Index – The Development of Thinking and Reasoning

Index

Note

Figures are indicated by: page number, ‘f’, then the figure number, e.g. age-knowledge issues 171f8.2

Tables are indicated by: page number, ‘t’, then the table number, e.g. task examples 124t7.1

Notes are indicated by: page number, ‘n’, then the note number, e.g. critical thinking 182n1

A–B–A–C paradigm 5960

A1–A2/B1–B2/C1–C2 paradigm 5960

absence 3940, 40t3.1, 43, 44, 45

abstract reasoning 2, 5, 7188; background 713; data 7882; representational redescriptive model 828; theories 738

AC inferences 745, 7982, 845, 1626, 164f8.1, 167

additions 35, 3944, 40t3.1

adolescence 23, 4, 5, 7; abstract reasoning 76, 82, 85; analogical reasoning 51, 67; conditional (if-then) reasoning 98, 99; developmental studies 127, 1312, 138, 1412; epistemic cognition 24, 28; heuristics and biases 15860, 1616, 16674

age-knowledge issues 15760, 1612, 1616

age-related changes 67; abstract reasoning 76; analogical reasoning 52, 65, 68; conditional (if-then) reasoning 95, 97, 1048, 10813, 11518; developmental trends 19, 24; heuristic reasoning 1239, 1329, 137t7.3, 138f7.2, 13944, 139t7.4, 143n2, 1578

age trends 136, 138f7.2, 144n3, 151, 172

alternative antecedents 5, 7981, 846

American children 17681, 179f8.5, 181f8.7

analogical reasoning 4968; educational tools 5960, 657; foundational domains 602; infancy 645; problem-solving paradigms 567, 578, 589; relational knowledge 524, 546; research 502; retrieval 624

analogy condition 54, 56

analogy matching game 53, 53f4.1

analogy terms 53f4.1, 55f4.2

analytic processes 6; developmental trends 123; dual processes 95; heuristics and biases 1557, 159, 166, 1756, 182n1; mental models 98, 1034, 106, 11314, 11415, 117

Archimedes 49

arithmetic 20, 21, 256

Asperger’s syndrome 196

associative reasoning 502, 524, 62

attention-deficit disorder 196

autism 196

automatic processing 5, 7, 8; epistemic cognition 1617, 18; fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) 197; heuristics and biases 1223, 130, 140, 141, 142; mental models 989, 106, 11617; reasoning by analogy 64; social development 155, 159, 175, 182, 183n5

automatic thinking see automatic processing

autonomous processing 15560, 1668, 173, 1757, 182nn1+4, 183n5

Barrouillet, P.: conditional (if-then) reasoning 95, 97, 99, 1019, 11215, 118n2; dual process theories 132; heuristics and biases 160, 167

belief biases 7; adult reasoning 161, 1623, 165; age 168, 172; heuristics and biases 124t7.1, 133

biconditionals: abstract reasoning 746, 79; evaluating conditionals 99103, 101f6.1, 10913, 109t6.1, 111f6.6, 115; mental models 97, 99; modulations 1038, 105f6.3, 107f6.4

biology 601, 65, 175

Boyes, M. C. 23

brain injury 196

Braine, M. D. 745

Brainerd, C. J. 3, 89; fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) 1935, 1958, 199202; heuristics and biases 158; memory 2212, 2246, 2279, 2348

Bransford, J. D. 223

Brown, A. L. 50, 526, 5760, 602, 645, 67

Byrne, R.M. 2, 34, 378, 75, 958, 118n1

Carey, S. 601

Carlow, Ireland 41

Carpendale, J. I. 17

categorical conditional reasoning 812

categorical gist 2058

Caucasian adolescents 16873, 177

causal conditional reasoning 812, 846

causal relations 512

Chandler, M. J. 17, 23, 24, 28

Chater, N. 72, 114, 11516, 117

Chen, Z. 65

Cheng, P. W. 778

Chinese children 17681, 179f8.5, 181f8.7

Chomsky, N. 194

class inclusion reasoning 9, 20812

cognitive abilities 114, 141, 143, 1589, 199, 207

cognitive control 195, 2078

cognitive development 12; epistemic cognition 20, 27; heuristics and biases 1312, 143; memory 221, 228, 231; mental models 95; reasoning by analogy 52; research studies 156, 180

