Index – The Triple Bottom Line

Index

AA1000 framework 19, 25, 133, 141, 151, 152153

abatement 41, 111

acceptance 40

accessibility 5960, 165

AccountAbility 151, 152

accountability

corporate 18

democracy 7374

reporting 24, 7576, 86

stakeholder approach 2729, 33

sustainable business 8687

see also AA1000 framework

accounting

capital xxiv

environmental 2122, 99112

ethical 19

SAM 113120

standards 2021

sustainability xxii–xxiii, 1718, 3444

see also costs; valuation

accumulation of capital 63

action plans 3132

Adams, CA 23, 24

added value 164

advisory relationships 8998

Africa 89

APP see Asia Pulp and Paper

arms industry 82

Asia Pulp and Paper (APP) 153

assets 42, 84

assurance 144145, 152153

attitudes 60, 92, 93, 140

see also perceptions

auditing see AA1000 framework;

verification

Australia 20

authority 4748

authorship 137138

avoidance costs 109

awareness 69

BA see British Airways BAE see British Aerospace banking 83, 84, 105, 127,148153

Basel Convention 51

Baxter Healthcare Corporation 104

Bebbington, J 77

belief factor 7273

benefits

abatement costs 41

creative trust 124127

CSR104105

externalities 3638, 65

materiality 6162

SAM 116117

standards 132133

Bennett, M 2122

biodiversity actions plans 3132

biotechnology 132166

bonds 123, 127128

bottom-up approaches 4546, 54, 150

boundaries 39, 4850, 108109, 114, 157

BP see British Petroleum bridges 123, 127128

British Aerospace (BAE) 82

British Airways (BA) 127

British American Tobacco 82, 83

British Petroleum (BP) 3132, 81, 82, 8687,113120,148

business-as-usual 98, 131141

business-led standards 137, 138

butterflies 1213

Cable and Wireless 84

Canada 138 capital

accumulation 63

natural xxiv, 68, 102103

social xxiv, 121130

substitution 118119

sustainability 18

types of 34, 156

capitalism 37, 30, 73, 74

carbon emissions 109, 110

caterpillars 1112

CCX see Chicago Climate Exchange CERES see Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies chemical industry 138

Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX) 6

China 91, 102

chrysalis economy xxii, 8, 1013

Clayton, North Carolina 159160, 161

climate 6, 51, 5458, 102

Co-operative Bank xxiv, 105, 127, 148153

Coalition for Environmentally Responsible Economies (CERES) 6, 19

codes of conduct 132, 137, 138

Cohen, D 126

Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) 5358 see also sustainable development community level 78, 9193, 125, 151, 158166

compensation 42

competition 3, 5

completeness 48, 72

complexity 72

compliance 7, 8

conflicts 7475, 8788, 9193,102103

connectedness xxi

consolidation 133

consumers

decisions 8, 144

ethical 142143, 144, 150

pressure 1, 9

resource allocation 40

see also markets

consumption 90

context 72

control xxi, 163

CORE see Corporate Responsibility Coalition Corporate Responsibility Coalition

(CORE) 82

corporate social responsibility (CSR)

boundaries 39

economic downturn 142143

EFS 104105

governance xxiii growth trends 1, 2

sustainability 2633

see also responsibility

costs

abatement 29, 41, 109

diabetes 165

environmental 21, 99112

externalities 3638

internalization 103

performance 61

price structures 158

standards 133

sustainability 114, 148149 see also accounting; valuation creative trust 122, 124127, 129

see also social capital credibility 139, 153

critical natural assets 42, 118119

CSD see Commission on Sustainable Development CSR see corporate social responsibility cultural aspects 60, 92, 149

cumulative savings 104

data 4546, 50, 147148

decision-making 78, 79

definitions 7879, 100, 123124, 156158

deforestation 102

degeneration 11

democracy 7374

Denmark 158159

Design Council 128

DFSR see driving force, state and response framework diabetes 164166

dialogue 87, 137138, 155

diamond traders 121

direct impacts 61, 109, 162

diversity xxii, 3032, 134, 136137

DJSI see Dow Jones Sustainability Index Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI) 19, 20

