Index – Solving Disputes for Regional Cooperation and Development in the South China Sea

Index

A

Abraham, Spencer, 134
Albar, Syed Hamid, 148
Alcorn, 134
Alison Reef (Liumen Jiao), 111
Amboyna Cay (Anbo Shazhou), 37
claimed by Malaysia, 140
Malaysia’s pxrotest at Vietnam’s occupation, 141, 143
occupied by Vietnam, 140
surveyed by Vietnam, 106
Anbo Shazhou See Amboyna Cay
Aquino, Benigno S. III, 137, 153
Aquino, Corazon, 135
Ardasier Reef (Guangxingzai Jiao)
claimed by Malaysia, 139
occupied by Malaysia, 143
troops deployed by Malaysia, 141
Arroyo, President, 153
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), 9, 10, 116, 135, 148, 149, 151
ASEAN-China DOC, 156–7
ASEAN Regional Forum, 133, 156–7
Treaty of Amity and Cooperation, 157

B

Badawi, Abdullah, 144, 148
Bai Meichu, 79
Banken Oscar, 114
Barque Canada Reef (Bo Jiao)
claimed by Malaysia, 140
occupied by Vietnam, 111, 140
Beikang Ansha See North Luconia Shoals
Beizi Dao See Northeast Cay
Binay, Jejomar, 135
Binh Minh, 115
Bisheng Jiao See Pearson Reef
Bo Jiao See Barque Canada Reef
Boji Jiao See Erica Reef
Bolan Jiao See Petley Reef
Bolkiah, Haji Hassanal, 149
Bombay Castle (Pengbo Dao), 111
British Petroleum (BP), 113
Brunei
basis of claims to Nansha Islands, 140–1
continental shelf, 4
continental shelf claims, 140–2
efforts at settling dispute with China over Nansha Islands, 149
history of disputes with China over Nansha Islands, 147
ratification of UNCLOS, 141
submission to CLCS, 147
weakness of claims to Nansha Islands, 142

C

Cai Shupan, 68
Cairo Declaration, 38, 54, 55, 62, 66, 93, 99
case law
Arbitration Concerning Buraimi and the Common Frontier between Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia, 97
Bangladesh/Myanmar, 76
Eastern Greenland, 65, 71–2
Eritrea-Yemen, 15
Libya-Tunisia, 15
Palmas Island, 48, 49, 70–2
Central Reef (Zhong Jiao), 109
Chevreud, 74, 104
China
Agreement on Basic Principles Guiding Settlement of Sea-Related Issues, 119
Agreement on Fishery Cooperation in the Beibu Gulf, 119, 164
Agreement on Delimitation of Territorial Seas, Exclusive Economic Zone and Continental Shelves in the Beibu Gulf, 119
China-Vietnam Joint Fishery Committee, 120
commitment to regional cooperation, 162–6
Committee of Examining Water and Land Maps, 37, 79
concept of sovereignty, 23, 30, 38–9
Declaration on Baselines of Territorial Sea, 53
Declaration on Territorial Sea, 53, 58, 64
defence cooperation with Philippines, 136
efforts at settlement of Nansha disputes, 116–20, 135–7, 147–9
establishment of Sansha City, 52, 153, 159, 166
fighting foreign encroachments in SCS, 65–9
fighting with Vietnam over Fiery Cross Reef, 111
foreign trade through SCS, 6, 21–6, 28
Gulf of Tonkin disputes, 118–19
history of disputes with Brunei over Nansha Islands, 147
history of disputes with Malaysia over Nansha Islands, 143–6
history of disputes with Philippines over Nansha Islands, 130–5
history of disputes with Vietnam over Nansha Islands, 103–16
hydrocarbon exploration in Nansha area, 112–15, 154
incidents at sea, 154–5
international arbitration versus Philippines, 161–2
Joint Marine Seismic Undertaking agreement, 136
Law on Exclusive Economic Zone and Continental Shelf, 53–4, 80, 81, 83
Law on Territorial Sea and Contiguous Zone, 53, 54, 80
maritime legislation, 52–4
Nansha disputes inadmissible under UNCLOS, 77
objections to CLCS submissions, 152–3
protests at French occupation of Nansha Islands, 37, 97, 104–5
protests at Malaysia’s occupation of Nansha Islands, 145–6
protests at Philippines’ activities in SCS, 131-2
protests at Vietnamese occupation of SCS islands, 107, 110–11, 116
strategic importance of Nansha Islands, 6
U-shaped line, 77–83, 146, 152, 153
Chinese Toponymy Committee, 3
Chongye, 105
Clinton, Hillary, 133–4, 156, 158
Cloma, Tomas A., 106, 127–8
CNOOC, 154
Collins Reef (Guihan Jiao), 111
Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS), 5
joint Malaysia/Vietnam submission, 75, 77, 80, 89, 116, 143, 145–6, 152–3
submission by Brunei, 147
submission by Philippines, 126
Committee for Coordination of Joint Prospecting for Mineral Resources in Asia Off-shore Areas, 7
Commodore Reef (Siling Jiao) occupied by Philippines, 132, 140
Conoco, 113–15
Convention on Fishing and Conservation of the Living Resources of the High Seas, 10–11
Convention on the Continental Shelf, 11
Convention on the High Seas, 10
Convention on the Territorial Sea, 10
Cornwallis South Reef (Nanhua Jiao) 111
Cot, Jean-Pierre, 161
Crestone Energy Corporation, 112–14
Cruz, Avelino, 136