cognitive embeddedness 58

cognitive flexibility 589, 60, 61, 62

cognitive options 198201, 2013

cognitive psychology 15, 25, 71, 151

competence ↔ performance theory (Overton) 1545

conditional (if-then) reasoning 2, 5, 6, 162, 1668; developmental studies 7188, 738, 7882, 828; mental models 957, 95118, 97103, 1038, 10813, 11317; see also abstract reasoning

conditional inferences 746, 78, 84, 96, 99

conflict problem 141, 1614, 164f8.1, 16971, 171f8.3, 175

conjunction fallacies 7, 9, 196, 200; age-knowledge issues 161, 165, 1678; class-inclusions 208, 21012, 213n2; developmental studies 1246, 124t7.1, 1334, 137, 137t7.3, 13942

conjunctive response patterns 96, 99; evaluating conditionals 1003, 101f6.1, 102f6.2, 10912, 109t6.1, 111f6.6; modulations 1048, 105f6.3, 107f6.4; summary 113, 116

connected-meaning tasks 226, 229, 231, 237

consciousness 5, 98, 193

constructive memory theory 202

constructivism 1, 3, 221, 2234, 2278, 236

contagion 1767

content 5; abstract reasoning 72, 738, 7981, 824; counterfactual thinking 34, 44; fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) 196, 1989, 199201, 206, 21213, 21314; mental models 968, 100, 103, 113, 117; pre-school to adolescence 157, 160, 167, 168, 183n7; reasoning by analogy 50, 64

context 133, 141, 143, 201, 213

control groups 40t3.1, 423, 44, 58, 60, 62

control tasks 534, 556, 62

controversies 1, 7, 16, 152, 1568, 176

coordination 15, 16, 20, 22, 29

counter suggestions 51

counterfactual thinking 3445; background 345; counterfactual alternatives 368, 3940, 403, 445; counterfactual questions 40t3.1; ‘if only’ thoughts 36; perspectives 389

counting span task 1346

Crick, N. 1812

critical thinking 3, 267, 30, 182n1

Cronbach’s alpha 136

cross-cultural research 17681

cultural biases 1746, 17681

culture 3, 8, 15083; adolescence 16674; age-knowledge issues 1616; background 1502; developmental studies 15660; dual process theories 1526; heuristics and biases 1746, 17681

DA inferences 745, 7982, 84; see also AC inferences

deduction see deductive reasoning deductive reasoning 1, 712, 74, 79, 83, 198

defective biconditionals: evaluating conditionals 1001, 101f6.1, 1034, 115; modulations 10512, 105f6.3, 107f6.4, 109t6.1, 111f6.6

defective conditionals: evaluating conditionals 1001, 101f6.1, 10812, 109t6.1, 111f6.6; modulations 1048, 105f6.3, 107f6.4

deletions 403, 434

deliberation 98, 116, 155, 194, 21213

delinquency 173, 181

denominators 123, 1301, 1978, 20911

developmental dual-process theories 5, 1518, 176, 1812

developmental epistemologies 23, 27, 2830

developmental heuristics and biases (DHB) 15083; adolescence 16674; age-knowledge 1616; culture 1746, 17681; dual-process theories 1512, 1526, 15860; research studies 1558

developmental patterns: conditional reasoning 76, 789, 82; dual process theories 96, 106, 118; heuristics and biases 132

developmental psychology 1, 3, 1314, 267, 154

developmental reversals 3, 89; fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) 198; heuristics and biases 151, 156, 1578, 1612, 167; memory 2212, 2236, 22832, 234, 2367

developmental studies: age groups 183n6; dual processes 956, 11314, 116; fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) 201; heuristics and biases 712, 77, 12244, 12332, 1329, 13943; memory 228

