Index – Financing Urban Shelter

INDEX

Note: Prefix letters before page numbers 186 to 227 refer to detailed tables in the Statistical Annex.

Abidjan, Côte D'Ivoire,

revenue service

concessions 48

access

financial institutions 412

financial services 99101

infrastructure services 12

mortgage finance 1545

mortgage finance loans

767

accountability

municipal spending

patterns 457

see also finance

adequate housing,

affordability 165

adequate shelter 1634

affordability

housing 79, 813

microfinance 117

shelter xiv

shelter finance systems

assessments 1402

Africa

basic economic indicators

(B.6) 202

demographic indicators

(A.1) 186

energy and transport

infrastructure (B.8) 207

environmental

infrastructure (B.5)

199200

growth 4

households

consumption indicators

(B.4) 1978

total and rate of change

(B.3) 195

investment; infrastructure

and foreign direct (B.7)

2045

population; size and rate of

change (B.2) 192

shelter indicators (A.2)

187

social indicators (A.3)

188, (B.9) 209

urban agglomerations;

population size and rate

of change (C.1) 212

urbanization; urban

population; urban slum

dwellers (B.1) 189

aid, international

development 78

Asia

basic economic indicators

(B.6) 202

demographic indicators

(A.1) 186

energy and transport

infrastructure (B.8)

2078

environmental

infrastructure (B.5) 200

households

consumption indicators

(B.4) 198

total and rate of change

(B.3) 1956

investment; infrastructure

and foreign direct (B.7)

205

population; size and rate of

change (B.2) 1923

shelter indicators (A.2)

187

social indicators (A.3)

188, (B.9) 20910

urban areas; population

and rate of change

(C.1) 21215

urbanization; urban

population; urban slum

dwellers (B.1) 18990

assets, urban valuation 8

Bangkok, infrastructure 6

Bangladesh

Grameen Bank loan

package 116, 141

House Building Finance

Corporation 73

basic economic indicators

(B.6) 2024

betterment levies 149

betterment taxes, municipal

finance 37, 40

Bolivia, shelter loans 104

‘booms and busts’, housing

market 84

borrowing

challenges 41

management 14950

municipal finance 402

Boston, United States,

linkage fees 37

Brazil

fiscal responsibility law 46

foreign investment 14

National Fund for Popular

Housing 92

participatory budgeting 44

bridging finance, community

funds 1278

Brown agenda, sustainability

256

budgeting participatory,

resource improvement

150

budgets, public 14

Build Together Programme,

Namibia 126

building codes 910

building materials

credit 160

higher incomes 170

sustainable shelter 166

building research 19

business, taxes 389

Cambodia, Urban Poor

Development Fund 121

capital

higher incomes 16970

lower house prices

16970

sustainable shelter 165

capital budgets, multi-year,

municipal spending

patterns 44

capital finance, sources xlii,

11213

capital markets, borrowing

412

charging, local services 150

charity, low-income housing

160

Chile, housing subsidies 93,

96

China

foreign direct investment

14

Guangzhou Province,

homeownership 73

housing finance 73

Housing Provident Fund

73

population forecasts 4

right to buy 91

SPVs 37

cities

economic growth 6

financial needs 6

maintenance improvement

150

population 3

citizens, project beneficiaries

23

city authorities 1478

city life, costs 163

CMP see Community

Mortgage Programme

co-operative housing 167

collateral

community funds 1312

microfinance 11415

collective action, savings 130

Columbia, housing subsidies

93

commercial centres, income

generation 1334

Community based finance,

lowest income groups

30

community fund electricity

services, Peru 125

community funds 12036

long term strategy 134

shelter xxvi

Community Mortgage

Programme (CMP) 141

Philipines 124, 132, 161

community-based

funding mechanisms

1601

housing finance xxvi

initiatives, joint funding

48

Community-led Infrastructure

Financing Facility

(CLIFF) 108, 159, 161

construction industry 1920

project beneficiaries 23

Consultative group to Assist

the Poor (CGAP) 102

contractor financing 153

contractual savings schemes

78

corruption elimination,

resource improvement

151

cost of lending, reduction

154

Costa Rica, subsidies 94

Côte d'Ivoire, taxation 40

credit enhancement,

borrowing 412

debt

financial constraint

reduction 1534

management 14950

service 13

swaps 149

decentralization

municipal finance 50

service delivery 50

default, low-income

borrowers 159

deforestation, Africa 7

delayed repayment,

community funds

1289

delivery, sustainable shelter

1678

demographic framework 34

demographic indicators (A.1)