downwaves 79

drivers 37, 66, 140141, 146147

driving force, state and response (DFSR) framework 53

ecological footprints 76, 77

ecological tax reform (ETR) 103

economic aspects

bottom line 132166

chrysalis 8, 1013

corporations 1718

diversity 32

financial contrast 157158

impacts 38, 158164

indicators 57, 64

relationships 2729

reporting 156157

SAM 115,117

scope 2930, 33

status 6567, 142143

see also markets ecosystems 66, 6869

effectiveness 62, 140

EFS see environmental financial statements EHS see environment, health and safety Elkington, J 116, 1718, 20

EMA see environment-related management accounting emissions 109111

enlightened capitalism 30

Enron 122, 143

Environment Agency, England and Wales 136

environment, health and safety (EHS)

21, 22

environment-related management accounting (EMA) 22

environmental aspects accounting 2122, 99112

capital 156

diversity 3132

externalities xxiv, 38

indicators 5657, 64

information systems 5051

legislation 79, 2324

profit conflict 102103

relationships 2729, 6566

reporting 46, 7074, 76, 144145, 146

sustainability 7677, 116117

environmental financial statements (EFS)

104105

environmentalism 75

equilibrium 3031

ethical aspects 19, 83, 142143, 147

ETR see ecological tax reform EU see European Union European Union (EU) 140, 144

expenditure see costs externalities

accounting 3638, 99100, 106111

economic growth 67

environmental 116117

identifying 30, 114115

internalization 14, 8788

negative 6566

see also impacts

FCA see full-cost accounting feedback loops 43, 44

financial aspects

capitalism 7475

economic contrast 157, 158

EFS 104105

environmental reporting 145, 146

performance 61, 62, 70

stakeholders 107

sustainability 3536, 37, 62

flexibility 140

focus 133

footprints see impacts France 140, 146

FTSE4Good 147

full-cost accounting (FCA) xxiv, 22, 113114, 116

funds 20, 60, 84, 140, 146147

gas industry 113120, 148

GDP see gross domestic product glass production 103

global level xxiii, 4558, 50, 6566, 78

Global Reporting Initiative (GRI)

accounting standards 23

communities 161166

guidelines 151152

history 139

indicators 52, 54, 5558

sustainability 46, 77

globalization 9

Goldsmith, E 3031

good practice xxiv

governance global

4558

integration 15

pressure 9

sustainable capitalism xxiii, 3, 67,143

governments

bottom line 5960

chrysalis economy 1116

diversity 32

legislation 158

limitations 8485

pressure 79, 101

reporting 46

roles xxiii

standards 137, 138, 140

green consumers 1, 9

Green pressure wave 7, 9

GRI see Global Reporting initiative gross domestic product (GDP) 49, 6667

growth 6567

Hawken, P 77

healthcare 164165

historical aspects xxii-xxiii, 12

homeostasis 3031

honeybees 13

human capital 122, 156

human-made capital 156, 157

hybrid standards 135136

impacts

corporate characteristics 1013

ecological footprints 76, 77

environmental xxiv, 99111

financial xxiv, 113

limitation 65

organizations 78

SAM 114115,116117

socio-economic 157158, 158166

see also externalities incentives 8182, 83, 84

inclusion 14, 151

income 68

incubation 1516

independent verification 148, 149, 152153

see also verification Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare

(ISEW) 67

indicators

CSD and GRI contrast 5557

global 45, 5254

management 107

performance 49, 150152

quality of life 64

social capital 129130

indices 19, 62

indirect impacts 61, 161162

information systems 18, 5051, 87

innovation xxi, 14, 133 see also creative trust inside-out approaches xxi, xxii, 43

insulin 162163, 165166

integration 1415, 24, 139

intellectual capital 128129

inter-governmental instruments xxiii,

5054

internal aspects 14, 3536, 99, 101111

International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 140141

international aspects 55, 138, 140141

internet 18

invasion 14

investment

community 92, 157

funds 1920

reporting 60, 147

social capital 125

socially responsible 6263, 8384

trust 143

invisible environmental hand 66

ISEW see Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare ISO see International Organization for Standardization issue scope 48