D

Dallas Reef (Guangxing Jiao), 140
occupied by Malaysia, 143
troops deployed by Malaysia, 141
Danwan Jiao See Swallow Reef
Daxiao Jiao See Great Discovery Reef
Declaration on China’s Territorial Sea, 80
Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea (DOC), 10, 116, 131, 136, 146, 148–9, 151–2, 156–7, 161, 166
del Rosario, Albert F. 131, 136
Deng Xiaoping, 9, 135
Discovery 08, 115
Djalal, Hasjim, 82
Do Ba, 90
Do Muoi, 117
Dong Jiao See East Reef
Dongsha Islands
China’s administration of, 52
China’s claim of sovereignty, 53, 55, 58
proposed meteorological facilities, 63
resources developed by Japan, 66
US recognition of China’s sovereignty, 62–3
Drummond Island (Jinqing Dao) 35
dynasties
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period xxii, 44
Jin, xxii, 26, 42
Ming, 26, 28, 30–1, 43–5, 51, 53
Qin, 18, 44, 142
Qing, 23, 28, 30–1, 34–5, 43, 45, 51, 53, 56, 61, 66, 73, 96, 128
Sixteen Kingdoms period, xxii
Song, 24–5, 27–8, 31, 43, 45, 50, 58
Southern and Northern, xxii, 50
Spring and Autumn period, 16–17
Sui, 20
Tang, 31, 42, 50
Three Kingdoms period, 18–19, 42, 44
timeline, xxi–ii
Wu kingdom, 18–20
Xia, 16
Yuan, 28, 30, 50
Zhou, 16, 17, 39, 40

E

East Asia Summit, 158
East Reef (Dong Jiao) 111
ECOSOC, 68
Erica Reef (Boji Jiao)
claimed by Malaysia, 139
infrastructure development, 144–5
occupied by Malaysia, 143, 146
Estrada, Joseph, 135
ExxonMobil, 115

F

Feixin Dao See Flat Island
Fiery Cross Reef (Yongshu Jiao), 111
Flat Island (Feixin Dao)
occupied by Philippines, 132
oil exploration, 134
France
absorption of Xisha Islands, 38
acknowledgement of China’s sovereignty over Nansha Islands, 57
claiming sovereignty over Nansha Islands, 103
invading SCS features, 66, 73–4
occupation of Nansha Islands, 36, 37, 96–8, 103–5
succession as basis of Vietnam’s claims in SCS, 92–3, 96–8, 106
French Naval Navigation Committee, 6

G

Gao Zhiguo, 82
Garcia, Carlos, 60, 67
Germany, surveying in SCS, 66
Great Discovery Reef (Daxiao Jiao), 111
Grierson Reef (Ranqing Shazhou), 109
Gromyko, Andrei, 100
Grotius, Hugo, 49
Guangxing Jiao See Dallas Reef
Guangxingzai Jiao See Ardasier Reef
Guangya Jiao See Prince of Wales Bank
Guihan Jiao See Collins Reef
Gulf of Tonkin disputes, 118–19
Guo Shoujing, 30
Guo Songtao, 34