186

design

higher incomes 170

sustainable shelter 167

developed/developing regions

demographic indicators

186

shelter indicators 187

social indicators 188

developers, development

153

developing countries

demographic growth 34

economic growth 11

financial systems 36

development

assistance, official 16

exactions, municipal

finance 40

sustainable 318

direct

capital grants 154

construction mortgage

finance 623

subsidies community funds

127

direct-demand subsidies 95

domestic resources,

sustainable shelter 172

domestic savings xxiv

gross 13

Earth Summit, Rio de Janeiro

1992 27

East Africa, local authority

taxing powers 38

economic framework 57

economic growth patterns

1011

economics, exogenous factors

6

economies, urbanization 17

Economist house price index

80

Ecuador, Step-by-Step

programme 105

El Salvador, land development

1089

emerging markets 16

employment 6

poverty 1213

enabling strategy

1985–1987, housing

policy 25

energy and transport

infrastructure (B.8)

2079

environment funds,

municipal finance 42

environmental framework,

sustainable

development 7

environmental infrastructure

(B.5) 199202

EU see European Union

Europe

basic economic indicators

(B.5) 202

demographic indicators

(A.1) 186

energy and transport

infrastructure (B.8) 208

environmental

infrastructure (B.5) 201

households

consumption indicators

(B.4) 1989

total and rate of change

(B.3) 196

investment; infrastructure

and foreign direct (B.7)

2056

population; size and rate of

change (B.2) 193

shelter indicators (A.2)

187

social indicators (A.3)

188, 210

urban areas; population

and rate of change

(C.1) 21516

urbanization; urban

population (B.1) 190

European Union (EU)

housing finance 1456

social housing funding 90

finance

agencies, links 1045

capital global strategy 28

framework, sustainable

development 7

globalization 2930

homeownership Singapore

63

income generation 156

mobilizing 9

mortgage sources 589

pro-poor systems 156

providers, risks 10

relationship-building

1424

resources, mobilization

xxxxxxi

risk assessment 144

shelter for the poor 163

small-scale contractors

xxiv

social housing xxv

social and rental housing

8797

sustainability 1980–1989

234

urban development 3451

financial institutions,

community funds 129

financial services, access

99101

financial shortage, location

967

financing schemes

large scale contractors

xxiv

small scale landlords xxiv

fiscal decentralization

process, Indonesia 36

fiscal responsibility law, Brazil

46

Fondo Nacional de

Habitaciones

(FONHAPO), Mexico

123

funding mechanisms,

sustainable shelter 172

funding sources xliii

funds, shortage for

maintaining existing

assets 445

gender, inclusion challenge

135

global economy, volatility 6

global outlook, summary 11

globalization

connections and diversity

xlvi

finance 2930

governance framework 9

government, local authority

creditor 1501

Grameen Bank loan package,

Bangladesh 116, 141

residential debt 66

guarantee funds, small loans

105

guarantees xxvi

housing microfinance 159

mortgage finance 645

Habitat Agenda

new millennium policies

30

shelter finance

commitments 31

health, improvement 118

high-end poaching, shelter

policies 1701

higher incomes, lower house

prices 16970

Hogar de Cristo, Chile, social

housing 158

homeownership xlxli

Asia 714

China, Guangzhou

province 73

encouragement xxiv

finance 915

Latin America 745

northern countries 667

rates 66

southern countries 6971

sub-Saharan Africa 756

transition countries 679

young people 801

house building, supply

process 147

house improvement xxiii

households

consumption indicators

(B.4) 1979

decision-making 152

total and rate of change

(B.3) 1957

housing

finance 19, 29, 8797

house prices 7980

infrastructure 6

lack of finance 1456

new, price elasticity 80

policy 1932

requirements 5

rights 302

sector, SAPs 24

services, institutional

capacity 278

subsidies 56, 64, 93, 96

housing and basic services,

selected cities (C.2)

