Index – Packaging Technology

Index

A

abiotic spoilage, 42–3
acid sulphite process, 193
acidity, 42
Aclar, 303
acrylic, 387
acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), 301–2
adaptation, 84
additives, 199–200, 283–4
nano fillers for improved gas barrier, 284
adhesive labels, 376
adhesives, 245
adhesion theories, 382–4
adhesive selection, 389–90
application methods, 390
packaging, 381–2
performance evaluation, 391
terminology, 392–3
troubleshooting adhesive problems, 391–2
types, 384–9
100% solid, 388–9
solvent-based, 388
water-based, 384–7
aerosol safety, 55
alkaline sulphate process, 193
alternating copolymers, 271
aluminium foil, 163–77
container types, 177
end uses as packaging material, 176
finishes, coatings and lacquers, 170–2
chemical resistance of coating materials, 171
general properties and characteristics of compounds, 171
standard treatments, 170
laminate, 172–4
metallised films, 174–6
overview, 163–5
properties of aluminium as a packaging material, 164
printing and embossing, 172
processing, 165–6
aluminium manufacturing process, 166–7
production, 168–70
continuous casting or hot-strip casting, 169
conventional rolling-mill method, 169
refining, 167
smelting, 167–8
aluminium metallised films, 174–6
laminate samples, 174
vacuum metallising, 175
aluminium oxide, 128
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, 391
analysis, 427–8
assessment chart of design concepts, 428
anilox, 472
animal glues, 386
annealing, 115
atactic configuration, 268
auger filler, 497
autoclave, 266
average fill, 56

B

Barex, 302, 303
basis weight, 325
bauxite, 128, 165
Bayer process See refining
beating, 196–8
effect on paper and paperboard properties, 198
fibres before and after, 197
illustration, 196
Bendtsen Test, 260
bio-based plastic, 79
bio-based polymers, 306–8
biodegradable plastic, 79–80
biodegradation, 78–80, 307
biotic spoilage, 42
bleaching, 198–9
bleeding, 480
block copolymers, 271
blow-and-blow, 113–14
blow moulding, 350–9
design specifications, blow moulded bottles, 358–9
carbonated soft drinks bottle specification, 358
standard bottle terminology, 359
extrusion blow moulding, 352–8
alternating and rotary blow moulds, 358
moulding cooling, 356
multilayer extrusion blow mouldings, 357
parison thickness control, 355
parison thickness control problems, 355
process, 354
injection, 350–2
multilayer injection moulded PET bottles, 353
process, 351
stretch process, 352
blow up ratio, 318
blown film, 318–21
annular blown-film die cross-section, 320
bubble process, 322
standard blown-film process, 319
bore gauger, 116
borosilicate glass, 110
bottle spacer, 115
Box Compression Test (BCT), 258, 259
brand
consistency and complex information, 99
marketing matrix, 95–7
place, 97
price, 95–6
product, 95
promotion, 96
product promotion and advertising, 93–5
coherence, 94
distinctiveness, 94
market appeal, 94–5
protection, 95
relevance, 94
promotion, 97–8
value determination, 92
brand name, 4
brand values, 417, 431
top-branded products, 418
break elongation, 326
bright finish, 170
BS 4816:1972, 258
BS 4817: 1972, 258
BS 7325, 258
BS 6538-2:1992, 260
BS EN 13432, 78, 79
BS EN 23035:1994, 258
bubble film method, 320
burst strength, 182

