Preface – Network Analysis and Synthesis


It is with great pleasure we present you with this comprehensive book, Network Analysis and Synthesis, which has been developed over a period of time. The content of this book has been decided on the basis of analysis of the syllabus prescribed by all the leading Indian universities on the subject of ‘Network Analysis and Synthesis’ or ‘Circuits and Networks’. Although, a range of books are available on this subject, this book is expected to satisfy the needs of students of different learning abilities. Presentations of topics have been made so simple that even an average student will be able to follow this book almost independently.

For each chapter, the objectives have been well-stated so as to guide students in self-evaluation after studying each chapter. After studying the entire book, it is expected that students will be able to analyse, design, and synthesise electrical circuits and networks.

Although, the students might be familiar with some basic concepts and principles dealt with in this book, a review of understanding of these basic concepts will facilitate understanding of the advanced topics. We believe that basic knowledge of differential and integral calculus is essential to understand this book.


1.Defining the Learning Objectives Course Content provides simply an outline of the topics. It is passive and does not convey specifically what is to be learnt. Once the objectives are stated, the students know what to learn and the teachers also know how to teach and how to evaluate learning.

In this book, learning objectives have been stated to help both students and teachers.

2.Delivery of Concepts and Principles All the chapters have been defined by some key features: simple language, examples to rule, known to unknown, simple to complex and concrete to abstract. These presentations have been made in an interactive way.

3.Developing Higher Order Intellectual Abilities Ability to recall and reproduce is the lowest level of intellectual attainment. Emphasis has been given to develop in students the higher order intellectual abilities including abilities of application, analysis and synthesis which together may be defined as problem solving ability.

4.Creating Ample Opportunities for Practice A large number of solved examples in each chapter demonstrate the many ways to solve the problems. This is followed by review questions which is composed of ample number of exercise problems with answers so that students can practice and gain confidence. Exercises have been graded from simple to complex to make learning motivating.

5. Self Feedback in Achieving the Learning Objectives Self feedback provides students the opportunity to evaluate their learning abilities. For this, a large number of short answer type and multiple choice type review questions have been provided in each chapter.


This book is divided into 13 chapters. The content and coverage of chapters are as follows:

Chapter 1 reviews the basic concepts related to electrical circuits, series parallel connections, functions of circuit elements, property of storing energy by inductors and capacitors, voltage and current sources and source transformation.

Chapter 2 explains applications of Kirchhoff’s current and voltage laws in mesh and nodal analysis of circuits.

Chapter 3 presents steady state analysis of R-L, R-C and R-L-C series and parallel circuits with plenty of solved numericals.

Chapter 4 establishes the condition for series and parallel resonance. The chapter also deals with the significance of bandwidth and quality factor. Also explains how series and parallel resonant circuits are used in the field of electronics.

Chapter 5 defines and explains the network theorems like Superposition theorem, Thevenin’s theorem, Millman’s theorem, Maximum Power transfer theorem, etc. The chapter solves a large number of complex network problems using network theorems. Also shows methods of simplifying networks using star-delta transformation technique.

Chapter 6 explains the transient condition that may occur in electrical networks. The chapter derives expressions for current and voltage under transient condition in R-L, R-C and R-L-C series circuits. It also carries out transient analysis of R-L, R-C, and R-L-C series circuits with sinusoidal inputs.

Chapter 7 provides explanation of Laplace transform and its application in solving circuit problems.

Chapter 8 lists the steps to find transient response of electrical networks using Laplace transform. Determines transient response of electrical circuits by Laplace transform method.

Chapter 9 explains three-phase balanced and unbalanced systems. The chapter shows how to calculate power and power factor of balanced three-phase loads. It solves numerical problems related to balanced and unbalanced star and delta connected loads.

Chapter 10 explains the concept of complex frequency. The chapter shows how to convert circuit parameters from time domain to s-domain. The chapter explains the method of finding transfer function of electrical networks. It also explains the concept of zeros and poles of a transfer function. Shows how to write the characteristic equation and then apply Routh’s stability criterion.

Chapter 11 defines the two-port network parameters and shows how to represent them in the form of matrix equation. Calculates Z-parameters and Y-parameters. Defines A, B, C, D transmission parameters. The chapter also shows how to calculate A, B, C, D parameters of a given networks. Also calculates Z-parameters and Y-parameters of interconnected two-port networks.

Chapter 12 explains the concept of network Synthesis. The chapter shows how to synthesize networks by Foster and Cauer methods.

Chapter 13 explains the basic function of a filter circuit. Draws and explains basic filter networks in different sections. The chapter shows method of analysis of K-type and m-derived filters. Composite filters using constant K-type and m-derived filters have also been discussed in this chapter.


This work is the outcome of years of experience in teaching ‘Network Analysis and Synthesis’ and other related subjects to the students of electrical and electronics engineering. We would like to thank all those who provided feedback in the form of their learning difficulties when we were teaching the subject. Thanks are also due to the faculty of various engineering colleges/universities, for reviewing the manuscript and giving valuable suggestions.

We appreciate the excellent editorial work done by the team members of Pearson Education.

Lastly, we would like to convey our special thanks to Mrs Sumita Bhattacharya and Mrs Shivdeep Kaur for their patience and encouragement which helped us to complete this big task.

S. K. Bhattacharya
Manpreet Singh