developmental theories 79, 95, 108, 1512

developmental trends 2, 5, 7, 9; culture 160, 181; epistemic cognition 16, 212; evaluating conditionals 100, 1034, 108, 109, 11213; heuristics and biases 1239, 138; memory 221, 229; mental models 97

developmental variability 224, 226, 228, 230

developmentalists 26, 95, 151, 152, 1801

Dewhurst, S. A. et al 2345

disjunction fallacies 198, 208, 212

distractors 51, 53f4.1, 55f4.2, 623, 222, 2256

Dodge, K. 1812

domain specificity 7; abstract reasoning 82; developmental heuristics and biases (DHB) 156, 159, 168, 176, 183n7; epistemic cognition 22; reasoning by analogy 67

domains of knowledge 18, 22, 28, 73

DRM technique 2289, 22931, 2316, 237

dual-process theories 23, 69; abstract reasoning 88; adolescence 15860, 16674; age-knowledge issues 1616; conditional (if-then) reasoning 969, 99103, 1038, 10813, 11318; culture 1502, 17481; epistemic cognition 16; fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) 197; heuristics and biases 122, 129, 130, 1323, 140, 1526

dual processes 95118, 22138; developmental approaches 11317; developmental reversals 22836; evaluating conditionals 99103, 10813; false memory 2234; mental model theory 967, 979; modulations 1038; theories 2248

Dublin, Ireland 41, 44

Easter bunny problem 57, 5960

educational psychology 14, 23, 25, 67

educational research 3, 256

emergence 17, 24, 1512, 175

empirical research 1, 6; abstract reasoning 713, 77, 7882, 86, 88; counterfactual thinking 50, 55; epistemic cognition 212, 278; heuristics and biases 136, 1656, 176, 181, 183n7

episodic memories 222, 229

epistemic beliefs 25, 29

epistemic cognition 1330, 203; concepts 1416; development 1620, 234, 279; literatures 1314; research studies 256

epistemic development see epistemic cognition

epistemic domains 18, 212, 28, 29

epistemologies 3, 14, 203, 256, 27, 2830

Evans, J. St. B. T. 98, 10810, 11415, 1323, 163, 182n4

evolution 6, 10; fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) 194, 204; heuristics and biases 1756, 177, 183n5; mental models 98, 99, 109, 115, 118

executive processes 117, 195

experiential processing 1556

face value interpretations 7, 152, 1567, 15960, 166

false beliefs 13, 17, 24

false memories 9, 2278, 2367; data review 22931; definition 2223; development of reasoning 221; developmental reversals 2234, 226, 2289, 2312; fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) 193, 202; manipulations 2326, 233f10.1, 235f10.2

false possibilities 378

falsity and truth 18, 78, 97, 99100, 109, 111

familiarity 73; conceptual 52; relational familiarity hypothesis 4, 54, 56, 62; stereotype 125, 1612, 175

formal logic 25, 95, 122, 163, 213

foundational domains 602

four-year-old children 4, 17, 435, 534, 56, 60, 613, 225

framing effects: developmental studies 127; fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) 2078, 213, 213n1; heuristics and biases 151, 158, 160, 162, 167, 175; memory 227

Franks, J. J. 223

Frederick, S. 123, 125, 206, 208

functional fixedness 589, 60, 61, 62

functional relations 512

fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) 89, 1367, 142, 193213, 221; cognitive options 198203; and dual process theories 151, 154, 177; framework 1938; and memory 2246, 2278; probabilities examples 20312