C

calcination, 167
can body, 158
can decorating, 159–60
cylindrical decorating machine, 160
can end, 158
making process, 144–8
process performance, 126–7
cannibalism, 421
carbon dioxide, 83
carbon footprint, 68, 85
calculation, 85
Carbon Trust, 68, 85
carded blister, 236–8
cartonning, 513–14
erection, filling and closing of flat carton blank, 513
casein, 385–6
cast sheet, 315–18
cellophane, 305, 311
cellulose, 521
cellulose acetate, 306
cellulose acetate butyrate, 306
cellulose film, 321–3
casting process producing regenerated cellulose film, 323
cellulose materials, 305–6
certification, 556–8
general arrangements, 558
process, 557
changeovers, 531–2
economic order quantity, 532
Chartered Institute of Marketing, 87
chemical adhesion, 383
chemical pulp, 193–5
production of chemically separated and bleached pulp, 193–5
pulp preparation, 195
pulp production using a hydrapulper, 195
chemical stability, 290
chemical thermo-mechanical pulping (CTMP), 191, 194–5
child-resistance, 376–7
child-resistant closures, 55
chilled air, 318–19
Chromaflair, 455
clarification, 167
clay coated Kraft back (CCKB), 185–6
clay coated news back (CCNB), 185
closing time, 392–3
closures, 506–9
can closing, 508–9
seaming of metal can end, 509
lug, press-on twist-off and crimped or crown closures, 508
push-fit closures, 506
roll-on pilfer-proof (ROPP) closures, 507–8
application of metal closure, 508
screw-threaded closures, 506–7
coating weight, 393
Cobb Test, 260
Cobb value, 180
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 131
coding systems, 521–2
coefficient of friction (CoF), 326
Coefficient of Friction Test, 260
coextrusion
cast and blown films, 323–5
cast film coextruder feeding into feed box and die, 325
coextrusion process, 324
cohesive strength, 393
cold foil techniques, 406
cold-seal temperature, 326
collation shrink film, 294
Colorstream, 455
colour, 339
factors affecting perception, 445–7
ideal conditions for appraising colour, 447
illuminants, 446
impaired colour vision, 446–7
metamerism, 447
simultaneous contrast, 446
colour mixing, 444–5
additive colour mixing, 445
subtractive colour mixing, 445
colour printing, 447–55
alternative screening techniques, 451–3
hybrid screening, 453
stochastic screening, 452–3
chromaticity diagram, 448
hexachrome, 450–1
special colours, 453–5
fluorescent effects, 454
metallic effects, 454
other special effects, 455
pearlescent effects, 454–5
sensory special effects used in packaging, 455
special effects, 454
spot colour, 453–4
subtractive colour mixing, 447–8
tonal reproduction and halftone printing, 448–50
dot shapes, 450
screen angles, 449
screening and resolution, 449
colour specification, 405
colour variation, 479
colour vision, 443–4
human eye, 444
coloured lacquers, 172
Combibloc, 8
competitor research, 104–5
composite closures, 154
compostable materials, 78
compostable plastic, 79
composting, 78–80
compression, 32–6
dynamic and static compression correlation, 33
compression strength, 182
conceptual design, 423–31
generating concepts, 424–31
analysis, 427–8
design development, 428–31
glass jar project sketch, 425
graphic design, 427
structural design, 425–7
working ways, 424–5
inspiration sources, 424
Concora Medium Test, 260
condensation polymerisation, 269–70
PET polymerisation, 270
consumer needs, 100–1
consumer panels, 103–4
Consumer Protection Act (1987), 58
consumer requirements
benefits, 420
packaging, 421
consumer research, 101–2, 103–4
consumers, 13–14
container base, 120
container body, 119
container finish, 119
container heel, 120
container neck, 119
container shoulder, 119
containment
function evaluation, 25–6
failure samples, 26
contract packer, 533
control of substances hazardous to health (COSHH), 56
convenience, 46–7
conventional soda glass, 110
convolute single wrap containers, 218–19
can design, 219
coordination polymerisation, 267
copolymer, 280
copolymerisation, 271–2
copyright, 58
Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 58
corporate identity manuals, 99
corporate social responsibility (CSR), 85
corrugated cases, 523–4
corrugated packaging, 240–61
container design types, 249–53
case dimensions, 255
case styles, 249, 250
common types of fitment, 254
flat sheet laid out with the resulting folded dimension, 255
multi-component case designs, 252
regular slotted container (RSC) blank parts, 251
scoring allowances for board of various thickness, 256
sizing a container, 256
typical die-cut case design, 252
decoration and printing, 253–6
manufacturing, 245–9
corrugating machine, 246
gap tolerances for B- and C-flute single-wall cases, 248
gap tolerances for out-of-square and fishtail (U joint) configurations, 248
length and width of glue tabs, 249
overlap identification, 248
scored and slotted sheet tolerances, 247
three-point and five-point scoring wheels profile, 247
materials, 242–5
materials and containers testing, 257–61
equilibrium moisture content, 258
mechanical strength, 258–60
paper properties, 257–8
properties testing, 260–1
overview, 240–2
single-wall and double-wall configuration, 240
special board treatments, 256–7
cost, 65
cost effective packaging, 14–19, 75–6
counter-pressure fillers See pressure filler
Courtauld Commitment, 81–2, 84
crack detector, 116
cradle-to-grave packaging, 11
crimped crown cork closures, 372–3
image, 373
cross direction (CD), 316
crosslinking polymerisation, 271–2
crosslinked polymer, 272
crown cork closures, 155
crystallinity, 276–8
LDPE to HDPE progression, 277
polyethylene homopolymer main form, 277
cup fillers, 505–6
cyclic olefin copolymers, 304
cylinder method, 206–7
uniflo vat cylinder, 207
vat paperboard machine, 207

D

damage, 20
Danner process, 121
data errors, 20
deceptive packaging, 58
decoration, 425
degradable materials, 78
degradable plastic, 79–80
delivery errors, 20
demographics, 102–3
UK socio-economic status classifications, 102
density, 290, 292, 325
design cycle rate, 529
design development, 428–31
Gantt chart, 429
highly finished model package, 430
design rights, 58
design speed, 529
dextrin adhesives, 385
die-cut containers, 249, 251
diffusion theory, 383–4
digestion, 167
digital technology, 98
DIN 19303, 186
DIN EN 20535:1994, 260
dirt, 38
distress purchases, 416
distribution logistics, 13
dot gain, 480
double-wall configuration, 240
dry bond adhesion, 332
dry bonding, 172–3
dry offset, 339
dry offset letterpress, 469
drying method, 463–5
conventional drying mechanism, 464
UV cure mechanism, 465
dust, 38

E

easy-open ends
end shells conversion
plain end/shell into easy-open end, 147
plain food can ends and shells, 145–6
end lining compound application, 146
food end and beverage end shell forming, 146
Edgewise Compression Test (ECT), 258–9
efficiency, 529
electro chrome coated steel (ECCS), 128, 157
electrophotography, 476–7
elemental chlorine free (ECF), 198–9
elongation, 289, 326
embossing, 172, 482–3, 521
flat-bed method, 483
EN 1230.2-2001, 210
end-of-line equipment, 522–5
corrugated cases, 523–4
pallet labelling, 525
palletisation, 524–5
shrink-wrapping, 522–3
energy recovery, 67–8, 77–8
environment, 66
environmental aspect, 66
environmental impact, 66
packaging and life cycle analysis, 84–5
environmental stress cracking, 290
environmental sustainability
climate disruption, 82–5
definitions, 66–8
environmentally responsible packaging, 80–1
law compliance, 68–76
overview, 65–6
future generation, 66
packaging, 65–85
packaging re-use and recovery, 76–80
voluntary agreement compliance, 81–2
waste, 68
Essential Requirements, 59, 60, 70, 72–6, 84
ethylene acrylic acid, 296
ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), 295, 386–7
ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH), 295, 333
European Chemicals Agency (ECHA), 54
European Committee for Standardisation (CEN), 73
exhaustive panel tests, 55
expanded polystyrene packaging, 239
extruded-film adhesives, 172
extrusion bonding, 173

