Contents (1/2) – Biomechanics and Robotics

Contents
Preface xi
1. Definitions and Historical Perspective: Beginnings 1
Definitions 1
Biomechanics 1
Robotics 1
Why Biomechanics and Robotics as a Joint Discipline? 2
Biomechanics: Early Beginnings 2
Biomechanics: Renaissance and Beyond 3
Biomechanics: First Motion and Force Caption
Technologies 11
Robotics: Early Beginnings 15
Early Robotics in the 20th Century 22
References and Suggested Reading 29
2. Actuators 33
Biological Actuators 33
Muscle Macrodynamics 35
Muscle Types 40
Skeletal muscle 41
Muscle fiber structure 42
Myofibril’s Myosin and Actin 44
Sliding Filament Theory 44
Muscle actuation details 49
Artificial Actuators 51
Combustion Engines and Actuation 52
External combustion engines 52
Internal combustion engines 54
Pneumatic Engines and Actuation 56
PAM, McKibben Artificial Muscles 58
Hydraulic Engines and Actuation 59
Electric Motors 61
Linear, voice coil, servo, and
stepper motors 64
Piezoelectric motors 64
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Electroactive Polymers 65
Shape-Memory Alloys 66
References and Suggested Reading 67
3. Sensors 75
Biological Sensors 75
Exteroception 75
Interoception 80
Proprioception 80
Sensing in Robotics and Biomechanics 80
Kinematics and Position Sensing 80
Speed Sensing 88
Acceleration Sensing 89
Force and Pressure Sensing 91
Electromyography 93
A Few Advanced Imaging Technologies 95
References and Suggested Reading 97
4. Control 103
General Considerations of Control Problem 103
Simple PID Control 105
Non-linear and Multi-dimensional
Control Problems 106
Learning by Demonstration 108
Other Methods and Artificial Intelligence 109
Control and Physics 110
Physics, Intelligence and Free Will? 111
Neuroscience 112
The Nervous System 112
Neuron 114
Action Potential 116
Types of Motor Neurons 116
Glia 117
Neural Networks 118
Central Patt 9
Motor Circuitry 120
Brain “Geography” and Basic Functions 120
The forebrain 120
The midbrain and the brain stem 122
The cerebellum 122
References and Suggested Reading 123
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Contents
5. Locomotion 127
Locomotion Definition 127
Locomotion and General Principles of Physics 128
Physics of Locomotion in Fluids 128
Buoyancy 128
The Bernoulli’s Principle 129
Drag 130
Viscosity 134
Navier–Stokes Equations and Reynolds
Number 134
Locomotion in Fluids 137
Locomotion in Fluids and Reynolds Number 139
Aquatic Locomotion 140
Aircraft Flying 142
Birds Flying 143
Drag-Induced Motion 143
Biologically Inspired Ornithopters 145
Ornithopters capable of carrying
a human 147
Flying Power Requirements: Flapping vs.
Fixed Wings 148
Bacterial Flagella and Biological Rotary Motors 153
Physics of Terrestrial Locomotion 154
Why Legs? 154
Zero-Moment Point (ZMP) and Center of
Pressure (CP) 155
The Equivalence of the ZMP and the CP for
Horizontal Contact Surfaces 158
The Uniqueness of the ZMP and the CP for
Complex Contact Topologies 160
Centroidal Moment Pivot (CMP) Point 161
Physics of Balance and Stability 162
Human Walking and Optimal Trajectories 167
Human Walking Energy Considerations 167
Angular Momentum 169
Balance, Stability, Energy 171
Spring Mass Model for Running and Allometry 172
Allometric Observations 173
Examples of Biological Legged Locomotion 176
A Few Records in the Legged Animal Kingdom 176
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Contents
Various Gaits 179
References and Suggested Reading 184
6. Evolution of Legged Machines and Robots 193
Early Legged Machines in the 19th Century 193
Legged Machines in the First Half of the 20th Century 195
Legged Machines during 1950–1970 196
Legged Robots during 1970–1980 197
Legged Robots during 1980–1990 199
Legged Robots during 1990–2000 204
Legged Robots since 2000 208
References and Suggested Reading 214
7. Robotic Additions to the Human Body 219
Definition: Prostheses 219
Artificial Limbs 219
Limb Amputation Statistics 220
Limb Prosthetics Design Considerations 221
Body–Prosthesis Interface 225
Examples of Advanced Robotic Lower Limbs
Prosthesis 230
Examples of Advanced Robotic Upper Limbs
Prosthesis 237
Prosthetics inside the Human Body 240
Heart Valves 240
Artificial Heart 243
Artificial Lungs 244
Hearing Aids 246
Orthotics, Exoskeletons, Exomusculatures 249
Examples of Lower Extremities or Whole
Body Advanced Systems 250
Examples of Upper Extremities Advanced
Robotics Orthotic and Exo Systems 256
Toward Exomusculature 259
Exomusculature 260
From Robotics to Biomechanics 262
Advanced Wheelchairs 262
References and Suggested Reading 267
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8. Medical Robotics 277
Surgical Robots 277
Brief Timeline of Robot-Aided Surgery Field 282
Heart–Lung Machine 286
Roller Pump 287
Centrifugal Pump 288
Robotic Patients for Training 288
Robotic Nurses 290
References and Suggested Reading 292
9. Exercise Problems, Questions, and Projects 295
Index of Names 325
Index of Names (Devices, Machines, and Robots) 329
Index of Terms (Biological Systems) 335
Index of Terms (Other) 343