List of Figures – Construction Project Management: Theory and Practice

List of Figures

Figure 1.1 The three general phases under the pre-project phase

Figure 1.2 The five general phases under the project phase

Figure 1.3 The two general phases under the post-project phase

Figure 1.4 The elements of project management

Figure 1.5 Cycle of activities

Figure 2.1 Military- or line-type organization

Figure 2.2 Line and staff organization

Figure 2.3 Departmental organization, authority, communication and contact (Tenah 1986)

Figure 2.4 Functional organization

Figure 2.5 Project organization

Figure 2.6 Typical matrix organization

Figure 2.7 Positions in director level

Figure 2.8 Positions in presidents level

Figure 2.9 Positions in construction management level

Figure 2.10 Positions in project management level

Figure 2.11 Positions in functional management level

Figure 3.1 Typical cash-flow diagram

Figure 3.2 Cash-flow diagram for example problem (alternative 1)

Figure 3.3 Cash-flow diagram for example problem (alternative 2)

Figure 3.4 Cost-dominated cash-flow diagram

Figure 3.5 Revenue-dominated cash-flow diagram

Figure 3.6 Cash-flow diagrams from lender’s as well as borrower’s perspectives

Figure 3.7 The cash-inflow diagram for the contractor for the example problem

Figure 3.8 The cash-outflow diagram for the contractor for the example problem

Figure 3.9 The project cash-flow (inflow–outflow) diagram for the example problem (contractor’s perspective)

Figure 3.10 Cumulative cash-flow curve with mobilization advance

Figure 3.11 Cumulative cash-flow curve without mobilization advance

Figure 3.12 Lump of Rs 1,000 in single instalment

Figure 3.13 Rs 400 every year for four years

Figure 3.14 Cash-flow illustration of single payment compound amount factor

Figure 3.15 Cash-flow illustration of single payment present worth factor

Figure 3.16 Cash-flow illustration of uniform series compound amount factor

Figure 3.17 Cash-flow illustration of uniform series present worth factor

Figure 3.18 Cash-flow illustration of sinking fund deposit factor

Figure 3.19 Cash-flow illustration of capital recovery factor

Figure 3.20 Cash-flow illustration of arithmetic gradient factor

Figure 3.21 Cash-flow illustration of geometric gradient factor

Figure 3.22 Types of problems in present worth analysis

Figure 3.23 Cash-flow diagram to illustrate the irr

Figure 4.1 Layout of car parking

Figure 4.2 Cross section showing different levels of car parking

Figure 4.3 Layout of sewage treatment plant for a township

Figure 5.1 Types of specifications

Figure 5.2 Categories of contract

Figure 5.3 Typical certificate issued by the bank showing credit limit enjoyed by the applicant

Figure 5.4 A typical format for details of similar works done

Figure 5.5 A typical format for showing concurrent commitment

Figure 5.6 A typical format for showing details of technical and administrative personnel

Figure 5.7 A typical format for showing details of plant and equipment

Figure 5.8 Different types of subcontract agreement

Figure 6.1 Illustration of a work-breakdown structure of an it park project

Figure 6.2 Example of events and an activity

Figure 6.3 Illustration of a dummy activity

Figure 6.4 Example of aoa network

Figure 6.5 Incorrect activity representation

Figure 6.6 Several activities starting from node 10 and terminating at node 80

Figure 6.7 Correct representation of network of Figure 6.5

Figure 6.8 Illustration of dummy activity

Figure 6.9 Example of an Aon

Figure 6.10 Example of a burst situation

Figure 6.11 Example of a merge situation

Figure 6.12 Incorrect representation

Figure 6.13 Correct representation of Figure 6.12

Figure 6.14 Activity A precedes activity B

Figure 6.15 Activity C has A and B as predecessors

Figure 6.16 Activities B and C having predecessor A

Figure 6.17 Activities C and D have two predecessor activities A and B

Figure 6.18 Activity C controlled by activities A and B, and activity D controlled by B alone