F

feathering, 480
fibre length, 189
fibre tear, 393
filling machine, 493–506
angles of repose, 494
filling liquid products, 499–506
bottom-up filling to minimise foaming, 500
level fillers, 500–2
volume fillers, 502–6
weighing fillers, 506
filling solid products, 496–9
by count, 499
by volume, 496–7
by weight, 497–8
multi-head filling by weight, 498
using a auger filler, 497
using a cup filler, 496
film extrusion, 314–27
cast-film extrusion line, 316
coated overwrap film for tobacco packaging, 318
orienting cast film, 317
slot-orifice die cross-section, 315
typical PP/EVOH/PP barrier layer coextrusion, 315
film treatments, 327–35
carton containing liquid laminate example, 328
film metallising chamber, 330
flexible materials lamination and coating, 328–35
typical packaging laminate example, 327
Flat Crush Test, 258
flexible materials
lamination and coating, 328–35
coating process, 331
dry bond laminator, 332
extrusion coating process, 330
gravure coating process, 334
laminates examples, 329
wax bond laminator, 332
wet bond laminator, 333
flexographic printing, 253–4
flexography, 406, 472–3
schematic diagram, 472
flow meter, 506
fluoropolymers, 303
flute materials, 243–5
characteristics of the main flute sizes, 244
most commonly used grammages for liners and flutings, 245
relative flute flat crush values, 244
standard flute configurations, 243
foil blocking, 482
cold foil blocking, 483
hot foil blocking, 482
folding boxboard (FBB), 180, 184
illustration, 185
folding cartons, 222–36
making, 229–36
carton with concora opening, 235
crease depth and width, 233
cutting and creasing forme with make-ready counter, 231
die-cutting rule with a notch, 232
glueing operation, 236
nicks position, 231
styles, 222–9
carton grain direction, 224
dimensions, 225
end load carton, 225
end load carton aeroplane tuck, 228
end load carton basic design, 226
end load carton locking mechanism, 228
end load carton reverse tuck, 227
glue flaps and working creases relationship, 223
length and width determine the location of opening, 223
top load carton heat-sealed, webcornered, tapered tray design, 229
top load carton lock tab design, 229
top load carton multi-pack for dairy packs and carbonated drinks, 230
top load carton six-corner, glued, folded design, 230
top load carton with locked corners, 229
Food and Drugs Administration (FDA), 131
food can ends
peelable membrane, 147–8
illustration, 148
plain and shells for food/drink easy-open ends, 145–6
food contact, 129–31
EU National regulations, 130–1
Harmonised European regulations, 130
USA regulations, 131
Food Labelling Regulations (1996), 58
food packaging
regulations, 52–5
EC-approved symbol denote food contact materials and articles, 53
Food Safety Act (1990), 52
form, fill and seal (FFS) packaging, 182, 514–19
blister packaging, 518–19
horizontal FFS machines, 515–18
basic operation, 516
styles of seal, 517
sachet forming and filling machines, 518
thermoforming packaging machines, 518
vertical FFS machines, 514–15
basic operation, 515
variation of VFFS operation, 516
Fourdrinier method, 201–6
basic wire process, 201
blade coating, 204
calendering, 204
extrusion coating and lamination, 205
headbox and slice process, 203
multi-formers process, 202
size press, 203
vertiformer, 206
free-flowing powder, 494
free radical polymerisation, 265

G

gap analysis, 101, 556
gas barrier, 290, 325
gas phase polymerisation, 267
gaseous liquids, 118
general line decorative cans
mechanical lock seam, 143–4
forming and lock seaming general line can, 144
general line lock seam process flow, 145
general line non-performance can, 144
ghosting, 480
glass containers
decoration and labelling, 120
design, 117–20
nomenclature, 117
relative strengths of different shaped container, 118
relative weights of cylindrical and irregularly shaped container, 118
shingling causing toppling and breakage on filling line, 118
formation, 113–14
blow-and-blow process, 114
press-and-blow process, 114
glass inspection, 115–16
glass manufacture, 112–13
glass furnace and gob-forming process, 112
glass packaging, 7, 109–21
advantages and disadvantages, 110–11
annealing, 115
container design, 117–20
forming glass containers, 113–14
glass container decoration and labelling, 120
glass inspection, 115–16
glass-making processes, 121
glass manufacture, 112–13
overview, 109–10
composition and properties of soda lime glass, 109
surface coating, 115
tolerance, 116–17
glass tolerance, 116–17
global brand management, 98
Global Standard for Packaging and Packaging Materials, 63
global warming, 82
globalisation, 5–6
grab, 393
graft copolymers, 271–2
granular solids, 118–19
graphic design, 455–6
artwork design, 456
CAD/CAM, 456
gravity fillers, 501
gravure, 470–2
printing, 471
grease barrier, 325–6
grease resistance, 183
green bond, 393
greenhouse gases (GHG), 82–4
global warming potential, 83
greenwash, 80–1
Gurley Porosity Test, 260

H

halftone, 448–9
hazard, 539
hazard and risk management
HARM development, 548–54
HARM control chart (RTP), 553
hazard analysis chart (RTP), 552
process flowchart, 550
simplified ‘decision-tree’, 551
hazard identification and risk assessment, 547–54
hazard and risk analysis, 547–8
industry technical standards, 554–8
certification, 556–8
relevant standards and scope, 554
standards, 554–5
using the standards, 555–6
life-cycles in supply chain, 539–44
HARM issues in RTP, 541
HARM issues in single-use packaging, 540
overview, 539–42
packaging performance, 543–4
packaging types, example uses, hazards and consequences, 542
returnable transit packaging, 543
single-use packaging, 542–3
single-use vs returnable packaging, 540
packaging, 538–58
prerequisite systems and controls, 544–7
management systems, 545–7
prerequisites, 544–5
hazardous substance, 75
heal-seal temperature, 326
heat sealability, 290
heat-sealable adhesives, 172
heat transfer printing, 484
heating, 150
hexachrome, 450–1
hickies, 479
high density polyethylene (HDPE), 8, 267–9
Home Authority Trading Standards Officer, 57
home compostable packaging, 79
hot foil printing, 521, 522
hot-melt bonding, 173
hot melts, 172, 389
hue, 443
humidity, 42
hybrid screening, 453
hydrapulper, 191
hydraulic pressure tester, 116
hydrofluorocarbons, 83