21820

housing costs xxiii, 55, 155

abatement l, 165

increased demand 80

reduction 152

housing development,

lending strategies 101

Housing Development and

Finance Corporation

(HDFC), India 17

housing finance

assessing demand 106

low-income households,

India 100

lower income households

7984

Mexico 74

Peru 103

scope 15960

small loans 109

South Africa 57, 75

state support 612

see also microfinance;

mortgages

housing finance institutions,

funds 76

housing and infrastructure,

finance 3

housing market

informality problem 83

systemic risks assessment

84

housing microfinance, small

loans 1589

Housing Microfinance

Institutions (HMFIs)

1589

human capital development

20

human development

demographic indicators

186

shelter indicators 187

social indicators 188

Hungary, subsidized

mortgage rate 64

incentives, taxation-related,

mortgage finance 63

inclusion challenge,

community funds

1345

income

demographic indicators

186

distribution 1112

regional inequality patterns

12

shelter indicators 187

social indicators 188

income and employment,

urban development

151

income generation

community funds 1334

microfinance 11617

income-generating

enterprises, borrowing

42

incremental development,

shelter 99

incremental loans 156

India

Housing Development and

Finance Corporation 17

housing finance low-income

households 100

mortgage rate 64

municipal finance transfers

38

politicization of housing

finance 92

population forecasts 4

Self Employed Women's

Association (SEWA)

102, 114, 115

Indonesia

borrowing 41

fiscal decentralization

process 36

inequality, income

distribution 1112

informal development,

financial constraint

reduction 153

informality problem, housing

market 83

infrastructure

higher incomes 170

housing 6

standards 910

sustainable shelter 166

urban services, joint

funding 48

infrastructure development,

savings 130

institutional capacity, housing

services 278

insurance

mortgage default 65

mortgage finance 645

interest rate subsidies

community funds 128

Mexico 64

mortgage finance 634

interest rates

community funds 131

microfinance 115

mortgage finance 789

International Finance

Corporation, study 106

investment; infrastructure

and foreign direct (B.7)

2046

investment

foreign 8, 1415

national public 8

patterns 1417

private 1516

public 15

Kenya

housing co-operative 112

sanitation fund 103

key issues findings and

messages xxiiixxvi

Korea

housing finance

deregulation 72

mortgage lending growth

72

Kuyasa Fund, South Africa

159

land, sustainable shelter 166

land delivery, municipal

finance 4950

land development,

microfinance 10812

land purchase, savings 130

land-use planning, sustainable

shelter 166

Latin America

basic economic indicators

(B.6) 2034

demographic indicators

(A.1) 186

energy and transport

infrastructure (B.8) 208

environmental

infrastructure (B.5) 201

growth 4

homeownership 745

households

consumption indicators

(B.4) 1989

total and rate of change

(B.3) 1967

investment; infrastructure

and foreign direct(B.7)

206

population; size and rate of

change (B.2) 1934

shelter indicators (A.2)

187

social indicators (A.3)

188, (B.9) 21011

urban areas; population

and rate of change

(C.1) 21617

urbanization; urban

population, slum

dwellers (B.1) 191

lenders increase xxv

lending, characteristics 28

lending strategies, housing

development 101

linkage fees, Boston, United

States 37

loan-to-value ratios (LTVs)