James, P 2122

Johnson & Johnson 128

Kalundborg, Denmark 158159

Kodak 128

leadership 63, 85

learning 14, 132, 133

legislation

accountability xxiii, 28

environmental 2324

external costs 107

governments 158

public pressure 79

reporting 20, 79, 88, 146147

standards 140

licence to operate 90, 91, 163

life expectancy 89

life-cycle technology 3, 45

limits pressure wave 89

literature review xxii, 1725

Living Earth 89

local level 11, 78, 158160

locusts 1011

long-term approaches 56, 30, 106107

3M124126

M&S see Marks and Spencer McDonald's Foods 77

macro level 45

management

assets 84

community 9193

environmental 144145

governance 47

indicators 107

integrated 139

pension funds 147

social capital 121130

tools 2023

mandatory reporting 2324, 71

see also legislation manufactured capital 121

markets 3, 15, 8182, 83, 84, 142

see also consumers; economic aspects Marks and Spencer (M&S) 127128

materiality 6162, 69, 84, 85, 151

MEAs see multilateral environmental agreements measurement xxi

mechanistic approaches 43

see also top down approaches media coverage 149, 153

metaphorical practice xxiv micro level data 4546

migration 91

mobile phone industry 8384

monetization 115 see also valuation money circulation 160, 161

Montreal Protocol 5152

Morley's Asset Management 84, 147

multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) 5051, 54

naming and shaming 101

national level 4950, 5354, 145

natural capital xxiv, 67, 68, 102103, 118119, 156

see also resources NEF see New Economics Foundation Nestlé 84

networks 126

see also social capital New Economics Foundation (NEF) 81

Nigeria 8993

Nokia 122

non-governmental organizations

(NGOs) xxiii, 82, 8998,137,138, 153

Novo Nordisk xxiv, 132166

oil industry 81, 8993, 113120, 148

operational boundaries 48, 49

organizational aspects 1920, 31, 49, 78

outcomes 8688, 117118, 151

partnerships 5, 8998

pension funds 20, 60, 140,146147 15

per cent rule 125

perceptions 92, 93, 9697, 147

see also attitudes

performance

financial 70, 157

governance 143

indicators 49, 149, 150152

influence 61

management systems 144145

process contrast 152

standards 132133, 134135, 137, 140

sustainability reporting 150

pharmaceutical industry 132166

political aspects 79, 78, 103

polluter pays principle 109

Post-It notes 124125

power 78, 79, 9596, 98

pressure 1, 79, 85, 101

prices 158, 163

principles-based standards 134, 135

private sector 47, 62

procedure 151

process standards 135, 136, 137, 152

productivity 6869, 100

products 7, 8788,116117,163

professionalization 133

profits

economic contrast 2930

externalities 106, 108

natural capital 102

reporting 149

sustainability 37, 84, 8788

public sector

authorities 48

governance 47

perceptions 86, 147

pressure 79

reporting 46

societal goods 62

quality

life 6465, 67, 69,157,162

public perceptions 147148

stakeholder engagement 151

voluntary reports 23, 25, 72, 8182, 85,153,164

see also standards

real bottom line 2930

rebound effect 66

recruitment 150

reflective questioning 98

regeneration 11

relational attitudes 93

relationships 25, 8998

reporting

accountability 7376, 86

economic 156157

environmental 46, 144145, 146

global 48, 50, 51

increase 19, 81

legislation 20, 146147

quality 8182, 147148

sustainability xxiii, 2325, 7679, 148153

voluntary 7073

reputation 62, 82, 150

resources 92, 100, 115116, 117

see also natural capital responsibility xxiii, 79, 39, 73, 94, 158

see also corporate social responsibility; roles Responsible Care 138