I

image transfer, 460–1
computer to gravure cylinder, 460–1
computer to off-set lithographic plate, 461
computer to relief plate, 461
computer to screen, 460
mechanisms, 467–78
flexography, 472–3
gravure, 470–2
letterpress, 469–70
lithography, 474–6
non-impact printing techniques, 476–8
screen printing, 467–8
impact strength, 289
in-mould labelling, 339, 401–2
independent section machine, 113
Industrial Revolution, 4
Industry Council for Packaging and the Environment (INCPEN), 61
industry guides, 62
injection moulding, 339–45
decoration of injection moulded parts, 344
hot runner moulds, 344
image, 345
injection points, 342
mould designs, 343–4
parts with undercuts, 344
multi-cavity mould, 341
reciprocating and ram type, 340
simple injection mould, 342
thermoforming comparison, 348–50
ink, 463–5
properties for various printing processes, 464
inkjet printing, 403, 521, 522
inkjet technology, 477
insects, 38
intensity of colour, 443
inter-atomic forces, 280–3
aromatic benzene, 281
effect on polymer properties, 281
styrene block copolymer TPE, 283
thermosetting and thermoplastic polymers, 282
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), 83–4
intermediate bulk containers (IBC), 7, 312
international trading, 60–1
trade conventions between Britain/Europe, the United States and Japan, 61
Internet Advertising Bureau (IAB), 97
ionomers, 296
Iriodin, 455
ISO 535:1991, 260
ISO 1294, 210
ISO 2759:2001, 258
ISO 3034:19, 258
ISO 3035:1982, 258
ISO 3036, 258
ISO 3037:2007, 258
ISO 5628, 210
ISO 5636, 209
ISO 7263:2008, 258
ISO 8296, 209
ISO 9001, 63
ISO 12048:1994, 33
ISO 14001, 66
ISO 14021, 60
ISO 22000, 555
ISO 287-1985, 210
ISO 534-2005, 210
ISO 535-1991, 210
ISO 536-1995, 210
ISO 1974-1990, 210
ISO 1994.2-2008, 210
ISO 2470.2-2008, 209
ISO 2471-2008, 209
ISO 2493-1992, 210
ISO 2758-2003, 210
ISO 3783-200, 209
ISO 5636-5:2003, 260
ISO 8254.3-2004, 209
ISO 8295-1995, 210
ISO 8791.3-2005, 209
ISO 9895-2008, 210
ISO 11476-2000, 209
ISO 12647-2:2004, 458
ISO 14000/140, 60
ISO 15754-2009, 210
ISO 105-X12-2001, 209
isotactic configuration, 268

J

jute bags, 8

K

key performance indicator (KPI), 15, 17, 18, 22
Kraft, 193
Kyoto Protocol, 83

L

label claims, 58
label manufacturer, 398–400
adhesive selection, 399
label application, 399
label substrates, 398–9
storage requirements, 399–400
label market, 405–6
labelling, 509–12
neck collars and tags, 512
self-adhesive labels, 509–10
sleeves, 512
ungummed labels, 511–12
laminate aluminium foil, 172–4
wet-bonding foil lamination process, 173
Landfill Directive, 69
Landfill Regulation (2002), 69
laser marking, 521, 522
laser sensors, 486
latex, 386
law
compliance, 68–76
enforcement, 50–1
trading conventions, 51
leak testing, 26
leakage, 25–6
legislation, 51–2
compliance consistency, 63
consequence of compliance failure, 63
environment protection regulations, 59–60
EU Packaging Directive essential requirements, 59
factory operations, 60
green claims and recycling information, 60
Producer Responsibility Obligations, 59–60
good practice, 62–3
industry guides, 62
trade conventions, 62–3
international trading, 60–1
overview, 50–1
law and trading conventions, 51
law enforcement, 50–1
role of law within civilised society, 50
packaging, 50–63
product quality, safety regulation during manufacture, distribution, storage and use, 52–6
trade associations, 62
trade regulations, 56–8
deceptive packaging and label claims, 58
design rights, patents and copyright, 58
e mark, 57
filling of products, 56–8
permitted tolerable negative error changes, 57
letterpress, 406, 469–70
dry offset letter press, 470
schematics, 469
level fillers, 500–2
basic gravity filling, 502
filling by level and volume, 501
gravity filling using flow meter and valve, 503
pressure filling, 504
life cycle analysis, 84–5
lifestyle changes, 5
light, 37–8
lightness, 443
line efficiency, 528–9
linear forming, 218
linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE), 271
liner/facing materials, 242–3
linerless closure, 368–9
liquid crystal polymers, 304
liquid packaging cartons, 219–21
brick design, 221
laminates used, 220
Tetrapak closure designs, 221
lithographic printing, 254
lithography, 474–6
schematic diagram, 475
long softwood fibres, 190
low density polyethylene (LDPE), 265–7
autoclave and tubular reactors for processing polyethylene, 266
lug closures, 371–2
lug neck finish and closure, 371
metal lug tamper-evident pop-up button, 372

M

machine direction (MD), 316
machine vision systems, 486–7
management information system (MIS), 406
management systems, 545–7
biological contaminants and procedural controls, 547
chemical contaminants and procedural controls, 546
physical contaminants and procedural controls, 546
structure and functions, 545
manufacturing, 13
market, 417
market segmentation, 101
marketing, 13
brand promotion, 97–8
branding and product promotion and advertising, 93–5
communication consistency, 98–100
definition, 87–9
market research tools and techniques to identify customer needs, 100–5
packaging, 87–105
product branding, 95–7
role, 89–92
brand value determination, 92
distribution strategy determination, 90–2
identifying market sector, 89–90
identifying product need, 89
packaging relationship, 92
price determination, 90
marketing communications agency, 100
Marketing Department, 88
marketing-led companies, 88–9
Mater Bi, 307
matte finish, 170
mechanical adhesion, 382–3
mechanical lock seam
general line decorative cans, 143–4
forming and lock seaming general line can, 144
general line lock seam process flow, 145
general line non-performance can, 144
mechanical pulp, 193
mechanical seaming ends
can bodies, 148–9
operations, 149
overview, 149
mechanical strength, 258–60
testing the strength of corrugated board, 259
medicine packaging, 55
medicine safety, 55
melt flow index (MFI), 314
merchandising, 13
metal can
end process performance, 126–7
formats, 123–6
aerosol prior to fitting of value mechanism, 126
body manufacture, 124
bottle, 125
non-round food, 125
processed food and drink, 124
metal closures, 153–5
outlines, 153
metal containers
manufacture, 133–53
specifications, 157–9
Metal FX, 454
metal packaging, 7
metallisation, 174
metallocene, 294
metamerism, 447
methane, 83
minimum net weight, 56
Miraval, 455
Misleading Advertising Regulations (1998), 60
misregistration, 479
mitigation, 84
modern packaging, 4–5
modern retailing, 5–6
modified atmosphere packaging, 520–1
modified molten aluminium, 168
moisture, 290
moisture barrier, 325
moisture vapour transfer (MVT), 257
moisture vapour transmission rate, 44–5, 325
molecular weight, 278
mono-orientation, 316
monomer
different number, 278–80
linear low density polyethylene, 279
orientation in a copolymer, 280
polymer formation, 273–5
substitution with hydrogen atom in ethylene, 273
moulded pulp boxes, 238–9
moulded pulp trays, 238–9
Mullen Burst Test, 258
multi-injection moulding, 345–8
single-stage coinjection, 347–8
coinjected PP and PET preforms, 349
process, 348
two-stage injection moulding and overmoulding, 345–7
process, 346–7
multifunctional monomers, 272
multipacks, 222–36
multiple drawn cans, 136–8
can drawing from flat metal, 137
cup making for DRD and DWI cans, 136
DRD can process flow, 138
redraw can forming, 138