H

Hainan Island, 18, 30, 33, 45, 61, 62, 73
Half Moon Shoal, 130
Hamidi, Ahmad Zahid, 148
Han Nianlong, 69, 110
He Ruinian incident, 36
HMS Rifleman, 33, 72
Ho Si Thoang, 113
Hoang Sa See Xisha Islands
Hoang Tung, 108
Hongxiu Dao See Namyit Island
Hu Jinjie, 79
Hu Jintao, 149
Huanglu Jiao See Royal Charlotte Reef
Huangyan Island See Scarborough Shoal
Huber, Max, 48, 70–2

I

India, involvement in SCS, 160
Indonesia, acknowledgement of China’s sovereignty over Nansha Islands, 60
Institute of International Law, 48
International Civil Aviation Organization, 63
international law
critical date, 70–4
definition of discovery, 47–9
impact of UNCLOS, 74–7
inter-temporal law, 48, 83
‘land dominates the sea’, 129, 142
primo occupandis, 48
principle of estoppel, 64–5, 100–2
res nullius, 128
successive administration, 49–52
terra nullius, 48, 72, 74, 97, 142
International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, 82, 131
Investigator Shoal (Yuyu Ansha)
claimed by Cloma, 127
claimed by Malaysia, 139
infrastructure development, 144–5
occupied by Malaysia, 143, 146
Itu Aba (Taiping Dao/Island) 108
annexed by Philippines, 130
claimed by Cloma, 127
claimed by Philippines, 60, 67
discovery of, 17
EEZ and continental shelf, 75
garrisoned by China, 130
invaded by France, 74, 104–5
naming, 33
occupied by France, 37
occupied by Taiwan, 4
retaken by China, 105

J

Jackson Atoll, 130
James Shoal
included in U-shaped line, 79
Japan’s acknowledgement of China’s sovereignty, 56
mapping, 37
oil prospecting, 8
Japan
acknowledgement of China’s sovereignty over Nansha Islands, 55–7
ceding SCS islands to China, 55
claiming Xisha and Nansha Islands, 38
developing resources on Dongsha Islands, 66
economic importance of SCS, 160
evacuation of Nansha Islands, 74
exploration of Nansha Islands, 73
invading Nansha and Xisha Islands, 66
involvement in SCS, 159–60
occupation of Nansha Islands, 55
renunciation of claims to Nansha and Xisha Islands, 98–9, 128
resource exploitation on Xisha Islands, 36
strategic importance of Nansha Islands, 126–7
Jennings, Judge, 64
Ji Long, 68
Jiang Zemin, 117
Jinqing Dao See Drummond Island
Johnson, Lyndon, 101

K

Kalayaan Islands, 125–8
Koo, V.K. Wellington, 104
Kunlun, 25

L

Ladd Reef (Riji Jiao), 111
Lansdowne Reef (Qiong Jiao), 111
Le Duan, 9, 109
Le Kha Pieu, 117
Le Kim Chung, 110
Le Loc, 58
Le Qui Don, 91, 92
Le Thanh Tong, 95
Li Peng, 113, 117
Li Xiannian, 101, 109
Li Zhimin, 58, 100
Li Zhun, 35
Liu Bang, xxii
Liumen Jiao See Alison Reef
Liyue Tan See Reed Bank
Loaita Island (Nanyue Dao), 37
evidence of habitation, 73
occupied by Philippines, 132
surveyed by Vietnam, 106
Loaita Nan (Shuanghuang Shazhou), 132
Louisa Reef (Nantong Jiao), 4
claimed by Brunei, 140
claimed by Malaysia, 140
occupied by Malaysia, 143
Luconia Reef (Lukang Ansha), 140
Lukang Ansha See Luconia Reef
Luo Hongxian, 30
Luu Van Loi, 8

