Subject Index – Technological Change and the Environment

Subject Index

accessibility of knowledge 52

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome see AIDS

activity analyses 16

adaptability 48, 50

adaptation 48

adaptive global optimization random search algorithm 2745

adaptive invention/innovation mechanisms 634

adoption patterns of hybrid corn 75

advertising 19

aerosols 254

Agency of Industrial Science Technology (AIST) 135

aggregate-level growth 327

aging process 56

agricultural development 17, 18

agricultural experiment stations 71, 73, 75

agricultural research 3756

agricultural revolutions 369

agricultural sector in developing countries 6196

evidence from 7483

agricultural technology 74

agriculture 16, 48

institutional specialization in R&D systems 72

AIDS 52, 54

AIDS vaccine 56

air conditioners 100, 101

energy-efficiency changes 11617

innovation in characteristics transformation surface 112

model characteristics 1024

overall changes in menu of models offered 11117

summary statistics for variables 103

transformation surface estimates 108, 109

air pollution management 378

alchemy 56

allocation of innovative effort 337, 349

allocation of inventive effort 338

alternative emergent energy systems 275

alternative energy technology strategies 252

alternative medicine 53, 55

alternative technology dynamics 252

AMD 329

American Civil War 49

antibiotics 42, 502

antiseptic techniques 489

appropriability 201, 32630

versus spillovers 327

appropriability ratio 185

Argonne National Laboratory 275

autoimmune disease 52

automobile industry 366

backstop technologies 331

BC L model 231

BC R model 2212, 2245, 22931, 232, 242

BE models 232

behavioral theory of the firm 19

benefit–cost criterion 2414, 334

optimal policy under 2215

benefit–cost simulations 226, 232

biological technology 17

biomass energy 261

Black Death 56

blueprints versus knowledge 3278

Boolean algebra 53

bottom-up energy systems models 3367

bottom-up models 3434, 349

bubonic plague 42, 49

building-on-shoulders model 187

business behavior 353

business strategies 19

cancer 56

capital-augmenting technological change 13

capital-intensive techniques 16, 21

capital/labor ratios 21

capital requirements 12

capital stock turnover 354

carbon abatement, impact of ITC on optimal time profiles 212

carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions 1608, 177, 186, 195, 2536, 271, 275, 280

