This is the name for a new filter “gallery” that utilizes Adobe’s new artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms. We’ve seen combo filters before: Blur Gallery and the original Filter Gallery (which can be independent filters via a preference setting).
Most of what’s on offer is experimental (as shown by a laboratory flask icon). The two filters that are considered more-or-less complete are Skin Smoothing and Style Transfer. The former looks promising for cosmetic retouching, the latter may find a use. Style Transfer uses one of several included images to alter your own, giving color, texture, and a bit of the “feel” of the source image.
Skin Smoothing goes beyond other tools we’ve used and attempts to use Adobe’s huge database of skin images to achieve its results.
I’ve chosen not to show any of the experimental Neural filters. I very, very strongly recommend you open an image of a person, perhaps someone of whom you are not terribly fond, and try these. If you were to do an internet search for “Adobe Neural Filters,” you will find a great deal of ridicule and even more fun.
Hint: in your own recreations, look for the Smart Portrait filter’s Happiness slider. Or perhaps try the Makeup Transfer filter (you’ll need another photo of someone with makeup to transfer).
There are others, currently inactive, that are awaiting votes from the Photoshop community. You can express your interest in the user interface. In time, these filters will find their way into our workflows. Right now, they’re mostly just good fun.