N

narrow neck press-and-blow, 113, 114
NatureFlex, 305–6, 307
neck collars, 512
non-free-flowing powder, 494
non-impact printing techniques, 476–8
continuous inkjet, 477
electrophotography or xerography, 476
piezo and bubble-jet technologies, 478
noxious substance, 75
nutrient source, 42

O

open mouth sacks, 211
open time, 393
optical properties, 290
optimised pallet fill, 20
output, 529
over-pressure fillers See pressure filler
oxodegradable, 307
oxygen, 42
oxygen chemical bleaching (OCB), 198

P

pack size, 91
package top-load strength, 20
packaging, 66
adhesives, 381–93
adhesion theories, 382–4
adhesive selection, 389–90
adhesive types, 384–9
application methods, 390
performance evaluation, 391
terminology, 392–3
troubleshooting adhesive problems, 391–2
brief, 414–15
checklist, 415
containment, 25–6
convenience, 46–7
design and development, 411–39
brief, 414–15
case study, yoghurt for children, 431–9
conceptual design, 423–31
design process, 412–13
research, 415–23
design process, 412–13
chart, 413
different level of packaging, 6–7
environmental sustainability, 65–85
climate disruption, 82–5
definitions, 66–8
environmentally responsible packaging, 80–1
law compliance, 68–76
overview, 65–6
re-use and recovery, 76–80
voluntary agreement compliance, 81–2
waste, 68
functions, 24–49
globalisation and modern retailing, 5–6
hazard and risk management, 538–58
hazard identification and risk assessment, 547–54
industry technical standards, 554–8
life-cycles in supply chain, 539–44
prerequisite systems and controls, 544–7
history, 3
legislation, 50–63
compliance consistency, 63
consequence of compliance failure, 63
environment protection regulations, 59–60
good practice, 62–3
international trading, 60–1
overview, 50–1
product quality, safety regulation during manufacture, distribution, storage and use, 52–6
trade associations, 62
trade regulations, 56–8
machinery and line operations, 490–537
cartonning, 513–14
closing and sealing of containers, 506–9
coding systems, 521–2
direct product shrink- and stretch-wrapping, 519–20
end-of-line equipment, 522–5
fillers and filling, 493–506
form, fill and seal (FFS) packaging operations, 514–19
labelling, 509–12
miscellaneous wrappers, 521
modified atmosphere packaging, 520–1
packaging line, 490–2
problem-solving on the packaging line, 536–7
unscramblers, 492–3
marketing, 87–105
brand promotion, 97–8
branding and product promotion and advertising, 93–5
communication consistency, 98–100
definition, 87–9
market research tools and techniques to identify customer needs, 100–5
product branding, 95–7
role, 89–92
materials polymer chemistry, 262–86
addition polymerisation, 265–9
condensation polymerisation, 269–70
copolymerisation and crosslinking polymerisation, 271–2
factors affecting polymer characteristics, 272–86
overview, 262–3
polymerisation principles, 264
materials usage and development, 7–8
patterns and impact of consumption, 4–5
preservation, 41–6
printing, 441–88
additive and subtractive colour mixing, 444–5
colour description, 442–3
colour printing, 447–55
colour vision, 443–4
graphic design, reprographics and pre-press, 455–61
light and colour, 442
other factors affecting colour, 445–7
other processing techniques, 481–4
proofing options and approval processes, 461–3
quality control, 484–8
technological aspects, 463–80
product information source, 47–8
product selling, 48
protection, 26–40
quality and efficiency aspects of operation, 526–36
calculating line efficiency, 528–30
changeovers, 531–2
installing new packaging machinery, 534–6
maintenance and training, 528
measured parameters and types of sensors, 527–8
optimising line efficiency, 530–1
specifying and purchasing of new packaging machinery, 533–4
storage of materials, 526, 528
using existing or new machinery to increase production, 532–3
responsible use of resource, 9
society, 3–9
supply chain, 10–22
challenges, 19–22
delivering cost effective solutions, 14–19
segments development, structure and interdependence, 12–14
training importance, 22
Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive, 70
packaging closures, 361–80
child resistance, 376–7
crimped crown cork closures, 372–3
dispensing and metering, 377–9
dispensing pumps, 378–9
flip-top closures, 377–8
lug closures, 371–2
peelable seal lids, 373
push-fit closures, 362–5
push-in styles, 363–4
push-on styles, 364–5
role, 361–2
screw-threaded closures, 365–71
tamper evidence, 373–6
adhesive labels and tapes, 376
plastic tamper-evident closures, 375
roll-on pilfer-proof (ROPP) metal closures, 374–5
ROPP closure, 374
shrink seals or bands, 375
testing closure performance, 379–80
types, 362
Packaging Compliance Scheme, 59
Packaging Export Recovery Notes (PERN), 72
packaging labels, 395–406
challenges, 405
digital revolution, 406
future trends, 406
in-mould, 401–2
label manufacturer, 398–400
main end user sectors, 396
market, 405–6
printing process, 403–4
process used, 404
self-adhesive (pressure sensitive), 396–8
sleeves, 402–3
specifications, 404–5
trends, 396
label types produced by European label converters, 397
wet glue (gummed labels), 400–1
packaging line, 490–2
problem-solving, 536–7
types of layout, 491–2
rotary layout, 491
packaging materials
plastic properties, 287–308
bio-based polymers, 306–8
common packaging plastics, 292–300
key properties for packaging applications, 289–92
market overview, 287–9
specialist polymers, 301–6
plastics manufacturing processes, 310–60
blow moulding, 350–9
environmental considerations, 359–60
film treatments after forming, 327–35
injection moulding, 339–45
injection moulding vs thermoforming, 348–50
multi-injection moulding, 345–8
plasticating extruder, 311–14
sheet and film extrusion, 314–27
thermoforming process, 335–39
packaging minimisation, 73–4
packaging optimisation, 14, 17
Packaging Recovery Notes (PRN), 71
packaging reduction projects, 9
Packaging Regulations, 59, 60, 70, 72–6
packaging research, 415–23
marketing, 415–21
brand values, 417
competitor products, 420–1
consumer requirements and benefits, 420
market, 417
product positioning, 416
target audience, 419–20
technical consideration, 421–3
containment, protection, preservation and compatibility, 422
environmental factors, 423
production, distribution and point-ofsale, 422–3
packaging technical development, 13
Packaging Waste, 59
Packaging Waste Directive, 70, 72
pallet construction, 33–4
compressive forces when using single-side pallets, 34
pallet labelling, 525
pallet shrink wrap film, 294
pallet stacking, 34–6
0201 style corrugated case, 35
load-bearing ability around the perimeter of a case, 35
overhang effect on compression stack strength, 34
stacking factors guidance, 36
palletisation, 524–5
automatic palletisation, 525