concentrations 2213, 225, 226, 229, 310, 337

and induced technological change 21050

mitigation strategies 1608

optimal abatement 21050

output trajectory 194

sensitivity analysis for major parameters 200

shadow cost of 215

carbon emissions 2546, 308

and GDP 1625

carbon energy 186, 188, 190

global R&D 196

optimized level of R&D 199

R&D 198

substitution of capital and labor for 190

tax credits 201

carbon-energy-saving technological change (CESTC) 1867

carbon intensity

impact of induced innovation 1945

and technological change 190

carbon/output ratio 199

carbon tax 194, 198, 228, 230, 238, 301, 30910, 332, 336

DICE 197

impact of ITC on optimal time profiles for 212

ITC and NITC 21418

optimal 211, 214, 219, 230

and optimal abatement 214

R&DICE 197

causality mechanism in technological change model 2978

CE model 2301

CE L model 21820, 222, 225, 2289, 2401

CE R model 213, 219, 220, 222, 2279, 2401, 242

characteristics innovation, decomposition 11113

characteristics transformation surfaces 98101

estimation issues 1067

results of estimation 10711

“chess game” solution concept 267

Chinese medical knowledge 53

chlorofluorocarbons 378

cholera 42, 49

Cinchona bark 42

Clean Air Act (1970) 378

climate change 2534

and CO2 emissions 1608

state-of-the-art 324

climate change models 322, 331, 332, 342, 344, 350

state-of-the-art 357

climate change perspective 338

climate change policy 346

modeling induced innovation in 182209

overall trends 194

results 194201

Climate Change Technology Initiative (CCTI) 201

analysis 202

reduction in global temperature 204

results 2024

climate policy 331

with endogenous technology but no substitution 194

with substitution but exogenous technology 194

cluster groups, scenarios in 3013

Cobb–Douglas production function 151, 190

communication, importance of 359

competitors technology 329

computational implementation in technological change model 299300

computer industry 328

concept of “routine” 19

constant-elasticity function 187

constructed market 376, 377

consumer optimization over product cost and energy flow 11819

contagious disease 4950

control theory 267

control variables, asymmetry between 332

convergence mechanisms 624

cost distributions for energy technologies 260

cost-effective technology 259

cost-effectiveness 2567, 276

criterion 23841, 334

optimal policy under 21220

cost-efficiency differences 63

cost function 344

cost-function models 334

cost of labor 15

cost reduction effectiveness 634

cost reduction index 261, 274

cost reductions represented by learning index 262

Crimean War 49

crop genetic improvement (CGI) 76, 83

crop genetic improvement contributions to yield growth

by crop 84

by region 84

crop genetic resources (CGRs) 64

cultural endowments

changes 367

interrelationships 365

cultural factors 329

current-value Hamiltonian 214, 221

current-value multiplier 240

Darwinian natural selection 64

decarbonization 1628, 1767

dynamics 163

of economic activities 163

as learning curve 165

of primary energy 163

decision framework 1845

decision making 332, 340, 359

decision rules 19

demand concept 10

demand-induced hypothesis 11

demand-induced innovation 42

demand-induced model 27

demand-pull model 1011

demand-pull tradition 9

demand-pull/push controversy 10

demand-side forces 10

depletable-pool model 187

depreciation rate of technology 1923

deterministic linear optimization problem 26971

deterministic modeling approaches 267

developing countries 6196, 254

agricultural sector 6196

evidence from 7483

investment strategy in 75

DICE model 194, 3346, 351

carbon tax 197

welfare implications 199

DICE-99 model 18990

equations 2067

diffusion 44, 16081, 369

of new technologies 3567, 359

directions, technical change 15

discontinuity in technological advance 3489

discounting 352

disease

causation 49

humoral theory of 445

multiple approaches 53

distribution functions 285

DSK keyboard 28

Dutch East India Company 49

dynamic factor substitutions 18

dynamic technologies 263

dynamical fluctuations 22

econometric specification 1001

economic history 40

economic models 322, 346

Economic Report of the President 201

economies of scale 24

effluent fees 378

elasticity of substitution 28

elasticity of technology 1923

electricity generation

annual investment requirements 174

investment cost distributions 261

investment costs as learning process 172

technology learning curves 259

world 173

electricity prices 105

emissions trading 37780

endogenous economic growth, induced technical change 29

endogenous growth theory 323, 3257

endogenous technological change model 280319

energy conversion technologies 311

energy demand

in technological change model 2934

trajectory 257

energy efficiency

changes 102

decomposition of annual changes 11317

effects of rate and direction of technological change 117

factors affecting changes 115

factors affecting innovation 120

historical effects of price changes and efficiency standards 116

investments 356

paradox 356

reemergence as policy concern 11718

standards 1056, 11617

tax credits 201

technologies 356

energy efficient, technologies 160

energy flows 269, 295