M

Macclesfield Bank, 62–3
Mahuan Dao See Nanshan Island
Malaysia
acknowledgement of China’s sovereignty over Nansha Islands, 60–2
basis of claims to Nansha Islands, 139–41
claim to Nansha Islands, 106
CLCS submission, 75, 77, 80, 89, 116, 143, 145, 146, 152–3
continental shelf claims, 140–2
deploying troops to Nansha Islands, 141
efforts at settling dispute with China over Nansha Islands, 147–9
history of disputes with China over Nansha Islands, 143–6
hydrocarbon exploration in SCS, 8, 145
military build-up in SCS, 143–4
ratification of UNCLOS, 140
weaknesses of claims to Nansha Islands, 141–3
Malik, Adam, 60
Manila Pact, 132
Mansfield, Mike, 63
Marcos, Ferdinand, 67, 128
marine Silk Road, 18, 21
maritime legislation, China, 52–4
Mariveles Reef
claimed by Cloma, 127
claimed by Malaysia, 139
occupied by Malaysia, 143
McNair, Judge, 64
Mensah, Thomas A., 162
Mischief Reef claimed by Philippines, 130, 133, 135
Mitra, Ramon J. Jr, 8
Mohamad, Mahathir, 144

N

Namyit Island (Hongxiu Dao) 37
claimed by Cloma, 127
surveyed by Vietnam, 107
Nan Hai, 16, 17 See also South China Sea
Nanhua Jiao See Cornwallis South Reef
Nankang Ansha See South Luconia Shoals
Nanluo Jiao See South Reef
Nansha Islands
basis of Brunei’s claims, 140–1
basis of Malaysia’s claims, 139–41
basis of Philippines’ claims, 124–8
basis of Vietnam’s claims, 89–94
China fighting to protect sovereignty, 65–7
China’s administration of, 52
claimed by China, 53, 55, 58
claimed by Japan, 38
claimed by Malaysia, 106
claimed by Philippines, 60, 66–7
claimed by Vietnam, 67–8, 86–8
consolidation of Chinese sovereignty, 34–8
consolidation of Philippines’ occupation, 132–5
critical date, 72
development of infrastructure by Vietnam, 115
discovery by Cloma brothers, 127
discovery of, 17, 49
early mapping, 17–20, 24, 29–33
effective occupation by Philippines, 127–8
effective occupation by Vietnam, 93–4
efforts at dispute resolution, 116–20, 135–7, 147–9
evidence of habitation, 73–4
explored by Japan, 73
fishery resources, 31–3
France’s recognition of China’s sovereignty, 57
geographic description, 3
history of China-Philippines dispute, 130–5
history of China-Vietnam dispute, 103–16
hydrocarbon exploration by China, 112–15
hydrocarbon exploration by Philippines, 68, 131
hydrocarbon exploration by Vietnam, 109, 113–15
Indonesia’s recognition of China’s sovereignty, 60
international recognition of China’s sovereignty, 54–65
invaded by France, 73
invaded by Japan, 66
Japan’s recognition of China’s sovereignty, 54–7
Japan’s renunciation of claims, 98–9
jurisdiction of Sansha City, 153
Malaysia’s recognition of China’s sovereignty, 60–2
natural resources, 7–8
occupied by France, 36, 96–8, 103–5
occupied by Japan, 55
occupied by Vietnam, 108–9, 111
Philippines’ recognition of China’s sovereignty, 60
proposed meteorological facilities, 63–4
strategic importance, 5–6, 126–7
US recognition of China’s sovereignty, 62–3
Vietnam’s recognition of China’s sovereignty, 58–9
weakness of Brunei’s claims, 142
weaknesses of Malaysia’s claims, 141–3
weaknesses of Philippines’ claims, 128–9
weaknesses of Vietnam’s claims, 94–102
Nansha Qundao See Nansha Islands
Nanshan Island (Mahuan Doa)
occupied by Philippines, 132
oil exploration, 134
Nantong Jiao See Louisa Reef
Nanwei Dao/Island
claimed by Cloma, 127
deployment of Vietnamese troops, 107
invaded by France, 74, 96, 104
invaded by Vietnam, 106
marked by China, 105
not claimed by Philippines, 124
port facilities, 115
Nanwei Tan See Rifleman Bank
Nanyue Dao See Loaita Island
Nanzi Jiao See Southwest Cay
National Institute for South China Sea Studies, xv
Ngo Si Lien, 95
Nguyen Manh Cam, 113
Nguyen Phu Trong, 118, 119
Nopec, 113
North Danger Reefs (Shuangzi Qunjiao), 33
North Luconia Shoals
oil exploration, 8, 145
Northeast Cay (Beizi Dao)
evidence of habitation, 73
occupied by France, 37
occupied by Philippines, 132
Northeast Investigator Shoal, 127

O

Obama, Barack, 157–8
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation, 160
Okazaki, Katsuo, 56