xxiv

mortgage finance 767

loans

mortgage finance 623

periods xxiv, 155

community funds

1323

microfinance 115

mortgage finance 767

small loans

housing xxv

housing microfinance

1589

housing strategies 109

shelter microfinance

98119

short term xxv

Urban Community

Development Fund 133

local expenditure, structure

45

local finance, balancing

1489

local government budgeting

435

local organization, finance

systems 144

local services, charging 150

location

financial shortage 967

market choice 967

sustainable shelter 167

low incomes xxiii

low wages, sustainable

shelter 1689

low-income groups,

community funds 121

lower house prices, higher

incomes 16970

lower housing prices, higher

incomes l

macroeconomic context,

urban shelter

development 1018

macroeconomic orthodoxy

245

macroeconomic performance,

external factors 17

maintenance improvement,

cities 150

Mali, foreign investment 8

market choice, location 967

market poaching, shelter

policies 1702

MDGs see millenium

development goals

Mexico

Fondo Nacional de

Habitaciones

(FONHAPO) 123

housing finance 74

housing interventions 104

housing stock 70

interest rate subsidies 64

reducing lender risk 75

remittances 111

Mibanco, Peru, microfinance

institution 103

microfinance 1014

collateral 11415

growth xli

interest rates 115

loan periods 115

savings 114

security 11415

technical assistance

11516

women orientation 116

see also finance

microfinance institution

(MFI) 1056

microlenders 110

Millenium Development

Goals (MDGs)

developing countries

targeted 4

economic framework 7

loans, affordability 146

local engagement 172,

173

microfinance strategies,

limitations 141

monitoring tools 32

poverty reduction, report

166

slum targets xxviixxxi

Millenium Housing

Commission United

States, affordable

housing 1656

Millenium Project 166, 172

millenium strategy xxxv

Millenium Towns and Cities

Campaign 172

mobilizing resources,

constraints 10

money management, savings

1301

mortgage, default insurance

65

mortgage availability, Western

Europe 83

mortgage delivery system

home bundled 60

unbundled 60

mortgage facilities xxiv

mortgage finance xxiv,

xxxvixxxvii, 5586

access 1545

capital access xlv

development 28

poaching shelter policies

171

poverty 556

recent trends 5665

regional analysis 6576

sources 589

terms and conditions

768

mortgage lending 5979

terms and conditions

xxxviiixxxix, 76

mortgage markets extension

xxiv

mortgages, lengths 77

multi-occupancy housing

development xxiv

municipal capital finance

fund, importance 149

municipal development

funds, borrowing 42

municipal expenditure,

management 45

municipal finance

effectiveness and impacts

4951

main issues 345

national systems 356

sources xxxv, 3743

municipal services,

privatization 479

municipal spending patterns

xxxvxxxvi, 437

municipalities, project

beneficiaries 23

Namibia, Build Together

Programme 126

national financing, balancing

1489

National Fund for Popular

Housing, Brazil 92

natural resources 7

neighbourhood improvement

xlixlii, 1068

see also slum upgrading

new millenium policies 301

New York, public housing 89

NGOs (non-government

organizations)

collateral and security 132

community based funding

mechanisms 1601

community funds 1214

funding provision 157

housing finance 1034

long term strategies,

community funds 134

trust 19

Nicaragua, local development

107

north, state rental housing

8890

Northern America

basic economic indicators

(B.6) 204

demographic indicators

(A.1) 186

energy and transport

infrastructure (B.8) 209

environmental

infrastructure (B.5) 201

households

consumption indicators

(B.4) 199

total and rate of change

(B.3) 97

investment; infrastructure

and foreign (B.7) 206

population; size and rate of

change (B.2) 194

shelter indicators (A.2)

187

social indicators (A.3)

188, (B.9) 211

urban areas; population,

rate of change (C.1)

21718

urbanization; population;

slum dwellers (B.1) 191

northern countries,

homeownership 667

Oceania

basic economic indicators

(B.6) 204

demographic indicators

(A.1) 186

energy and transport

infrastructure (B.8) 209

environmental

infrastructure (B.5)

2012

households

consumption indicators

(B.4) 199

total and rate of change

(B.3) 197

investment;

infrastrucuture and

foreign direct (B.7) 206

population; size and rate of

change (B.2) 194

shelter indicators (A.2)