palletisation line, 21
Pantone, 405
Pantone swatch guide, 450–1
paper and paperboard packaging, 178–239
manufacture, 200–8
overview, 178–9
matted fibres, 179
paper conversion process, 208–21
paperboard conversion process, 222–39
post-pulping of fibres, 196–200
properties, 179–89
burst strength principle, 182
Cobb test for water absorbency, 181
combination of whiteness and strength for various pulp, 188
combining paper with other materials, 188–9
compression strength testing, 183
different types comparison, 186–8
paperboard grades, 184–6
properties of changing types of pulp, 189
SBB, FBB and WLC, 181
total energy absorption (TEA) levels, 182
warping, 181
whiteness and strength for different paperboard grades, 190
whiteness and tensile strength difference, 183
pulping process, 191–6
raw materials, 189–91
paper bags, 213, 215–16
flat bag design, 215
satchel bag design, 215
satchel bag design with window, 216
storage, 216
paper packaging, 7
paper sacks, 208–13
specifications for multi-wall sacks, 214
types of open mouth sack design, 212
valve sack types, 213
paperboard grades, 184–6
DIN 19303 European classification for qualities of paperboard, 187
patents, 58
peel strength, 391
peelable seal lids, 373
perfluorocarbons, 83
pester power, 435
pests, 38
photo-electric sensors, 486
pilferage, 38–9
piston filler, 504–5
plastic sacks, 294
plastic tamper-evident closures, 375
plasticating extruder, 311–14
carbon black nanofillers producing anti-static polyethylene carbon nanocomposite, 313
illustration, 312
plastic conversion process, 314
plastics, 8
bio-based polymers, 306–8
common packaging plastics, 292–300
polyethylene family of plastics, 293–6
polyethylene terephthalate, 299–300
polypropylene, 296–8
polystyrene, 299
polyvinyl chloride, 298–9
key properties for packaging applications, 289–92
chemical resistance, 291
density, 292
moisture and oxygen barrier properties, 292
market overview, 287–9
development of plastics, 288
European demand vs other markets, 288
properties for packaging materials, 287–308
specialist polymers, 301–6
cellulose materials, 305–6
cyclic olefin copolymers, 304
fluoropolymers, 303
liquid crystal polymers, 304
polyamide, 303
polycarbonate, 303
polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), 302
polymers used in packaging, 301
polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) copolymers, 302
styrene copolymers, 301–2
thermoplastic elastomers, 304
thermosets, 304–5
plastics manufacturing processes
packaging materials, 310–60
blow moulding, 350–9
environmental considerations, 359–60
film treatments after forming, 327–35
injection moulding, 339–45
injection moulding vs thermoforming, 348–50
material selection, 310–11
multi-injection moulding, 345–8
plasticating extruder, 311–14
sheet and film extrusion, 314–27
thermoforming process, 335–39
Ply Separation Test, 260
point-of-sale (POS), 423
polyamide, 269–70, 303
polycarbonate, 270, 303
polyethylene, 293–6
ethylene acrylic acid, 296
ethylene copolymers, 295
ethylene vinyl acetate, 295
ethylene vinyl alcohol, 295
high density polyethylene, 294–5
ionomers, 296
linear low density polyethylene, 293–4
low density polyethylene, 293
polyvinyl acetate, 296
polyvinyl alcohol, 296
polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), 302
polyethylene terephthalate (PET), 8, 299–300
polylactic acid, 270
polymer, 312
addition polymerisation, 265–9
condensation polymerisation, 269–70
copolymerisation and crosslinking polymerisation, 271–2
factors affecting characteristics, 272–86
addition vacuum deposition chamber, 285
additives, 283–4
branched polymer showing short and long chain branching, 276
crystallinity, 276–8
forces, 280–3
linear polymer, 276
mixing, 285
molecular weight and molecular weight distribution, 278
monomer, 273–5
monomer orientation in a copolymer, 280
number of different monomer, 278–80
physical orientation, 285–6
polymerisation methods, initiators and catalyst, 276
special material treatments, 284–5
tacticity, 275
overview, 262–3
common packaging plastics, 263
packaging material chemistry, 262–86
polymerisation principles, 264
polymer melting, 313
polymeric film, 325–7
polymerisation
addition, 265–9
principles, 264
polypropylene, 296–8
packaging applications, 297
polystyrene, 299
polyurethane, 387
polyvinyl acetate (PVA), 296, 386–7
polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH), 296
polyvinyl chloride (PVC), 298–9
packaging applications, 298
polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) copolymers, 302
precipitation, 167
prerequisite systems and controls, 544–7
HARM, 544
preservation, 41–6
packaging characteristics for foodstuffs, 43–6
order of importance of specific deterioration indices, 45
process, 43
methods and associated packaging requirements, 44
packaging requirements to reduce/prevent abiotic spoilage, 45
shelf life, 41
spoilage, 41–3
press-and-blow, 113, 114
press-on closure See push-on closure
press-twist closures, 155
pressure control, 313–14
pressure filler, 502, 504
Pricewaterhouse Coopers, 97
primary packaging, 6, 10, 15, 16, 74
printing, 172
colour description, 442–3
hue, 443
intensity of colour, 443
lightness, 443
light and colour, 442
electromagnetic radiation spectrum, 442
other processing techniques, 481–4
embossing, 482–3
foil blocking, 482
heat transfer printing and ceramic or glass decal, 484
metallising, 484
varnishing/lacquering, 481
packaging, 441–88
requirements for viewing colour, 441
technological aspects, 463–80
image transfer mechanisms, 467–78
ink types and drying, 463–5
printing press configurations, 465–6
typical print defects, 478–80
printing press, 465–6
central impression presses, 465–6
printing configuration, 466
in-line presses, 465
stack presses, 466
Producer Responsibility Obligations, 59–60, 70–2
product advertising, 93–5
product information, 47–8
formats, 48
types, 47–8
product/packaging design, 13
product positioning, 416
product promotion, 93–5
product type, 28
product value, 28
product viability, 100
production-led companies, 88
proofing, 461–3
digital proofing, 461–2
sign-off and approval, 462–3
wet proofing, 462
protection, 26–40
defining the environment, 28–39
defining the product, 28
function evaluation, 27–8
function evaluation process completeness, 39–40
typical data journey mapping, 40
hazards in the supply chain, their causes and effects, 27
pry-off lever lid, 363
psychographics, 103
puncture, 36
puncture resistance, 326
Puncture Resistance Test, 258, 260
purchasing, 13
purified molten aluminium, 168
push-in closure, 363–4
cork in glass bottle, 363
pry-off lever lid design, 363
push-in plastic closures, 364
push-on closure, 363, 364–5
plastic design, 364
twist-off, 365
push-on plastic closure, 364
push-on twist-off closure, 365

