Index – Sustainable Operations and Closed Loop Supply Chains, Second Edition

Index

Page numbers followed by f indicate figures; those followed by t indicate tables.

A

Advanced recovery fee (ARF), 16, 20

B

Balance-of-system (BOS), 141

Barriers to imitation, 122123

first mover advantage, 122123

integrated approach to environmental issues, 123

patent protection, 122

unpatentable but proprietary capabilities, 122

Biofuels, 144148

advantages of, 148

disadvantages of, 148

greenhouse gas emissions of, 146147, 147t

importance of, 134

introduction to, 133135

Biomass, 138

Bosch, 98, 107

Business non value added activities (BNVA), 30

C

Cannibalization effect, 102

Capital lease, 89, 89t

Carbon footprint, measuring, 4655

calculations for landscaping business, 54t

organization, 4854

product, 55

Closed-loop supply chain (CLSC), 58, 7f, 99, 99f

disposition decisions, 68

incineration, 7

parts harvesting, 8

recycling, 7

remanufacturing, 8

resale (as-is), 8

Coal power plant, 136

Coca-Cola, 131

Collection and recycling organization (CRO), 1819, 18t, 21t

Combined-cycle natural gas (NGCC) plant, 135, 137f

Combined heat and power (CHP) plant, 138

Concentrated solar power plant, 139

Corporate social responsibility (CSR), 130

Cost of goods sold (COGS), 57, 91

Cradle-to-Cradle® (C2C) design principles, 7781

biological and technical nutrients, 7879

material health, 79

material reutilization, 7980

renewable energy use, 80

social responsibility, 80

water stewardship, 80

Cummins, 107

D

Dell, 87, 98, 107

Deming’s cycle, 55

Design for remanufacturing, 7377

cleaning, repair, and reconditioning guidelines, 7677

disassembly and reassembly guidelines, 76

environmental and economic perspectives, 7374

maintenance and repair guidelines, 7576

principles and goals, 7475

product architecture guidelines, 75

sorting and testing guidelines, 76

Design for Environment (DfE), 126

Cradle-to-Cradle® (C2C) design principles, 7781

design for remanufacturing, 7377

ease of disassembly, 68

energy consumption, minimizing, 68

general guidelines for, 6770

liquid residues, minimizing, 69

materials choice, 6768

modular designs, 6970

packaging design, 7073

packaging scorecards, 7073, 72t

recyclability of materials, 70

recycled materials, use of, 6970

solid residues, minimizing, 68

standardization, 69

Dolphin Safe Tuna, 118

E

Earnings before interest, depreciation, and tax (EBIDT), 94, 96

Earnings before tax (EBT), 94

Eco-effectiveness, 77

Eco-efficiency, 910, 9f, 77

carbon footprint, measuring, 4655

environmental management systems, 5557

green buildings and LEED certification, 6064

ISO 14001, 5759

life-cycle assessment (LCA), 3946

and metrics, 3964

Electronic waste (e-waste), 2

recycling of, 22

Energy Star, 115116

Environmental management systems (EMS), 5557

Environmental product differentiation, 111112, 112t

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 115

European Recycling Platform (ERP), 129

European Union (EU), 17

European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS), 2

Extended producer responsibility (EPR), 16

F

Fairtrade, 121

Fairtrade Labelling Organization, 113

Feed-in tariff, 140

Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB), 89

Ford, 98, 107

Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), 119121, 129

G

GaBi, 42

Gas turbine, NGCC plant, 136

General Motors (GM), 98, 107, 127

Geothermal power plant, 138139

GHG Protocol Corporate Standard, 48

Global warming, 2

Global Watchdogs, 114

Government-sponsored labels, 115118

Dolphin Safe Tuna, 118

Energy Star, 115116

restriction on the use of certain hazardous substances (RoHS), 117118

SmartWay, 116

USDA Organic, 117

Greenhouse gas (GHG)