Figure 6.19 Activities A and B control L, and activities B and C control M

Figure 6.20 Activity A controls activities L and M, and activity C controls M and N

Figure 6.21 L, M and N are controlled by A; M and N are controlled by B; N is controlled by C

Figure 6.22 Example of a small network

Figure 6.23 Illustration for TF, IF and FF calculation

Figure 6.24 Bar chart for the construction of boundary wall

Figure 6.25 Beta distribution for the activity ‘design foundation’

Figure 6.26 Pert diagram showing duration and even numbers

Figure 6.27 Network for example problem based on data of Table 6.3

Figure 6.28 Arrow network for repetitive works

Figure 6.29 Ladder network corresponding to the network of Figure 6.28

Figure 6.30 A, B and C showing lead-lag factor of 0, 7 and 25 days for FS relationship

Figure 6.31 Introduction of pseudo method to represent lead-lag factor of 7 days in FS relationship

Figure 6.32 FF relationship with lead-lag factor of 7 days

Figure 6.33 Introduction of pseudo method to represent a relationship of FF 5 7

Figure 6.34 SS Relationship with lead-lag factor of 3 days

Figure 6.35 SS relationship with lead-lag factor of 3 days

Figure 6.36 SF relationship with lead-lag factor of 8 days

Figure 6.37 SF relationship with lead-lag factor of 8 days

Figure 6.38 Example of precedence network for repetitive work

Figure 6.39 Bar chart resulting from the network of Figure 6.38

Figure 6.40 Revised network of retaining wall construction

Figure 6.41 Bar chart resulting from the network of Figure 6.40

Figure 6.42 Bar chart when activity splitting is not allowed

Figure 6.43 Illustration of dual relationship in precedence network

Figure 6.44 Bar chart when activity splitting is not allowed

Figure 6.45 Bar chart when activity splitting is allowed

Figure 6.46 Network showing multiple start and end nodes

Figure 6.47 Lob diagram for scheduling of a housing project

Figure 6.48 Logic diagram of construction of one segment of retaining wall

Figure 6.49 Lob schedule for construction of retaining wall

Figure 6.50 Revised line-of-balance schedule for the construction of retaining wall

Figure 7.1 Network for resource-levelling illustration

Figure 7.2 Resource-loading chart based on early start

Figure 7.3 Resource-loading chart based on late start

Figure 7.4 Resource-levelled chart (time constrained)

Figure 7.5 Network of Figure 7.1 redrawn to time scale

Figure 7.6 The time-scale network on day 1–3

Figure 7.7 The time-scale network on day 4

Figure 7.8 The time-scale network on day 5

Figure 7.9 The time-scale network on day 6

Figure 7.10 The time-scale network on day 7

Figure 7.11 The time-scale network on day 8–9

Figure 7.12 The time-scale network on day 10

Figure 7.13 The time-scale network on day 11–12

Figure 7.14 The time-scale network on day 13–17

Figure 7.15 Resource-allocation chart on different days (non-time constrained/resource constrained leveling)

Figure 7.16 The bar chart and break-up of planned quantities of different items in percent

Figure 7.17 Schedule of milestone events

Figure 7.18 Schedule of labour requirement

Figure 7.19 Schedule of direct costs

Figure 7.20 Schedule of overheads

Figure 7.21 Schedule of cash inflow

Figure 7.22 Schedule of cash outflow

Figure 7.23 Indirect cost VS time

Figure 7.24 Direct cost VS time

Figure 7.25 The three possible cases in ‘direct cost VS time’

Figure 7.26 Network used for illustrating crashing

Figure 7.27 Time VS cost for the example problem

Figure 8.1 Estimation and bidding process from contractor’s perspective

Figure 8.2 Schematic representation of the bid price

Figure 8.3 Schematic representation of common bidding models

Figure 8.4 Histogram of b/c ratios of 36 past contracts in which contractor C competed with X

Figure 8.5 Normal distribution approximation of histogram shown in Figure 8.4

Figure 8.6 Distribution of 21 lowest competitor’s bids compared to C’s cost estimates