Q

quality assurance
finished and semi-finished components, 151–3
three-piece can air testing principles, 151
two-piece can light testing principles, 152
quality control
packaging, 484–8
common testing methods, 485
inspection processes, 486–7
specifying requirements and setting standards, 484–6
tracing, packing and tracking, 487–8
paper and paperboard, 207–8
tests carried out for surface appearance, 209
tests carried out to control performance properties, 210–11

R

radio frequency identification (RFID), 395, 426, 487
random copolymers, 271
raw material suppliers, 13
raw materials, 127–33, 189–91
coating materials and application, 131–3
coater for applying lacquer to sheets, 132
DWI food can internal lacquering, 132
corrosion management, 128–9
food contact, 129–31
forming processes, 155–7
hardwood and softwood, 191
properties of some paperboard grades made from recycled waste, 192
steel and aluminium, 127–8
re-use, 76–7
recovery, 67–8
recycled fibres, 191
production, 196
recycling, 67–8, 77, 161
refining, 167, 196–8
rotating disc refiner, 197
Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH), 54
regular slotted containers (RSC), 249, 251
Regulation (EC) No. 1169/2011, 58
Regulation (EC) No. 1907/2006, 54
Regulation (EC) No. 1935/2004, 52, 130
reprographics, 456–60
colour separations, 457
dot control, 458–9
other additions, 459–60
step and repeat, 459
set positions, 459
trapping, 457–8
two colours, 457
reroll stock, 168
resin, 313
retail packaging, 15
retail ready packs (RRP), 241–2
retorting, 149–51
returnable transit packaging, 543
reversed epsilon, 55
rigid boxes, 236–8
designs, 237
rigid metal packaging, 122–62
containers manufacture, 133–53
containers specifications, 157–9
decorating processes, 159–60
environmental factor, 160–2
metal closures, 153–5
overview, 122–7
history, 122
market, 123
metal can and end performance, 126–7
metal can formats, 123–6
raw materials, 127–33
raw materials and forming processes, 155–7
risk, 539
risk management, 538
roll-on pilfer proof (ROPP) caps, 154
roll-on pilfer-proof (ROPP) metal closures, 374–5
roll wrappers, 521
rolling ingots, 168
running speed, 529