Gauffroy, C.: conditional (if-then) reasoning 95, 99, 1019, 11113, 118n2; heuristics and biases 160, 167

generic theory fallacy 1534, 182n4

genie problem 567, 58, 5960, 61

gist 89; intuition 1945, 198, 2058, 213; memory 11416, 222, 2245, 226, 228, 231; reasoning 196, 199; representations 199, 2012, 205, 2078, 20812; thinking 2013; verbatim-gist distinction 1934, 224

goal structure 578, 60, 65

Gomes, C. F. A. 3, 89, 222

Goswami, U. 2, 4, 523, 546, 62, 64

Handley, S. J. 3, 67, 124t7.1, 1345, 141

heuristic-analytic theory (Evans) 98, 11415

heuristics and biases 12244, 15083; adolescence 16674; age-knowledge 1616; culture 1746, 17681; developmental trends 12330; dual-process theories 1512, 1526, 15860; factors 1302; processes 989, 1034, 106, 115, 118n1, 118n2; studies 1323, 1346, 1369, 13942, 1558

hints 57, 5960, 162, 181

Hispanic adolescents 16873

history 21, 26, 4950, 678

Holyoak, K. J. 49, 567, 778

hypothetical thinking theory (Evans) 100, 108, 114

identity 19, 23, 25, 29, 211

images 40, 40t3.1, 423, 434, 45, 49

imagination 2, 3445, 114; absence 3940; background 345; counterfactual thoughts 36, 389, 445; mental images 434; pictures 403; reality and alternatives 368

imagined conjectures 4, 34, 378, 40, 40t3.1, 43

impulsivity 8, 195, 207, 21213

Inagaki, K. 61

inductive inferences 60

inferences 45; abstract reasoning 718, 7882, 825; analogical reasoning 60; counterfactual thinking 36, 38, 43; developmental studies 125, 127, 132; epistemic cognition 1419, 24, 26, 29; fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) 197, 1989, 199201, 2012; heuristics and biases 161, 1623, 165, 167, 173, 175; memory 228; mental models 96, 99103, 105, 11314, 116, 117

Inhelder, B. 712

inhibition 7; developmental studies 132, 1356, 1389, 139t7.4, 141, 1423; fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) 195, 2078, 20910, 213; processes 155; reasoning by analogy 624, 68

insightful intuition 8, 195

interference trials 135, 141

intuition 1, 3, 89; abstract reasoning 88; developmental studies 122, 124, 12930, 133, 139, 1423; dual processes 98; epistemic cognition 1617, 223; fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) 1938, 2023, 2034, 2058, 21213; heuristics and biases 150, 163; memory 227

IQs 125, 134

irrationality 150, 198

item analogies 501, 524, 55, 56, 62

Johnson-Laird, P. N. 6, 756, 96100, 111, 118n1, 1989

judgment tasks 61, 122, 1334, 136

Kahneman, D. 117, 1267, 127t7.2, 194

Karmiloff-Smith, A. 2, 71, 823

Keren, G. 122, 153

Kildare, Ireland 44

kindergarten children 199

Klaczynski, P. 1502, 1526, 15660, 1616, 16674, 17481

knowledge-based reasoning 141

knowledge, heuristic use 1578

Krettenauer, T. 223

Kuhn, D. 154, 1589, 160

logical reasoning 16, 77, 182n1, 198, 208

long-term memory 5, 978, 11516

Markovits, H. 2, 5; abstract reasoning 724, 7782, 847; conditional (if-then) reasoning 95, 97; heuristics and biases 165, 167; mental models 11516

mathematics 7; abstract reasoning 72; epistemic cognition 18, 21, 25; fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) 193, 195, 2012, 205, 208, 213; heuristics and biases 122, 1278; reasoning by analogy 4950, 657

meaningful thought 2013

Meehan, J. E. 2, 34

memory 22138; developmental reversals 22836; dual process theories 2212; false memories 2223; theoretical perspectives 2238

mental imagery 42, 434

mental leaps 4950

mental models 6, 37, 88, 95118, 199; dual-process studies 11317; evaluations 99103, 10813; modulations 1038; theories 756, 84, 967, 979

mental representations 35, 39, 45, 194, 207

mental shortcuts 122, 206

mental simulation 34, 39, 45, 114

meta-abilities 97, 100

metacognition 3, 5; conditional (if-then) reasoning 111, 114, 11617; epistemic development 1415, 1718, 22, 256, 29; heuristics and biases 155, 1589