Figure 8.7 Probability of beating the lowest bidder VS mark-up

Figure 9.1 Some common earthwork equipments

Figure 9.2 Manufacturer’s way of providing lifting capacity at different radii

Figure 9.3 Tower crane (top-slewing)

Figure 9.4 Tower crane (bottom-slewing)

Figure 9.5 Lattice boom truck-mounted

Figure 9.6 Telescopic boom truck-mounted

Figure 9.7 Crawler crane

Figure 9.8 Rough-terrain mobile crane

Figure 9.9 All-terrain mobile crane

Figure 9.10 Schematic representation of depreciation in the value of an asset

Figure 9.11 Location of switch point

Figure 9.12 Pre-tax cash-flow diagram for equipment A

Figure 9.13 Post-tax cash-flow diagram for equipment A

Figure 9.14 Pre-tax cash-flow diagram for equipment B

Figure 9.15 Post-tax cash-flow diagram for equipment B

Figure 9.16 Incremental cash-flow diagram—preferring equipment A over B

Figure 9.17 Different forms of sensitivity analysis and the methods of presentation of results

Figure 9.18 Sensitivity graph showing the effect of changes in different variables on net present worth

Figure 9.19 Family of curves for example problem

Figure 9.20 Isoquants for the example problem

Figure 9.21 Sensitivity analysis for more than one alternative

Figure 9.22 Breakeven chart for example problem

Figure 10.1 Balance sheet

Figure 10.2 Schedule G

Figure 10.3 Profit and loss account

Figure 10.4 Working-capital cycle or operating cycle

Figure 10.5 Components of working capital

Figure 10.6 Sources of finance

Figure 10.7 The summary of the ratios

Figure 11.1 Illustration of material codification

Figure 11.2 Typical stock balance under lot size reorder point policy

Figure 11.3 Typical stock balance under fixed order interval scheduling policy

Figure 11.4 Typical stock balance under (s, S) Policy

Figure 11.5 Schematic represention of different stages in two bin system

Figure 11.6 llustration of ABC analysis

Figure 11.7 Inventory behaviour under eoq model

Figure 11.8 Total cost curve—eoq model

Figure 12.1 Major cost heads and relevant documents to assist in cost compilation

Figure 12.2 A typical format for recording daily labour attendance

Figure 12.3 A typical indent format for requisition of material used in projects

Figure 12.4 Cost statement of plant and equipment for a given month

Figure 12.5 Cost statement—without plant cost allocation

Figure 12.6 Integrated cost statement

Figure 12.7 Cost statement summary

Figure 12.8 Schematic diagram depicting different steps in the application of ve in design-and-build project

Figure 12.9 Break-up of cost of different structures for the case project

Figure 12.10 Break-up of cost of different items/elements in warehouse structure

Figure 12.11 Fast diagram for warehouse foundation

Figure 13.1 A sample checklist for formwork inspection

Figure 13.2 The pdsa cycle

Figure 13.3 Juran’s quality trilogy

Figure 13.4 ‘Triple Role’ concept as applied in construction

Figure 13.5 Quality cost breakdown

Figure 13.6 Cost versus quality level—classic view (adapted from Brown and Kane 1984)

Figure 14.1 A simplified risk management process

Figure 14.2 Risk identification process

Figure 14.3 Risk mapping

Figure 14.4 Risk analysis and evaluation process

Figure 14.5 Risk treatment strategies

Figure 15.1 Comparison of the frequency rates for construction and all other industries in Japan

Figure 15.2 Details of man–hours worked and decline of frequency rate of accidents over the years

Figure 15.3 Foundation of major injuries (Heinrich 1959)

Figure 15.4 Foundation of major accidents/injuries (Bird and Loftus 1982, cited in Mining Safety Handbook)

Figure 15.5 Unsafe conditions in labour hutment

Figure 15.6 Unsafe conditions—deep excavation without barricade and heavy vehicles plying very near the edge of deep excavation