S

sales-led companies, 88
scanning errors, 20
screen angles, 449
Moiré pattern, 450
screen clash, 480
screen printing, 339, 467–8
flat-bed and rotary screen printing, 468
screw-threaded closures, 365–71
container neck dimensions standard nomenclature, 367
H dimensions accuracy, 367
induction sealed combined wad and membrane seal, 370
linerless closure with bore seal, 369
linerless closure with top seal, 370
matching thread profiles importance, 366
thread profiles, 366
wadded closure, 368
scumming, 479–80
secondary chlorine free (SCF), 199
secondary packaging, 6–7, 10, 74
self-adhesive labels, 396–8, 509–10
label production, 397–8
layout options, 510
semisolids, 118
sequential filling, 495
setting time, 392–3
sheet extrusion
film extrusion, 314–27
blown film, 318–21
cast, 315–18
cast and blown film coextrusion, 323–5
cellulose film, 321–3
polymeric films performance parameters, 325–7
shelf life, 17, 41
shock, 29–30
cushioning effect, 31
effect minimising ways, 30
short hardwood fibres, 190
short span compression strength (SCT), 242
Short Span Compression Test, 258
shrink film, 320–1
shrink seals, 375
shrink sleeve, 512
labelling, 402–3
shrink wrap, 320, 519–20, 522
collated primary packs, 523
shrinkage, 19–20
single-use packaging, 542–3
single-wall configuration, 240
skin packs, 236–8
carded construction, 238
skiving, 217
sleeve labelling, 402–3
smelting, 167–8
smelting cell, 168
society
packaging, 3–9
different level of packaging, 6–7
globalisation and modern retailing, 5–6
history, 3
materials usage and development, 7–8
patterns and impact of consumption, 4–5
responsible use of resource, 9
soda lime glass, 110
solid bleached board (SBB)
illustration, 184
solid phase pressure forming (SPPF), 336
solid unbleached board (SUB), 184
illustration, 185
solids (non-volatile) content, 393
solution phase polymerisation, 267
solvent-based adhesives, 388
solventless adhesives, 388–9
spiral wound containers, 216–18
illustration, 217
skiving, hemming and anaconda fold, 218
spoilage, 19, 41–3
squeeze tester, 115
starch, 384–5
station, 529
Statutory Instrument, 51, 52
stay-on-tab (SOT), 145
steric hindrance, 274
Stern Review, 84
stiffness, 180, 326
stochastic screening, 452–3
reduced paper effect, 452
storage logistics, 13
stretch blow moulding, 351
stretch hooding, 294
stretch wrap, 320, 519–20
structural design, 425–7
French pack for sugar, 426
styrene acrylonitrile (SAN), 301
styrene copolymers, 301–2
subtractive colour mixing, 445, 447–8
sulphur hexafluoride, 83
supply chain
challenges, 19–22
delivering cost effective solutions, 14–19
packaging, 10–22
segments development, structure and interdependence, 12–14
training importance, 22
surface coating, 115
surface energy, 326
surface finishes, 339
surface friction, 289
sustainable development, 66–7
SWOT analysis, 101
syndiotactic configuration, 268

T

tablets, 119
tack, 393
tacticity, 267–8, 275
tags, 512
tampering, 38–9
Tampo printing, 471–2
TAPPI T803, 258
TAPPI T826, 258
tear resistance, 182
tear strength, 289
Teflon, 303
temperature, 42, 290
humidity and, 36–7
corrugated board compression strength vs moisture content, 38
temperature control, 313
tensile strength, 182, 289, 326
tertiary packaging, 7, 10, 11, 74
test markets, 104
testing closure performance, 379–80
Tetra Pak, 8
thermal transfer, 521, 522
thermoforming process
plastic packaging, 335–9
billow forming over a plug and cavity, 338
plug assist vacuum forming, 337
solid phase pressure forming, 339
vacuum forming over cavity and plug moulds, 337
vacuum snap back forming, 337
thermomechanical pulping (TMP), 191, 194–5
thermoplastic elastomer, 304, 345
thermoplastics, 172, 262, 288
thermoset resins, 256–7
thermosets, 304–5
thermosetting, 262
thickness control, 325
Thickness of Corrugated Board Test, 258, 260
three-piece can, 123–5
three-piece welded cans, 133–5, 156
coil cutting operation, 133
forming and welding, 134
process flow, 135
wall beading, 135
titratable alkalis, 110
tolerable negative error, 56
tonal reproduction, 448
tonal value increase, 458, 480
total energy absorption (TEA), 182
totally chlorine free (TCF), 198–9
traceability, 487–8
trade associations, 62
trade conventions, 62–3
Trade Descriptions Act, 58, 60
Trade Marks Act, 58
trading conventions, 51
trays, 222–36
triple-wall configuration, 240–1
turret, 491
twist-off closures, 154–5
twist-off metal lug closures, 371
twist wrapping machines, 521
two-piece can, 123
two-piece drawn cans, 138–41, 156
DWI can process flow, 140
wall ironing through one ring, 141
two-piece impact extruded cans, 141–3
impact extrusion process, 142
swage top of aerosol can, 143
two-piece impact extruded tubes, 141–3
impact extrusion process, 142
two-piece single drawn cans, 136–8
can drawing from flat metal, 137
cup making for DRD and DWI cans, 136
DRD can process flow, 138
redraw can forming, 138
two-piece wall ironed cans, 138–41, 156
DWI can process flow, 140
wall ironing through one ring, 141

U

UK emissions total, 83–4
ungummed labels, 511–12
automatic application, 511
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 84
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 83
unscramblers, 492–3
automatic depalletiser with sweep-off mechanism, 493
UV flexo, 406

V

vacuum button, 371–2
vacuum fillers, 502, 504
vacuum metallising, 174
vacuum snap back, 336, 337
validation, 553
valve sack, 211–12
van der Waals force, 383
Variochrome, 455
varnishing, 481
vat method See cylinder method
Velio process, 121
verification, 553
vibration, 31–2
sources in road vehicles, 31
vehicle stack resonance, 32
vinyl heat-seal coatings, 171
viscoelasticity, 289–90
viscosity, 393
viscous liquids, 118
visual check, 116
volatile organic compounds (VOCs), 388
volume fillers, 502–6
voluntary agreement, 81–2

W

wadded closure, 368
wall thickness detector, 116
waste, 67
scale, 68
waste stream, 79–80
water-based adhesives, 384–7
water-soluble dispersions, 172
water-soluble emulsions, 172
water vapour transmission rate See moisture vapour transmission rate
waterless lithography, 475–6
weighing fillers, 506
Weights and Measures Act (1963), 56
wet bond lamination, 333
wet bonding, 172–3
wet glue, 400–1
product label application, 400
substrate choice, 400–1
material types, printed or converted, 402
wetting out, 393
white lined chipboard (WLC), 184
illustration, 186
workforce, 56
World Meteorological Organisation (WMO), 84

Y

yoghurt, 431–9
design study, 432–9
design analysis, 438–9
design concept, 435–8
initial sketches, packaging concepts, 436
leading companies and brands, 433
mock-up, paperboard yoghurt pot, 438
pouch and tube formats, 435
research, 432–5
rough graphic concepts, packaging design, 437
target audience, 434
overview, 431–2
advertising, 431–2
brand values, 431
competitors, 432