cell morphing truss structure, 52
Skunk Works, 352
small gas turbine distributed propulsion (SGTDP), 70–1
social innovation, 265
socio-technical system, 132–4
five ‘M’s conceptual model, 133
soft stuff, 356
solar cell, 238
sonic boom, 160–2, 162–73
experimental simulation, 167–9
flight testing, 166–7
low boom solutions, 169–73
sonic boom minimisation solutions, 170
physics, 162–4
focusing due to acceleration, 165
near and far field signatures, 163
over-pressure of various aircraft types, 163
primary and secondary boom carpets, 164
SBJ sonic boom propagation, 162
prediction methods, 164–6
studies, 164
Sonic Boom European Research program (SOBER), 166
Soviet nuclear tests, 225
Specific Phase, 326–7
Spirit AeroSystems, 297
Sputnik 1, 225
stealth aircraft, 370
sub-boundary vortex generators (SBVG), 220
superconductivity, 78–80
Supersonic Aerospace International
SAI Cabin Interior Concept, 185
SAI SBJ concept, 184
Supersonic Cruise Aircraft Research (SCAR), 156
Supersonic Cruise Industry Alliance, 188
supersonic passenger air travel, 7–8
aerodynamics, 173–82
airworthiness, 182
history, 156–7
Concorde, 156
innovation, 155–89
manufacturers and design organisation, 183–8
Aerion Corporation, 183
DARPA, 186–7
Dassault, 184–6
Gulfstream, 183
Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, 188
Sukhoi-Gulfstream, 183
Supersonic Aerospace International, 184
Supersonic Cruise Industry Alliance, 188
Tupolev Design Bureau, 187–8
operational issues, 157–62
environment, 157–62
market, 157
sonic boom, 162–73
supersonic passenger aircraft, 367
Supersonic Transport Aircraft Committee, 156
supersonic transport (SST), 7
synthetic biology, 72
synthetic vision systems (SVS), 177
system-crew interaction, 97–8
system integration, 287
Systems Engineering, 342, 375

T

tape cassette, 293
task importance, 278
taxation, 249–50
technical feasibility, 214
Technical Fellow concept, 11
technical performance risk, 311
aeronautics development project, 305–21
risk aspect, 307–11
cost, schedule, and performance risks, 310–11
impact and expected loss, 309–10
probability distribution functions, 308
probability distribution with impact functions, 309
risk trade offs, 311
uncertainty and probability model, 307–9
risk value method (RVM), 311–13
project value at risk stylised view, 312
technical transactualisation, 268
technology assessment, 8, 214–24, 367
approach and example, 219–23
economic technology assessment, 219
examples, 220–3
qualitative results for sample technologies, 222
reference aircraft and technology description, 219
technical technology assessment, 219
history and process, 215
methods and limitations, 216–18
aircraft internal rate of return TA, 217
internal rate of return for cost, 217
limitations, 217–18
scenario techniques, 216
technology vector, 216
need, 214–15
technology drivers, 59–64
aftermarket, 62
component efficiency, 60–1
cycle temperatures, 60
principles of operation, 59–60
propulsive efficiency, 61–2
safety and availability developments, 62–4
reliability improvements, 63
technology push, 206–7
technology readiness levels (TRLs), 8, 200–1, 203, 365–6
technology vector, 216
terrain awareness and warning system (TAWS), 92
thin layer composite unimorph ferroelectric driver and sensor (THUNDER), 49
third-generation innovation process, 207
time pressure, 278
timing, 91–3, 202
Total Quality Management (TQM), 328, 355
trade secret, 274
trademark, 274
training, 137–9, 142–3
Transitional Phase, 326
triangle distributions, 313
Trident, 258
Tupolev Design Bureau, 187–8
Tupolev SBJ Concept, 188
turbine entry temperature (TET), 60
turbofan, 61, 234
turbojets, 61

U

uncertainty, 307
unducted-fan, 237
unmanned combat aerial vehicle (UCAV) project, 313–18
discussion, 318–21
holistic framework benefits, 320–1
project activities role in RVM, 320
projects progress notion, 318–19
technical performance measure tracking, 319–20
TPM tracking chart sample, 319
model inputs and initial conditions, 313–17
initial project data and risk calculations, 314–16
project risk dimensions evolution, 318
project progress, 317–18
US patent system, 272–3

V

value concept, 306
value stream, 329
Value Stream Map, 330, 349
variance, 317
vertical take-off and landing (VTOL), 2

W

water transportation, 254
Welliver Faculty Fellowship, 372
Welliver programme
‘whack-a-mole’ management, 305–6
Whitham’s theory, 165
SAE/AIAA 2008 William Littlewood Memorial Lecture, 325
wing aerodynamics, 127
wing twist, 44–6
active wing morphing on University of Florida 30 cm span MAV, 45
active wing morphing on University of Florida 61 cm span MAV, 45
workload, 278

X

X-planes, 229

Y

yield-related market fragmentation, 252