Figure 15.7 Unsafe act—workers taking shelter under heavy vehicles

Figure 15.8 Unsafe act—worker in-between the reversing truck (without reverse horn) and the excavator

Figure 15.9 Worker near loosely tied excavator—sudden break applied by trailer crushed the worker

Figure 15.10 Unsafe act—workers being transported in open dumper

Figure 15.11 Analysis of falls

Figure 15.12 Causes of accident

Figure 15.13 Victims at fault

Figure 15.14 Break-up of fall from height (unsafe conditions)

Figure 15.15 Non-adherence to PPE

Figure 16.1 Bar chart for showing progress of the construction of boundary wall

Figure 16.2 Example for illustrating updating of network

Figure 16.3 Revised network at the end of 10 days of project start

Figure 16.4 Revised updated network

Figure 16.5 Example for illustrating updating in precedence network

Figure 16.6 Updated network at the end of 14 days from the project start

Figure 16.7 Revised precedence network after updating

Figure 16.8 Project control process

Figure 16.9 S-curve showing planned and actual bill value

Figure 16.10 S-curves for budgeted cost, revised cost and actual cost

Figure 16.11 Sample project cost report

Figure 16.12 Cost report for the example project

Figure 16.13 The three ‘s’ curves

Figure 16.14 The Bcws, Bcwp and Acwp curves for house construction example

Figure 16.15 Bar chart showing the budgeted schedule and cost of all work packages

Figure 16.16 Time versus cumulative value for the example problem

Figure 16.17 Initial construction schedule for the example project

Figure 16.18 Updated schedule at the end of day 30

Figure 17.1 List of tasks to be performed in project closure phase

Figure 18.1 Screen view after the File—New command is invoked

Figure 18.2 Illustration of summary task

Figure 18.3 Schedule for example project drawn using ms Project

Figure 18.4 Screen view of resource dictionary

Figure 18.5 Resource assignment view for activity A

Figure 18.6 Resource-loading chart based on early start

Figure 18.7a Resource profile after levelling (time-constrained)

Figure 18.7b Resource profile after levelling (non-time constrained)

Figure 18.8 Tracking Gantt Chart for the example project

Figure 18.9 Screen view after invoking tools-reports-overview

Figure 18.10 Screen view at the time of adding a new project

Figure 18.11 Screen view of the activity id of two activities in project bcdc

Figure 18.12a Screen view of schedule report generated by P3

Figure 18.12b Schedule for example project drawn using P3

Figure 18.13 Creating resource dictionary in P3

Figure 18.14 Resource assignment to activity

Figure 18.15a Resource profile based on early start (before levelling)

Figure 18.15b Resource profile based on late start (before levelling)

Figure 18.16 Screen view after invoking Tools → Level

Figure 18.17a Resource profile after non-time constrained

Figure 18.17b Resource profile after levelling (time-constrained)

Figure 18.18 Screen view after progress update for the example illustrated in Chapter 16

Figure 18.19 Screen view to generate tabular and graphic reports

Figure 18.20 Screen view after invoking the command Tools → Tabular Reports → Schedule

Figure 18.21 Different options of tabular reports under schedule-related report

Figure 18.22 Screen view after invoking the constraints option

Figure 18.23 Modifying activity box template

Figure 18.24 Developing calendar in P3

Figure 18.25 Developing activity codes

Figure 19.1 Five most important success attributes

Figure 19.2 Five most important failure attributes

Figure 19.3 Factor profile for schedule criterion

Figure 19.4 Factor profile for cost criterion

Figure 19.5 Factor profile for quality criterion

Figure 19.6 Factor profile for no-dispute criterion

Figure 19.7 Project success and failure factors and their impact at different performance-rating levels in the schedule performance criteria

Figure 19.8 Project success and failure factors and their impact at different performance-rating levels in the cost performance criteria

Figure 19.9 Project success and failure factors and their impact at different performance-rating levels in the quality performance criteria

Figure 19.10 Project success and failure factors and their impact at different performance-rating levels in the dispute performance criteria

Figure 19.11 Recommendation for project professionals