energy price

improvements 115

relative to price of product inputs 1045

relative to production inputs and rate of energy efficiency

energy reserves, magnitudes and costs 264

energy-saving technological change 97126

energy suppliers 337

energy systems

development 252

methodological challenges 258

modeling approach 2537

modeling of induced technological learning and uncertainty 251

models 338, 340

bottom-up 3367

scenarios 273

energy technology inventory 263

energy trade flows 3034

engineering 50

entrepreneurial regime 21

environmental change 50

environmental constraints 30810

in technological change model 2989

Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) 378

environmental management 377

evolutionary economics 347, 354

evolutionary models 9, 26

evolutionary theory 1922

of human knowledge 438

exogenous technological advance 326

experience-based ITC 3367

exploratory modeling 272

explosives 51

factor-augmenting technical change 12

factor bias 24

factor endowments 1114

factor-induced model 27

factor-induced technological change 17

factor prices 12, 16, 21

factor ratios 17

feasible technology dynamics 273

fertilizer/land price ratio 17

fertilizers 51

fitness of known techniques 51

flexibility 50

Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) 76

Ford Motor Co. 329

Framework Convention on Climate Change 161, 177

fuel cells 265, 337

fundamental trade-off 12

fusion energy 52

future energy and emissions 16970

Galenian canon 45

Galenian theory 47

gas turbines 259

gas water heaters 100

energy-efficiency changes 11617

model characteristics 1024

summary statistics for variables 103

transformation surface estimates 110

gasoline, lead in 378

general knowledge 55

General Motors 329

genetic resource collection and evaluation programs 69

germ theory 49, 50, 53

germplasm and varietal production 701, 7681

glassmaking 51

global change 280

global emissions, comparison of policies 203

Global Energy Perspectives to 2050 and Beyond 173

global mean temperature 337

globalized trading world 634

Goodyear 328

greenhouse gases (GHGs) 18990, 210, 254

Griliches–Schmookler demand–induced model 10

gross domestic product (GDP) 160, 227, 309, 338

and carbon emissions 1625

groundbreaking major innovations 346

growth theoretic model 1213, 17, 26

halons 378

Hayami–Ruttan model 17

Hayami–Ruttan test 17

Hellenistic astronomy 53

herbal medicine 48

herbal treatments 47

heterogeneity

in firm behavior 347

of agents 283, 301, 31012

technological 3489, 359

Hicksian hypothesis 100

Hippocratic school of medicine 45

history of medicine see medical history

HIV 50, 56

host plant resistance (HPR) 64

human immunodeficiency virus see HIV

human ingenuity 186

human knowledge, evolutionary theory of 438

humoral theory of disease 445

hybrid maize 10

hydrogen infrastructure clusters 265, 266

IARCs 756, 7881, 83

IIASA 2, 251, 260, 262, 263, 275, 288

IMFs 331, 3402, 3445, 3489, 3513, 352, 359

intrasectoral 335

in ITC models 3312

imitation 20, 21

immunization 42

immunological knowledge 50

increasing returns 25, 281, 285

adoption 23

disequilibrium tendencies 25864

in technological change model 2967

index of technological opportunity 11

induced adaptive invention/innovation 6196

induced innovation 12, 13, 4855, 190

formal theory 182

hypothesis 97126

model 14

non-neoclassical “evolutionary and historical” approach 16

theory 1839

welfare implications of 1889

induced innovation function, functional specification 1867

induced institutional innovation 36488

Philippines 3714

theory of 367

induced invention/innovation convergence model, plant breeding 6474

induced knowledge change 52

induced technological change (ITC) 2, 910, 502, 182, 322

and CO2-abatement policy 21050

complexity 357

definitions 3223

elements 321

and endogenous economic growth 29

hypothesis 12

importance 333, 33740, 357

modeling 32063

overview 18

uncertainty modeling of 25179

industrial adaptive invention specifications 92

industrial development 61

industrial invention, international recharge in 8993

Industrial Revolution 41, 42

industrial sector 18

industrial technology 61

industries of manufacture (IOMs) 86, 88

inertia sources 3545

infectious diseases 42

influenza 42

innovating firms 329

innovation 1, 11, 1921, 330

allocation of 337

building-on-shoulders model 187

exogenous 187

impact on price, cost and profits 185

inefficient investment 326

investment 349, 3578

limits of rational modeling 353

rate and bias 15

theory 3235, 327, 351

uncertain returns on 280319

underinvestment 330

innovation market failures see IMFs

innovation-possibility curve (IPC) 1314, 16

innovation-possibility frontier (IPF) 13, 15, 64, 66, 184

innovation-possibility function 185

input–output coefficients 1920

input–output combinations 322

institutional change 364

endogenous 369

implications of theory of induced innovation 367

institutional design or redesign 364

institutional innovation

demand for 36976

overview 3689

Philippines 3704

supply of 3767

theory of 364

see also induced institutional innovation

institutions

interrelationships 365

proliferation 367

intellectual property rights (IPRs) 74, 375