P

Palawan, 8
Paracel Islands See Xisha Islands
Pawlak, Stanislaw, 161
Pearson Reef (Bisheng Jiao), 109
Pengbo Dao See Bombay Castle
Perez, Vicente, 134
Petley Reef (Bolan Jiao), 111
PetroVietnam, 113–14, 160
Pham Van Dong, 58, 100, 101–2, 109
Phan Thanh Gial, 95
Philippines
acknowledgement of China’s sovereignty over Nansha Islands, 60
archipelago status, 125
basis of claims to Nansha Islands, 124–8
claiming Nansha Islands, 66–7
consolidating occupation of Nansha Islands, 132–5
defence cooperation with China, 136
economic importance of Nansha Islands, 127
effective occupation of Nansha Islands, 127–8
efforts at settlement of Nansha disputes, 135–7
extension of maritime boundaries, 124–5
history of dispute with China over Nansha Islands, 130–5
incidents at sea, 155
incorporation of SCS claims into national legislation, 153
international arbitration versus China, 161–2
Joint Marine Seismic Undertaking agreement, 136
joint military exercises in SCS, 132
Military Bases Agreement, 132
oil exploration in Nansha Islands, 68, 131, 134
Palmas Island, 70–2
Philippine-US Mutual Defense Treaty, 130, 132, 134
ratification of UNCLOS, 126, 129
strategic importance of Nansha Islands, 6, 126–7
submission to CLCS, 126
submission to International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, 131
Visiting Forces Agreement, 132
weaknesses of claims to Nansha Islands, 128–9
West Philippine Sea, 131, 134, 153
Pillay, A. Kohilan, 148
Pinto, Chris, 161
Potsdam Declaration, 38, 54, 55, 56, 62, 66, 93, 99
Pratas Islands See Dongsha Islands
Prince of Wales Bank (Guangya Jiao), 111
Putin, Vladimir, 144

Q

Qi Huaiyuan, 145
Qin Gang, 146
Qiong Jiao See Lansdowne Reef
Qu Wenming, 149
Quirino, Elpidio, 66, 130

R

Ramos, President, 130
Ranqing Shazhou See Grierson Reef
Rao, P.V. Narasimha, 160
Razak, Najib Tun, 144
Reed Bank (Liyue Tan)
claimed by Philippines, 130–1
petroleum reserves, 6
Republic of China (ROC), 36–7, 51, 53, 66
tension with Philippines, 130
U-shaped line, 79
Rifleman Bank (Nanwei Tan), 4
claimed by Brunei, 140, 142
Riji Jiao See Ladd Reef
Romulo, Carlos P., 128
Royal Charlotte Reef (Huanglu Jiao)
claimed by Malaysia, 139–40
occupied by Malaysia, 143

S

Sabina Shoal, 130
San Francisco peace conference/treaty, 38, 86, 93–4, 98–100, 106, 127–8
Sansha City, 52, 153, 159, 166
Scarborough Shoal (Huangyan Island)
claimed by Philippines, 126, 130–1, 153
‘Huangyan Island standoff’, 155, 157, 162
Shell Oil, 145
Shen Guofang, 69
Shen Pengfei, 36
Shuanghuang Shazhou See Loaita Nan
Shuangzi Qunjiao See North Danger Reefs
Shuangzi Reef, 106
Siling Jiao See Commodore Reef
Sin Cowe, 33
Sino-French war, 35
Sino-Japanese Treaty, 38, 54, 55
Sino-Japanese War, 34, 55
Soons, Alfred, 161
South China Sea Hydrographic  Commission, 68
South China Sea (SCS)
areas of potential cooperation, 164–6
causes of disputes, 5–12
China’s successive administration, 50–2
code of conduct, 156–7, 162
consolidation of Chinese sovereignty, 34–8
development of laws of the sea, 10–12
dimensions, 1
discovery of islands, 16–17
early administration, 21–33
early mapping, 17–20, 24–5, 29–33
emergency response systems, 165
evolution of disputes, 4–5
geographic area of dispute, 2–3
geopolitical environment, 8–10
geostrategic position, 5–7
hydrocarbon reserves, 5, 7–8
impact of UNCLOS, 74–7
line of historic rights, 81–2
line of historic waters, 81
line of ownership of features, 82–3
littoral states, 3
marine environmental protection, 165–6
maritime piracy, 165
natural resources, 5, 7–8
principles of cooperation, 163–4
recent developments, 151–2
renamed ‘West Philippine Sea’, 131, 134, 153
sea patrols, 26–8
sea-lanes of communication, 6–7, 21–6
seismic survey, 136
traditional maritime boundary line, 81
U-shaped line, 77–83, 146, 152, 153
Vietnam’s claims over maritime zones, 88–9
South East Asia Defense Treaty, 9
South Luconia Shoals
oil exploration, 8, 145
South Reef (Nanluo Jiao), 111
Southwest Cay (Nanzi Jiao), 37
evidence of habitation, 73
invaded by Vietnam, 68
Soviet Union
hydrocarbon exploitation in SCS, 69
strategic importance of SCS, 9
Spratly Island See Nanwei Island
Spratly Islands See Nansha Islands
St Martin Island, 76
Stalin, Joseph, 54
Statoil Vietnam, 113
Swallow Reef (Danwan Jiao)
claimed by Malaysia, 139
economic development, 144
occupied by Malaysia, 141, 145–6
troops deployed by Malaysia, 143