187

social indicators (A.3)

188, (B.9) 211

urban areas; population

and rate of change

(C.1) 218

urbanization; urban

population; urban slum

dwellers B.1) 191

owner occupation, Western

Europe 1990–2000 67

Pakistan

water improvements

funding 128

participatory budgeting,

municipal spending

patterns 44

partnerships for local

development, new

trends 489

performance and

productivity, sectors 11

Peru

community fund electricity

services 125

housing microfinance 103

land titles 69

mortgage finance 69

Step-by-Step programme

105

Philippines

community mortgage

programme 124, 132

housing subsidies

distribution 64

Poland, contractual savings

schemes 78

policy directions, sustainable

shelter finance systems

14762

policy reform, sustainable

shelter 1712

political commitment,

sustainable shelter

1712

poor people, shelter finance

systems assessments

1402

population

below poverty line 12,

(B.9) 20911

urban agglomerations

(C.1) 2128

urban growth 6 (B.1)

world and regions; size

and rate of change

(B.2) 1924

poverty reduction,

community funds 121

poverty reduction strategy

papers (PRSPs) 32, 149

private finance

costs 90

urban development 150

privatization

municipal finance 51

municipal services xxxvi,

479

service delivery 51

production

higher incomes 170

sustainable shelter 1678

programmes and budgets

multi-year, resource

improvement 150

project approach

municipal finance trends

21

shelter trends 21

project beneficiaries

municipal finance 223

shelter trends 223

property, taxes 389

property tax systems,

strengthening 149

providers

mortgage finance 568

small loans 10912

provincial finance, balancing

1489

public goods, financing 148

public housing, New York 89

public resources, sustainable

shelter 172

public utilities, privatization

47

public-sector deficits 148

purchasing power, increasing

1689

purchasing power increase l

regional analysis, mortgage

finance 6576

regional highlights

xxxviixxxviii

regulations

policies 88

subsidies 88

relocation alternatives,

Thailand 130

remittances, small loans 160

rental accommodation need

1523

rental housing 168

finance 8797

northern countries

xxxixxl

southern countries xl, 91

transition countries xl

residential debt, GDP 66

residential poaching, shelter

policies 171

right to buy, China 91

risks, low income households

10

risks assessment, housing

market 84

Russia, borrowing 41

sanitation fund, Kenya 103

SAPs see structural

adjustment programmes

savings

community funds 12931

financial constraint

reduction 1534

microfinance 114

mortgage finance 778

national economies 13

savings and collateral xlii

Schultz, Theodore 20

secondary markets, mortgage

finance 5961

secondary mortgage markets

154

securing capital, microfinance

11718

security

community funds 1312

microfinance 11415

Self Employed Women's

Association (SEWA),

India 102, 114, 115

self help

municipal finance 212

shelter trends 212

self-help housing 167

service delivery, municipal

finance 4950

service providers, finance

148

Shack or slum Dwellers

Federation (SDI) 160,

161

shelter

global strategy 267

improvement 118

incremental development

99

loans Bolivia 104

new millenium policies

301

policy and finance 1934

standards 910

subsidies, reasons 878

trends 1972–2004 218

shelter finance

assessment of trends

xxxvixliv

epilogue xlixl

Habitat Agenda 1996 31

shelter finance systems

assessment 13946

sustainability xlviixlix

shelter improvement

strategies, Thailand

1245

shelter indicators (A.2) 187

shelter microfinance

challenges xliixliii, xliv

small loans 98119

subsidies 113

terms and conditions xliv

shelter policies

market poaching avoidance

1702

mortgage finance poaching

171

residential poaching 171

Singapore, homeownership

finance 63

Slovakia, contractual savings

schemes 78

slums

families, New Delhi 168

finance xxvii

population 4, (B.1)