inter-firm technology spillover 12759

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change see IPCC

interior-point method for linear optimization 274

International Agricultural Research Centers see IARCs

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis see IIASA

international patent classifications (IPCs) 868

International Patent Documentation (INPADOC) database 86

international patent flows 90, 91

international recharge in industrial invention 8993

International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) 76

International Service to National Agricultural Research (ISNAR) 80

international spillovers 329

interpretation, importance of 359

intersectoral spillovers 346

intertemporal general equilibrium models 3356

intrasectoral IMFs 335

investment 19

investment cost distributions for electricity generation 261

investment costs as learning process 168

investment decisions in new technologies 2523

investment incentives 327

investment strategy in developing countries 75

IPCC 161, 226, 254, 293, 294, 298

Irish Famine 49

ITC

cumulative abatement 2234

experience-based 3367

ITC modeling

extensions and limitations 34457

fundamentals 3404

implications of diffusion 357

implications of firm heterogeneity 347

implications of path dependence and associated phenomena 355

implications of risk aversion and discounting 352

implications of routine-based behavior 353

implications of technological change 346

implications of technological uncertainties 351

issues appropriate for 321

methodology 320

simplifications 3469

state-of-the-art 3334, 33740

ITC models

impact of extensions and limitations 358

innovation market failures in 3312

state-of-the-art 339

ITC versus NITC 239

Japan 3656

photovoltaic development 12759

knowledge

accessibility 52

accumulation 227

active or dormant 46, 47

additions 53

versus blueprints 3278

changes in 54

diversity of forms 56

expansion 55

externality 284

false 47

growth 52, 215

parameter 334

as a public good 326

spillovers 326, 3278

true 47

knowledge generation, forms of 284

knowledge systems, selection process 47

known techniques 51

Kyoto Protocol 2013

labor-augmenting technological change 13

labor requirements 12, 285

labor scarcity thesis 15

land abundance 15

land and power 17

land/labor ratios 17

lead in gasoline 378

lead-time effects 325

learning by doing 14

technological change via 21820, 2245, 2401, 244

learning by using 14

learning curves 168, 325

learning effects and technology improvement 130

learning effects and technology spillover 1301

learning/experience curve mechanism, analytical framework 12931

learning index, cost reductions represented by 262

learning process 16081

see also technological learning

learning process, investment costs as 168

learning spillover effects 268

licensing technology 329

life-cycle models 282

life cycles 11

linear fixed-coefficient processes 16

localized learning 16

lock-in 3545

longitude measurement 52

macroeconomic endogenous growth models 29

macroinventions 350

macro-production relationships 15

malaria 42

Manhattan project 56

manifested entity 43, 44

mapping function 51

marginal abatement costs 216

marginal productivity of research 28

market failure 24

market forces 325, 338

market institutions 36974

market-pull theory 325

market structure 20

Marxism 366, 368

mathematical knowledge 53

mechanical technology 17, 74

medical history 4060

medical knowledge 48

medical techniques 47

medical technology 41

MESSAGE model 1712, 175, 2512, 260, 2689, 337

message passing interface (MPI) 275

meta-production function 28

microbiological knowledge 50

microeconomic model 1314, 17, 18, 21, 26

microeconomics 19

microinventions 350

micro-level historical events 27

mimicry mechanisms 623

mimicry policy philosophy 83

Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) 1278, 131, 133

model substitution 100

modern variety (MV) adoption and location specificity 813

monopoly behavior 330

Monte Carlo analysis 252

Monte Carlo simulation 351

mortality rates 42

multiple equilibria 53

multiple-period model 14

multiple-period search with search field narrowing 68

multiple periods

with recharge 6871

without recharge 668

multiple-year R&D programs 66

multistage stochastic optimization models 268

National Agricultural Research System (NARS) 756, 78, 79, 81, 83

National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (NAECA) 105

National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) 275

natural gas prices 105

natural resources 18

natural selection see selection techniques

Nelson–Winter evolutionary model 16, 19, 21, 268

neoclassical analytical structures 324

neoclassical growth models 13, 326, 3345, 344

neoclassical growth theory 13

network-based coordination 366

network externalities 24, 25

new growth economics 10, 25

new growth theory 351

new institutions 364

new knowledge, search for 55

new technology, search for 19

newly industrialized countries (NICs) 62, 89

nitrogen-fixing process 51

no-ITC (NITC) 2234, 232

nonmarket institutions 3746

nonoptimal market response 332

nuclear energy 261

nuclear high-temperature reactors (HTRs) 265, 266