definition of, 4647

emissions, 48, 144, 146

global warming potential of, 50t

H

Heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), 135

Hewlett-Packard, 98, 107

How2Recycle label, 71

Hydroelectric power plant, 138

I

Incineration, 7

Indiana University (IU) analysis, of leasing, 9293, 93t

Individual producer responsibility (IPR), 1617

Interface, 8788

Intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC), 126

International Safe Transit Authority (ISTA), 71

ISO 14001, 5759

financial benefits, 59

improved relationships with communities and authorities, 59

myths of, 58

organizational learning, 59

J

Johnson & Johnson (J&J), 127

K

kanban system, 29, 29f

L

Landfilling, 1, 6

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), 3, 121

Lean

management philosophy, 2528

step towards being green, 37

toolkit, 2835

waste, forms of, 2528, 27f

Lean toolkit, 2835

layout redesign, 3335, 34f, 35f

pull processes, 2830, 29f

5S, 3233, 32t, 33f, 34t

setup time reduction, 30

value stream mapping, 3032

Learning rate, 139

Leasing

capital lease, 89, 89t

economic arguments, 8990

Indiana University (IU) analysis, 9293, 93t

might not be greener than selling, 86t, 87f

operating lease, 8889

Pitney Bowes (PB) analysis, 9396, 94t, 95t

servicizing and, 8388

types of, 8890

vs. buying decision, spreadsheet analysis of, 9092, 92t

LEED certification, 6064

energy and atmosphere (EA), 61

growth in, 64f

indoor environmental quality (EQ), 62

innovation (IN), 62

location and transportation (LT), 60

materials and resources (MR), 61

regional priority (RP), 62

sustainable sites (SS), 60

water efficiency (WE), 6061

Level of accuracy, 40

Level of specificity, 39

Life-cycle assessment (LCA), 3946, 40f, 115

cradle-to-gate, 41

cradle-to-grave, 41

global warming, 4344, 44f

goal and scope definition, 3941, 41f

impact assessment, 4145

inventory analysis, 4145

limitations of, 4546

objective of, 39

product assessment matrix for, 42t

Little’s law, 28

M

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), 3, 118119

Market expansion effect, 102

Material reutilization score (MRS), 79

McDonough Braungart Design Chemistry (MBDC), 121

Modified accelerated cost recovery system (MACRS), 91

Municipal solid waste (MSW), 71f

N

Nestlé, 128

Net energy metering, 141

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs), 118, 128129

Non value added activities (NVA), 30

Nuclear power plant, 136

O

Operating lease, 8889

Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), 98, 108

P

Packaging design, 7073

Packaging scorecards, 7073, 72t

People, as other “P” of sustainability

carbon footprint reduction, 125126

design for environment (DfE), 126

green buildings, 126

introduction to, 125126

pollution prevention and waste reduction, 125

shared value, 130131

stakeholder analysis, 127129

Photovoltaic (PV) power station, 139

Pitney Bowes (PB), 88, 9899, 99f

analysis, of leasing, 9396, 94t, 95t

Plan-do-check-act (PDCA), 55

Proactive acquisition strategy

higher prices for better quality returns, 101

offering trade-in rebates, 100

prepaid mailers, 100

Procter & Gamble (P&G), 128

Product acquisition, 99101

Product of service, 83

R

Recovery target, 17, 18t

Recycling target, 17

Refurbishing. See Remanufacturing

Remanufacturing, 6, 8

in automotive engine and printer cartridge industries, 104105t

in cell phone and IT networking equipment industries, 105106t

definition of, 97

industry practice, 102108

product acquisition, 99101

remarketing, 101102

scope of, 9799

strategic, tactical, and operational issues, 108109

Remarketing, 101102

Renewable energy, 138143

financial viability of rooftop PV system, estimating, 143144

fossil fuels, electricity generation from, 135138

importance of, 134

introduction to, 133135

nuclear power, electricity generation from, 135138

Renewable energy ratio (RER), 146147

Restriction on the use of certain hazardous substances (RoHS), 117118

Return on assets (ROA), 89

Return on investment (ROI), 57

S

Shared value, 130131

concept of, 130

employee health, 131

employee skills, 131

energy use, 130

environmental impact, 130

supplier access and viability, 131

water use, 131

worker safety, 131

SimaPro, 42

Six-sigma

DMAIC process, 3536, 36f

similarities and differences with lean, 3537

variability reduction vs. waste reduction, 3637, 37f

SmartWay, 116

Specified household appliance recycling (SHAR), 19

Stakeholder analysis, 127129

communities, 127128

customers, 128

employees, 127

governments, 129

industry groups, 129

non-governmental organizations (NGOs), 128129

supplier, 128

Sustainability

barriers to imitation, 122123

closed-loop supply chain (CLSC), 58

closing the loop, 9f, 10

concept of, 35

credible information about product’s green attributes, establishing, 114122

government-sponsored labels, 115118

third-party certifications, 118122

eco-efficiency, 910, 9f

environmental product differentiation, 111112, 112t

firm’s journey toward, 810, 9f

motivation and trends, 13

3Ps of, 4

“people” as other “P” of, 125131

reduce pollution and waste, 9, 9f

selling green products, 111112

in supply chain, 111123

willingness to pay (WTP) among customers, creating, 112114

consumer markets, 113114

industrial markets, 112113

T

Take-back legislation

advanced recovery fee (ARF), 16

collection and recycling targets, 16

in electronics, 1719

in Europe, 1719

introduction to, 1517

in Japan, 19

producers and policy makers, implications for, 2022

unit-based fee, 16

in United States, 20

Tax credit, 140

Tetra Pak, 129, 130

Thin-film technology, 139

Third-party certifications, 118122

Cradle-to-Cradle, 121122

Fairtrade, 121

Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), 119121

Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), 121

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), 118119

Toyota Prius, 114

U

United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), 144

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Organic, 117

United States International Trade Commission (USITC), 97

U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) Green Guides, 71

U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC), 60, 121

V

Value added activities (VA), 30

Value stream mapping, 3032

W

Walmart, 34, 7073, 114

Waste

defects, 27

forms of, 2528, 27f

inventory, 26

management, 1

motion, 2627

overproduction, 25

processing, 27

transportation, 25

waiting time, 26

WEEE directive, 17, 18t, 117, 129

Willingness to pay (WTP), creating, 112114

consumer markets, 113114

industrial markets, 112113

Wind turbine, 139

Work-in-process (WIP) inventory, 25, 29

decreasing, 28

World Wildlife Fund (WWF), 118

X

Xerox, 88

Z

ZipCar, 84