upgrading xxixxxx,

1645

microfinance 1068

projects 10

small loans see loans

small loans, see also

microfinance

social housing xlxli, 1578,

1678

finance xxv

social housing finance 8797

European Union (EU) 90

social indicators (A.3) 188,

(B.9) 20911

selected cities 2247

socio-behavioural framework

5

South Africa

housing finance 57, 75

housing market 79

housing rights 32

housing subsidies 93

loan finance 112

mortgage bond registration

costs 71

mortgage finance down-

marketing problems 84

uTshani fund 127

southern cities, rental market

102

southern countries

home ownership 6971

rental housing 91

special purpose vehicles

(SPVs), China 37

SPVs see special purpose

vehicles

standards, sustainable shelter

1667

state agencies, community

funds 121

state engagement, savings

130

state funds, interest rates

131

state rental housing

north 8890

transition countries 901

state support, housing

finance 612

statistical analysis tables

186224

Step-by-Step programme

Ecuador 105

Peru 105

structural adjustment

programmes (SAPs) 24

sub-Saharan Africa

borrowing 41

homeownership 756

subsidiarity, principle 9

subsidies xxv

Chile 93, 96

Colombia 93

Costa Rica 94

pro-poor systems 1567

regulations 88

shelter, reasons 878

shelter microfinance 113

South Africa 93

subsidized loans 157

summary, executive xxxiil

supply process, house

building 147

sustainable development

318

sustainable shelter,

mechanisms 164

sustainable shelter finance

systems xlivl

sustainable urban shelter

16373

sustainablilty, Brown agenda

256

Sweden, interest rate

subsidies 64

systemic risks assessment,

housing market 84

Szczecin, Poland, multi-year

capital investment

planning 45

Tamil Nadu Urban

Development Fund

(TNUDF), India 43

target 11 realignment

xxviiixxix

tax collection improvement

149

tax yield, developing

countries 389

taxation, Côte d'Ivoire 40

taxation related incentives

xxxviii

taxes

business 389

property 389

technical assistance

community funds 133

microfinance 11516

tenure systems 39

Thailand

government housing bank

59

mortgage lending growth

58

relocation alternatives

130

shelter improvement

strategies 1245

Urban Community

Development Office

(UCDO) 132

transaction costs, reduction

151

transfers, municipal finance

378

transition countries, state

rental housing 901

transparency, municipal

spending patterns 457

UEMOA see West African

Economic and Monetary

Union

UMP see Urban Management

Programme

United Nations Conference

on Human Settlements,

Vancouver, first 1976 3

United Nations regional

groups

demographic indicators

186

shelter indicators 187

social indicators 188

United States,

homeownership

expansion 69

urban areas; population and

rate of change (C.1)

21218

urban assets, valuation 89

Urban Community

Development

Fund loans 133

Office (UCDO) Thailand

132

urban housing cost xxiii

urban infrastructure 6

urban infrastrucuture and

services xlvixlviii

Urban Management

Programme (UMP) 27

Urban Poor Development

Fund, Cambodia 121

urban poverty, community

funds 121

urban services

accounting 46

cost reduction 151

infrastructure, joint

funding 48

urban settings, economic

context xxxiixxxvi

urban shelter development

310

challenges xxxiixxxiii

macroeconomic context

xxxiiixxxiv, 1018

urban transport and

environment, selected

cities (C.3) 2214

urbanization 3

urbanization; urban

population; urban slum

dwellers (B.1) 18991

urbanization, income levels

xxviii

user fees, municipal revenues

3940

utilities agencies, project

beneficiaries 23

uTshani fund, South Africa

127

Vienna Declaration on Human

Rights 31

waste, human, management

7

water, management 7

water improvements funding,

Pakistan 128

West Africa, municipal

operating revenue 39

West African Economic and

Monetary Union

(UEMOA) 38

Western Europe

housing affordability 79

mortgage availability 83

mortgage lending

1990–2003 68

owner occupation

1990–2000 67

whole-sector development,

1987 onwards 26

women orientation,

microfinance 116

world

demographic indicators

186

households; total and rate

of change 195

population; size and rate of

change 192

shelter indicators 187

social indicators 188

urbanization; urban

population; urban slum

dwellers 189

Zambia, housing finance,

state involvement 58