numerical simulations 22537

functional forms and parameter values 2268

one-trait one-period model 646

optimal abatement and emission tax trajectories 334

optimality criteria 252

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 61, 86, 88, 304, 329

Oriental Despotism 366

Origins of Species, The 53

overseas investment 19

Pareto optimum versus social planner 3034

patent applications, PV industry 1424

patent disclosures 329

patent system 331

path dependence 225, 53

applied to technology 3545

path-dependent model 9, 17, 25, 27, 28

path-dependent technical change 28

pathogenic bacteria 52, 56

pattern model 3658

phenotype 43

Philippines, institutional innovation 3704

Photovoltaic Power Generation Technology Research Association (PVTEC) 131

participating firms 132

photovoltaics see PV

Pirelli 328

placebo effect 54

plant breeding

crop genetic improvements 64

induced invention/innovation convergence model 6474

pneumonia 42

policy makers 331

political factors 329

political market 376

positive feedbacks 22, 24

potential learning effects 293

potential processes 16

potentially positive feedback 329

pre-breeding 64, 69

premodern production 48

price of labor 16

price ratio 17

primary energy

consumption by major energy sources 166

intensity of economic activities 164

substitution 167

printing 51

prior knowledge 56

private markets 325, 357

private returns 330

versus social returns 1856

private sector

incentives 323

R&D 330

product characteristics framework 98100

product diversification 19

production 48, 50

production function 12, 16, 322, 336, 344, 349, 356

production process 184

production technology 54

productivity 61

productivity convergence 6196

profitability tests 201

property rights 36974

psychiatric disease 52

psychosomatic conditions 54

public goods supply 3746

public sector

innovation 345

R&D 3456

publications 329

PV cells 337

PV clusters 266

PV development

conceptual model 128

correlation between technology potential and production 13741

creation of technology knowledge stock 1356

cross-sector industry involvement 13141

feedback loop to further production increase 1502

government R&D 135

impact of inter-firm technology spillovers on learning effects 149

implications for techno-economics 1545

inter-firm technology spillovers 1419

in Japan 12759

patent applications 1424

R&D 1278, 135

expenditure by leading cross–sector firms 1313

inducement strategy 1335

rate of obsolescence of technology 1556

time lag between R&D and commercialization 1556

virtuous cycle between R&D, market growth, and price reduction 1505

PV technology

analytical framework 12931

firm-level 128

learning curves 25960

quality ladders 328

quasi-irreversibility of investment 24

quinine 42

QWERTY keyboard 245, 28

raw materials 18

R&D 1, 1214, 19, 21, 28, 56, 323, 32830

investments for major sectors 201

opportunity costs 335

services 335

social returns 330

spillovers 330

subsidy levels 336

technological change via 21318, 2214, 23841

versus experience 3423

R&D/output ratio 194, 201

R&D/sales ratio 200

RD&D 1612, 16972, 176, 178, 253, 258

policy implications 276

R&DICE model 18994, 202, 204, 3348, 341, 344

analytical changes 192

calibration 1924

carbon tax 197

definition of variables 2056

equations 2067

welfare implications 199

R&DICE-99 model, modifications 1904

recently industrialized countries (RICs) 89

RECLAIM program 378

reference energy system 269, 270, 295

refraction of light 51

regional actors 337

relative resource abundance 1617

rent spillovers 3278

research allocation 184

research and development see R&D

research budgets 14, 28

research, development, and demonstration see RD&D

resource allocation 374

resource availability, in technological change model 2989

resource endowments 3701, 380

interrelationships 365

reverse engineering 329

RICE-99 model 189

risk and benefit 2712

risk aversion 352

risk function 271

risks in model structure 267

Rockefeller Foundation 76

rolling horizon concept 268

routinized regime 21

scale economies 25, 28

scenarios in cluster groups 3013

Schumpeterian perspective 21

Schumpeterian theory 19

scientific knowledge 53, 54

scurvy 49

sectors of use (SOUs) 86, 88

selection environment 51

changes in 54

selection techniques 43, 47

semiconductor industry 27

sensitivity analysis 2001, 2317

serendipitous discoveries 42

shadow-cost effect 216

simple mimicry 63

simulations 20, 22, 23

single-period IPF 67

singleton techniques 48, 49, 52

smallpox vaccination 42

SO2 emissions 364, 37780

social planning 337

models 3402

versus Pareto optimum 3034

social returns 330

versus private returns 1856

social science knowledge 3767

social sciences 369

solar cell production 1368, 141

effects due to learning and economies of scale 1489

factors contributing to changes 144

feedback loop 1502

impact of inducement 152

impact of inter–firm technology spillovers 1459

inducement by technology knowledge stock and energy prices 1478

Japanese statistics 140

regional distribution 139

trends in prices 147

world statistics 139

solar power 261, 266

sorghum 78

spectacles 51

spider graph 311

spillover channels 329

spillover level 329