metalogical understanding 13, 24, 27, 117

metasubjectivist insights 20

modulations 967, 1038, 11113, 114

monitoring 195, 2012, 2078, 209, 211, 213

morality 19, 21, 223, 27, 28, 29

Morsanyi, K. 3, 67, 124t7.1, 1345

Moshman, D. 2, 3, 10

MP inferences 745, 789, 1626, 164f8.1, 167

MT inferences 74, 789, 167

multiple possibilities 37

natural logic theory (Braine) 745

necessity manipulations 2324, 233f10.1, 236

non-logical transitive inferences 74, 127, 151

normative reasoning 1234, 1301, 140, 143

numeracy 200, 2034, 206, 209, 212

Oaksford, M. 72, 114, 11516, 117

obesity 78, 16876, 169f8.2, 171f8.3, 17681

objectivism see objectivity objectivist epistemologies 1920, 22

objectivity 3, 1821, 223, 26, 289

operation span task 135

opponent processes 226, 228

ordinal gist 2058

Overton, W. F. 1545, 160, 168

personal epistemologies 14, 256

phonological awareness 657

Piaget, J.: abstract reasoning 713, 79, 823, 878; background 13, 35; epistemic cognition 13, 234, 27, 29; fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) 1934, 208; heuristics and biases 151; memory 2212, 2234, 2278, 236; rational imagination development 34; reasoning by analogy 502, 54, 64, 67

picture analogies 64; picture-matching game (Goswami and Brown) 534, 53f4.1, 546, 55f4.2, 63f4.3; picture sorting task 512

pictures 403, 435

pluralism 28

Plymouth 134

possibilities 2, 4; abstract reasoning 83, 88; counterfactual thinking 34, 368, 403, 434, 445; epistemic cognition 13, 18, 203, 24, 267, 28; fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) 198, 2056; heuristics and biases 137, 1412, 1578; mental models 967, 1004, 106, 108, 111, 11415; reasoning by analogy 523, 54, 64

pragmatic schemas 778

preschoolers 2; counterfactual thinking 414; culture 17881, 180f8.6, 181f8.7; developmental studies 125; epistemic cognition 20, 24, 29; reasoning options 199

presence 3940, 40t3.1, 44, 45

pretence 34

primary schools 41, 44, 97, 125, 1278, 1345

probabilistic theories 6; abstract reasoning 77, 83; conditional (if-then) reasoning 108, 11314; heuristics and biases 125, 140, 143; memory 227; mental models 11518; probability judgments 20810, 210t9.1

problem-solving 4950, 567, 58, 60, 142

psycholinguistics 1934

psychological research 22, 234, 27, 29

psychology 122, 153, 182n2, 193; cognitive 15, 25, 71, 151; developmental 1, 3, 1314, 267, 154; educational 14, 23, 25, 67; social 151

Ramsey test 108, 11415, 11516

random responding 132, 139, 142

ratio bias 144, 200

rational imagination development 2, 3445, 114; absence 3940; background 345; counterfactual thoughts 36, 389, 445; mental images 434; pictures 403; reality and alternatives 368

rational principles 45

rationalism see rationality

rationalist epistemologies 1920, 213, 26

rationality 34, 1517, 1921, 22, 23, 269

realist errors 38

reality bias 45

reasoning: see also conditional (if-then) reasoning

reasoning, abstract 7188, 738, 7882, 828

reasoning by analogy 4968; educational tools 5960, 657; foundational domains 602; infancy 645; problem-solving paradigms 567, 578, 589; relational knowledge 524, 546; research 502; retrieval 624

reasoning tasks: analogical reasoning 53, 68; conditional (if-then) reasoning 113; developmental studies 134, 136, 1401; epistemic cognition 28; social development 160, 167

reflection 20, 267, 28, 29, 206

reflective abstraction model (Piaget) 2, 72, 823, 87

relational knowledge 524, 546, 62

relational similarities 4950; analogical reasoning 512; analogy studies 57, 58; constraints 546; teaching framework 60, 656