responsiveness 151

restatement of financial accounts 3536

restoration costs 109

revenue 103

risk xxi, 107108

roles xxiii, 79, 1116, 1718, 85,122 see also responsibilities

SAM see Sustainability Assessment Model savings 104105

SD see sustainable development separatist approaches 9293

shareholders 20, 87, 88, 143, 156

Shell 8993,148

shoe industry 91

SI see sustainable investment SIGMA see sustainability integrated guidelines for management Index 185

signature 117119

silo-busting 1415

social aspects

accountability 2829

accounting 22

capital xxiv, 121130, 156

diversity 32

impacts 38, 158160

indicators 56, 64

relationships 2729

reporting 19, 7073, 7576, 145

SAM 116,117

sustainability 77

socially responsible investment (SRI)

6263, 8384

South Africa 19,35, 36, 37

sovereign states 49

Spectrum Glass 103

SRI see socially responsible investment staffing 32, 150

stakeholders

accountability 2729, 33

approaches 37, 54, 7576, 158160

credibility 139

dialogue 87

engagement 14, 24, 151, 155156

financial 107

indicators 150151

shareholders contrast 88

standards 137138

trust 143144,153

wealth 163

standards

accounting 2021

principles-based 134, 135

process 135, 136, 137

reporting 2325

sustainability xxiv, 131141,148153

see also AA1000

framework State of the Environment Reports 46

substitution 42, 118119

sustainability

accounting framework 3444

approaches xxi, 1

business qualities 8688

capitalism 73, 84

corporations 37, 1718

CSR 2633

environmental 108111

reporting xxiii, 2325, 72, 7679,145, 148153

SAM 118119

social 116

standards 131132, 139141

three dimensions 2729

Sustainability Assessment Model (SAM)

113120

sustainability integrated guidelines for management (SIGMA) 140141

sustainable development (SD) 1,2,7, 9, 5254

see also Commission on Sustainable Development sustainable investment (SI) 19

systemic approaches 4244, 79

see also inside out approaches

targets 109,110, 111, 134135, 135

tax 103, 107, 116

technical aspects 9193

technocratic approaches xxiii, 93, 94, 96, 97

technology 3, 45, 7, 14, 111

temporal dimensions 48

theme frameworks 53, 55, 5657

theoretical aspects xxii-xxiii third-party assurance 144145

time 3, 56

see also long-term approaches tobacco industry 82, 83

tools xxiv top-down approaches xxi, 43, 45, 54, 150151

trade-offs 4142

transparency

natural capital 103

stakeholder approach 28

standards 136137

sustainability 3, 4, 8687

trust 144145

transport-related emissions 109, 110

trust

consumers 87,144145

investors 143 social capital 121, 122, 124127, 129

stakeholders 143144

verification 153

Tupelo, USA 125

UK see United Kingdom UN see United Nations UNEP see United Nations Environment programme United kingdom (UK)

creative trust 126

indicators 6365

legislation 146, 147

pensions 140

reporting 101, 145, 149

standards 136

trust 144

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) 46, 50

United Nations (UN) 50, 51, 5458

United States of America (USA) EFS 104

investment 20, 125

money circulation 159160, 161

pressure waves 9

reporting 146 unsustainability 77

USA see United States of America

valuation 3642, 6162,109, 113 see also accounting systems; monetization values 3, 4, 3536, 48

verification 147148, 149,153 see also independent verification voluntary sector governance xxiii initiatives 55

reporting 25, 7173, 145, 146

standards 132, 134, 138, 141

wealth 10, 66, 68, 102, 157, 163

well-being 6667

see also quality of life Wessex Water 107,108,110

willingness 40

Zadek, S 18, 23, 25