T

Taberd, Bishop Jean Louis, 90, 95
Taiping, 105
Taiping Dao/Island See Itu Aba
Taiwan-Japan Treaty, 99
Tang Jiaxuan, 148
Tennent Reef (Wumie Jiao), 111
Thitu Island (Zhongye Dao), 37
airport facilities, 132
claimed by Cloma, 127
evidence of habitation, 73
occupied by Philippines, 132
surveyed by Vietnam, 106
Tizard Bank (Zhenghe Qunjiao), 33
occupied by Vietnam, 107
Tran Van Huu, 86, 93
Treaty of Hue, 92
Treaty of Paris, 70, 72, 83
Treaty of Peace with Japan, 54, 55, 57
Truong Sa See Nansha Islands
Truong Tan Sang, 118
Tuy Dong, 106

U

U-shaped line, 77–83, 146, 152, 153
UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), 4
CLCS submissions, 152–3
development and passing, 11
EEZ and continental shelf regime, 4–5
freedom of navigation, 154, 156
impact of, 74–7
inability to settle Nansha disputes, 77
island regime, 75–6, 153
lack of provision for historic rights 15 main provisions, 11–12
management of fishery resources, 164
maritime zones, 81
peaceful use of the oceans, 163
Philippines versus China international arbitration, 161–2
provision on extension of continental shelf, 140, 142, 149
ratification by SCS littoral states, 13
ratified by Brunei, 141
ratified by China, 53, 54
ratified by Malaysia, 140
ratified by Philippines, 126, 129
ratified by Vietnam, 88
UN Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, 7, 68
UN Seabed Committee, 128
UNESCO, 64, 111
Ung Van Khiem, 58, 100
United Kingdom, acknowledgement of China’s sovereignty over Nansha Islands, 63
United States
acknowledgement of China’s sovereignty over Nansha Islands, 62–3
changing attitudes towards SCS issues, 133–4, 138, 157–8
encroachment on Xisha Islands, 67
incidents at sea, 155–6
involvement in SCS, 157–9
joint military exercises in SCS, 132
Military Bases Agreement, 132
Palmas Island, 70–2
Philippine-US Mutual Defense Treaty, 130, 132, 134
strategic importance of SCS, 9–10
Visiting Forces Agreement, 132
Treaty of Amity and Cooperation, 157
US-Taiwan Mutual Defense Treaty, 9
USNS Impeccable, 155
USNS Victorious, 155
USS Fitzgerald, 134