relativism 22, 24, 26, 28

representational redescription model (Karmiloff-Smith) 2, 71

representational redescriptive model 812

representational redescriptive model (Markovits) 5, 82

response patterns 1004, 101f6.1, 105f6.3, 106, 107f6.4, 111f6.6

Reyna, V. 3, 89; dual processes 117, 151; fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) 1935, 1958, 198203, 20312; heuristics and biases 127, 15862; memory 2212, 2246, 22730, 2325

rhyme 667, 68, 122

Ricco, R. B. 160, 168

Richland, L. E. 623, 63f4.3

rote association 197, 2013

rule-based (normative) reasoning 122, 123, 131, 133, 143

SAT scores 164f8.1, 207

scenarios 578, 112, 1267, 127t7.2

schema theory 202

Schul, Y. 122, 153

science education 14, 26

scientific inquiry 22

secondary schools 134, 140

semantic codes 2278

semantic memory 86, 87

seriation 223

Skinner, B. F. 194

smart errors 132, 142

social developmental research 152, 1812

social information processing theory (Crick and Dodge) 181

social interaction 20, 29

social psychology 151

social stereotypes 123, 1256, 133, 139

Stanovich, K. E. 98, 117, 130, 1323, 139, 1423

stereotype knowledge: age-knowledge issues 157, 1612, 168, 171f8.2, 172, 175; heuristics and biases 126, 139

stereotypes 78, 1412; adolescence 160, 16872; age groups 183n6; belief bias 1656; culture 1757; knowledge and age 1578, 1612; social 123, 1256, 133, 139

stigmatization 1767

stop-signal task 1356, 141

stories: counterfactual thinking 38, 402, 44; heuristics and biases 124; knowledge and age 157; memory 2256, 237; reasoning by analogy 578, 67

Stroop task 1356, 141

studies: abstract reasoning 73, 79; analogies 57, 58; developmental 712, 77, 956, 12244, 183; empirical 82; fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) 201; heuristics and biases 1323, 1346, 1369, 13942, 1558; memory 228; mental models 11317

subjectivism see subjectivity

subjectivist epistemologies 19, 20

subjectivity 1821, 224, 267, 280–9

sufficiency manipulations 2346, 235f10.2

Sugiyama, K. 61

sunk cost fallacies 7, 1334, 137, 139, 142, 183n7

suppositional theory (Evans) 6, 100, 108, 11415

syllogistic reasoning 7; belief biases 1635, 164f8.1; content 198; developmental studies 124t7.1, 133, 134, 1367, 137t7.3; heuristics and biases 13940, 142, 150

system 1 2, 8; age groups 160; fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) 194, 197, 213; mental models 98, 11617

system 2 2, 8, 98, 11617, 160, 194

task examples 124t7.1

theoretical research 278

theories of mind 13, 1718, 20, 24, 25

threat detection 1778

three-model representation 96, 98

three-year-old children 36, 44, 56, 60, 175, 178

transitive inferences 127, 151

transitive reasoning (linear syllogisms) 198

transsubjectivism 23

true possibilities 37

truth and falsity 18, 78, 97, 99100, 109, 111

truth tables 97, 99, 1001, 109, 11112, 115, 118

truth-values 6, 99103, 1034, 106, 11112, 115

Tversky, A. 1267, 127t7.2

two-system models 153

type 1 processing 98, 122, 130, 133, 155, 159

type 2 processing 98, 122, 130, 133

university students 71, 82, 134, 136, 1401

verbal working memory 1345

verbatim-based analyses 8, 196, 1978, 2023, 2058, 213

verbatim-exit bias 200

verbatim-gist distinction 1934, 224

verbatim memory 151, 195, 199202, 2247

Walton, P. D. 67

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III) 134, 136

word task 1356

working memory 45, 7; abstract reasoning 76, 84; counterfactual thinking 37; dual process theories 151, 155; dual processes 238; fuzzy-trace theory (FTT) 199, 204; heuristics and biases 122, 1323, 1389, 139t7.4, 143n2, 2345; mental models 96, 978, 116; reasoning by analogy 62, 64, 68