spillovers 32630

and appropriability 351

versus appropriability 327

forms 3279

and returns to R&D 330

in technological advance 330

standard substitution approach 190

standing-on-shoulders case 227

stochastic technology search process 20

substitution 501

sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions 364, 37780

Sunshine Program 127, 133, 135

Sunshine Program, participating firms 132

supply and demand factors 11

supply-push hypothesis 11

supply-side forces 10

tacit knowledge constrained mimicry 63

tax credits

carbon energy 201

energy efficiency 201

technical capability of society 52

Technical Choice, Innovation and Economic Growth 24

technical inter–relatedness 24

technical meetings 329

techniques, selection 456

technological adaptability 4855

technological advance 323, 325, 336

characteristics 3424

discontinuity in 3489

response to policy 323

technological change 16081, 3434, 364, 3701

assessment of models 267

bias 16, 18

and carbon intensity 190

complementary sources 345

cumulative 281

direction 1114, 15, 16, 19, 28

disembodied 283, 296

dynamic 281

economic literature 3236

embodied 284, 296

endogenous 1715, 178, 182, 280319, 322

exogenous 171, 322

general theory 279

induced see induced technological change (ITC)

integration of models 279

interpreting and analyzing 345

via learning by doing 21820, 2245, 2401, 244

linear deterministic model 333

main features 2817

and policy 357

rate of 9, 28

via R&D 21318, 2214, 23841

sources 939

systemic 281

uncertain 281

technological change model 287300

actors 28890

causality mechanism in 2978

computational implementation in 299300

endogenous 287

energy demand in 2934

environmental constraints in 2989

increasing returns in 2967

interaction between actors 290

objective function 290

resource availability in 2989

simplifications 2946

simulations 30012

systems structure 294

taxonomy 3013

technologies 2948

technology spillover effects 297

uncertainty in 2903, 2967

technological choice under uncertainty 3048

technological clusters, spillover effects 2657

technological clusters and relationships 268

technological diffusion 3567, 359

technological dynamics 252, 2713, 274, 337

features 284

optimal (suboptimal) 273, 2756

scenarios 2756

technological evolution

stages 282

systemic 287

uncertainty in 286

technological expectations, subjective 286

technological heterogeneity 3489, 359

technological improvement 185, 286

and learning effects 130

technological information 3245

technological innovation, caveats 285

technological innovation–development–diffusion process 128

technological knowledge 55

characteristics 282, 2857

creation and diffusion 283

cumulative 2856

disembodied 283

embodied 283

forms of 2824

technological learning 16871

and uncertainty, endogenizing 254

positive spillovers 264

standard modeling approaches with diminishing returns 258

technological lock-in 22, 24

technological proximity 2645

technological regimes 23

technological relationships 264

technological spillover 734, 2646

analytical framework 12931

effects 297

and learning effects 1301

technological uncertainty 34951

technology

history 1, 25, 43

interrelationships 365

role 1

underlying model 1834

technology-based policy measures 331

technology investments, policy implications 276

technology learning curves, electricity-generation technologies 259

technology life-cycle model 283

technology push 28, 325

technology systems 287

“technology-is-knowledge-is-a-public-good” notion 326

telecommunications 328

temperature change, global 197

time lag between PV R&D and commercialization 1556

trade secrets 325

transaction cost constrained mimicry 63

transformation surface

estimation over time 10111

projection onto product cost/energy flow plane 111

transgenic breeding programs 69

Treatise on Scurvy 49

two-factor neoclassical models 17

two-stage dynamic stochastic optimization model 268, 269

typhus 42

uncertain increasing returns 281

uncertain learning index 262

uncertain returns on innovation 280319

uncertainty

in bottom-up energy systems models 337

distributions of future costs 260

in model structure 267

modeling of induced technological change 25179

of new technologies 263

technological 34951

in technological advances 359

in technological change model 2903, 2967

in technological evolution 286

technology choice under 3048

uncertainty modeling

computational approach 2745

solution technique 2745

underlying structure 43, 44

United States 1637, 186, 196, 201, 3656

R&D and output for fossil fuels 193

technology program 202

United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 378

useful knowledge 438, 55

vaccination 49

varietal production

and germplasm 7681

elasticity 81

varietal releases by crop and region 77

viral disease 52

virtuous circle creation 1504

wage rate 21

Wal-Mart method 322

water pollution 378

welfare implications

DICE 199

induced innovation 1889

R&DICE 199

welfare losses 24

Western medical knowledge 53

wheat 78

wide-crossing programs 69

wind power 25960

Windows NT network clusters (WMPI) 275

World War I 49

World War II 3656

Yale Technology Concordance (YTC) 86