V

Vaalco, 134
Vanguard Bank (Wan’an Tan), 59
hydrocarbon exploration, 113–15
occupied by Vietnam, 111
surveyed by Vietnam, 69
Vietnam
1887 China-French Treaty line, 89
acknowledgement of China’s sovereignty over Nansha Islands, 58–9
Agreement on Basic Principles Guiding Settlement of Sea- Related Issues, 119
Agreement on Fishery Cooperation in the Beibu Gulf, 119, 164
Agreement on Delimitation of Territorial Seas, Exclusive Economic Zone and Continental Shelves in the Beibu Gulf, 119
attack on Xisha Islands, 60
awarding oil concessions in SCS, 101
bases of claims to Nansha and Xisha Islands, 89–94
China-Vietnam Joint Fishery Committee, 120
claim to continental shelf and EEZ, 8, 88–9
claiming Nansha Islands, 67–8, 86–8
claims over SCS maritime zones, 88–9
CLCS submissions, 75, 77, 80, 89, 116, 143, 145, 146, 152–3
development of infrastructure on Nansha Islands, 115
earliest activities in SCS, 48–9
efforts at settlement of Nansha disputes, 116–20
fighting with China over Fiery Cross Reef, 111
Gulf of Tonkin disputes, 118–19
history of dispute with China over Nansha Islands, 103–16
Hoang Sa detachment/brigades, 91, 96
hydrocarbon exploration in Nansha area, 69, 109, 113–15, 154–5
incidents at sea, 154–5
incorporation of SCS claims into national legislation, 153
invading Xisha Islands, 68
Joint Marine Seismic Undertaking agreement, 136
Law of the Sea of Vietnam, 88, 153
Ngo Dinh Diem authority, 58, 67
Nguyen emperors, 91, 92, 95
Nguyen lords, 90–3
occupying Nansha Islands, 108–9, 111
petroleum concession block map, 89
ratification of UNCLOS, 88
strategic importance of Nansha Islands, 6
succession from France as basis of SCS claims, 92–3, 96–8, 106
survey of Vanguard Bank, 69
territorial sea baseline, 87
weaknesses in claims to Nansha and Xisha Islands, 94–102
Viking II, 115
Vo Van Kiet, 117
Vu Khoan, 117
Vu Van Mau, 106

W

Wan’an Bei WAB-21 oil block, 112–14
Wan’an Tan See Vanguard Bank
Wang Zichuan, 68
Wen Jiabao, 148, 149, 156
Weng Wenqiong, 73
West Reef (Xi Jiao), 111
West York Island (Xiyue Dao), 37, 105, 132
World Meteorological Organization, 63
Wumie Jiao See Tennent Reef

X

Xi Jiao See West Reef
Xi Jinping, 118
Xinnan Qundao See Nansha Islands
Xisha Islands
1928 survey, 36
absorbed by France, 38
attacked by Vietnam, 60
bases of Vietnam’s claims, 89–94
battle between China and Vietnam, 107
China-Vietnam efforts at dispute settlement, 116–20
China’s administration of, 52
claimed by China, 53, 55, 58
claimed by Japan, 38
claimed by Vietnam, 86–8
consolidation of Chinese sovereignty, 34–8
discovery of, 16–17
early mapping, 17–20, 24–5, 29–33
fishery resources, 31–3
history of China-Vietnam dispute, 103–16
invaded by Japan, 66
invaded by Vietnam, 68
Japan’s renunciation of claims, 98–9
jurisdiction of Sansha City, 153
Malaysia’s recognition of China’s sovereignty, 60–2
proposed meteorological facilities, 63
resource use by Japan, 36
sea patrols, 28
strategic importance, 6
territorial space encroached by United States, 67
US recognition of China’s sovereignty, 62–3
Vietnam’s recognition of China’s sovereignty, 58–9
Vietnamese fishing activity, 154
weaknesses in Vietnam’s claims, 94–102
Xisha Qundao See Xisha Islands
Xiyue Dao See West York Island

Y

Yanai, Shunji, 161–2
Yang Jiechi, 136, 158
Yongshu Jiao See Fiery Cross Reef
Yongxing Island (Woody Island), 153
Yue state and tribes, 17–18, 40
Yuyu Ansha See Investigator Shoal

Z

Zengmu Ansha See James Shoal
Zhang Qiyue, 146
Zhang Renjun, 35
Zhang Zhijun, 118
Zhanghai, 18–20, 25, 26–7, 29–30 See also South China Sea
Zheng He, 26, 29–30
Zhenghe Qunjiao See Tizard Bank
Zhong Jiao See Central Reef
Zhongsha Islands
China’s administration of, 52
China’s claim of sovereignty, 53, 55, 58
jurisdiction of Sansha City, 153
US recognition of China’s sovereignty, 62–3
Zhongsha Qundao See Macclesfield Bank
Zhongye Dao See Thitu Island
Zhou Enlai, 55, 58, 100, 102, 106
Zhu Siben, 29–30, 45