Notes – Social Development in Independent India

Chapter 1


1.   Rajni Kothari, ‘Social Policy, Development and Democracy’. In Ghanshyam Shah, ed., Social Transformation in India, Vol. 1 (Jaipur: Rawat Publications, 1977), pp. 37–54.

2.   B. N. Ganguli, Gandhi's Social Philosophy: Perspective and Relevance (New Delhi: Vikas Publishing and Council for Social Development, 1973).

3.   The same notion of development was propounded by Professor Arthur Lewis in his classical work on development theory published in the early 1950s, in which he emphasized that the objective of development is to increase ‘the range of human choice’. (W. Arthur Lewis, Development Planning: The Essentials of Economic Policy [London: George Allen & Unwin, 1968, c1956]). However, unlike Professor Amartya Sen, he did not bring out the social dimensions of development and concentrated specifically on the growth of output per head.

4.   Amartya Sen, Beyond the Crisis: Development Strategies in Asia (New Delhi: Capital Publishing Company/Singapore/Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1999, First Reprint 2000).

5.   The World Bank, Entering the 21st Century: World Development Report 1999/2000 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000).

6.   Ibid.

7.   Ibid.

8.   Ibid.

9.   Amartya Sen, ‘Theory and Practice of Development’. In Isher Judge Ahluwalia and I. M. D. Little, eds., India's Economic Reforms and Development: Essays for Manmohan Singh (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998), pp. 73–84.

10. Ibid.

11. Ibid.

12. Ibid.

13. Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1999), pp. 87110.

14. Ibid. pp. 87–110.

15. Ibid. pp. 87–110

16. United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report 1977 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1977).

17. Amartya Sen, 1999, op. cit., pp. 189–203.

18. Ibid. pp. 189–203.

19. Ibid.

20. Ibid.

21. Ibid.

22. Ibid.

23. Ibid.

24. Ibid. pp. 227–248.

25. Ibid.

26. Ibid. pp. 87–110.